Matching Items (3)
- All Subjects: Latin American literature
- All Subjects: Violence in literature
- Creators: García-Fernández, Carlos J.
- Status: Published
In the mid-1990’s, in Mexico, a group of novelists emerged during a public appearance at a literary venture aimed to go against predominant forms of aesthetics, canon, groups or literary ‘mafias’ prevalent during that time period. The group of five young writers called themselves “El grupo crack,” (The crack group). They brought with them the crack manifesto (1996) where each member of the group wrote to plea for a renovation of the novel with the assurance of having literary works that would challenge the reader as much as the literary status quo. Along with the manifesto, each one of them presented a novel. A few years after the presentation, the members of the group received many literary prices and accolades, inside and out of academic circles.
One of the primary objectives of this work is to expose the poetic proposal of the literary grupo crack as it relates to previous movements, groups, and literary trends. Among the five writers of the group, Jorge Volpi has shown a significant growth in his literary corpus in a very short period of time. Aside from the great recognition he has received for his novel En busca de Klingsor (1999), (In search of Klingsor), Volpi has been a motive of study, mostly, for his narrative, leaving behind his essays. There are two collections of political-cultural essays that are well hidden in the early Jorge Volpi bibliography. The first one is titled La imaginación y el poder. Una historia intelectual de 1968 (1998), (Imagination and Power. An Intellectual history of 1968), and the second, La guerra y las palabras. Una historia intelectual de 1994 (2004), (War and Words. An intellectual history of 1994). Both works have been ignored in the bibliography of the grupo crack.
To analyze both works it was necessary to contextualize Mexican history of the years 1968 and 1994, respectively. The analysis shows the interaction and coexistence between the intellectual class and the Mexican political class in an authoritarian regime, same symbiosis that Vargas Llosa would once refer to as “the perfect dictatorship.”
ABSTRACT This thesis aims to demonstrate the validity of political violence in contemporary Chicano and Peruvian American narratives as a reflection of the sociopolitical situation of immigrants and their descendants in the United States (U.S.). The thesis explores the various ways in which contemporary Chicano and Peruvian American narratives present the political violence in the U.S. towards Mexican and Peruvian immigrants and Chicanos and Peruvian Americans examining the intersections that exist between the resistance and violence discourses and its sociopolitical consequences. Although the topic of political violence has been previously studied in U.S. and Latin American narratives throughout its history, its analysis has been insufficiently explored as far as contemporary narratives of the XXI century are concerned. With this in mind, two texts will be used to study this discourse of violence in Chicano and Peruvian American literature: Alejandro Morales' "Pequeña nación" (2005) and Daniel Alarcón's "Guerra en la penumbra" (2005). The thesis examines the immigrant as a center of discourse exploring the conflict between them and the institutions or groups in power that instigate this political violence. The first chapter covers the socio historical background regarding Mexican and Peruvian migration flows to the United States in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The second chapter introduces "The Triangle of Violence" proposed by Norwegian mathematician and sociologist Johan Galtung as the basis for the theoretical framework and approach of this analysis. Chapter three analyzes the Chicano short story "Pequeña nación" by Alejandro Morales. The analysis of the Peruvian American short story "Guerra en la penumbra" by Daniel Alarcón follows in chapter four. The conclusion emphasizes the problem of political violence experienced by immigrants in the U.S. in contemporary Chicano and Peruvian American narratives and possible solutions contained therein, protesting a problem that can hinder immigration policy reforms and the defense of human rights.
The revolution that took place in Nicaragua during the 70's led the country into misery; this war was a consequence of the Somoza dictatorship that had been in power for forty-five years. The Nicaraguan people were hoping to recover their peace and freedom by rising in arms against the dictatorship. Augusto Cesar Sandino is known to be the most significant patriotic figure for the Sandinista revolutionaries. His legacy inspired the foundation of the revolutionary party Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN). The FSLN was able to overthrow the Anastasio Somoza regime and declared their victory on July 19, 1979. The memories of the Sandinista Revolution are portrayed in the autobiographies of two Nicaraguan writers: Gioconda Belli and Sergio Ramirez. El país bajo mi piel (2001) y Adiós muchachos. Una memoria de la revolución sandinista (1999) are the texts analyzed in this study as part of those remembrances that revive the most significant events of the revolution from very unique perspectives. In order to develop this analysis we have consider the theoretical work of Phillip Lejeune. We have based our research in his definition of autobiography, his concept of autobiographical pact and the idea of contract between author and reader. Also, we have incorporated Evelyne Ender´s research on memory as the principal element in the literary construction of reminiscences. Ender explains the role of the rememberer, who is responsible of constructing their memories based on a subjective, cognitive, emotional and esthetic performance. At the same time, we have included the concept of biographical space explained by Leonor Arfuch, which is perceived as multi-faced space where different tendencies coexist. The purpose of this study is to explore the autobiographies of these Nicaraguan writers as an esthetical process where remembrances of the Sandinista Revolution come to live in a prose reflective narrative. Analyzing Belli and Ramirez's memoirs, we perceived their private and public stories of life that depict the most significant events of their lives and nation. The Sandinista Revolution is part of the Nicaraguan history and it cannot be forgotten that's the purpose behind this autobiographies to document these transcendental happenings.