Matching Items (3)

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Redundant skewed clocking of pulse-clocked latches for low power soft-error mitigation

Description

An integrated methodology combining redundant clock tree synthesis and pulse clocked latches mitigates both single event upsets (SEU) and single event transients (SET) with reduced power consumption. This methodology helps

An integrated methodology combining redundant clock tree synthesis and pulse clocked latches mitigates both single event upsets (SEU) and single event transients (SET) with reduced power consumption. This methodology helps to change the hardness of the design on the fly. This approach, with minimal additional overhead circuitry, has the ability to work in three different modes of operation depending on the speed, hardness and power consumption required by design. This was designed on 90nm low-standby power (LSP) process and utilized commercial CAD tools for testing. Spatial separation of critical nodes in the physical design of this approach mitigates multi-node charge collection (MNCC) upsets. An advanced encryption system implemented with the proposed design, compared to a previous design with non-redundant clock trees and local delay generation. The proposed approach reduces energy per operation up to 18% over an improved version of the prior approach, with negligible area impact. It can save up to 2/3rd of the power consumption and reach maximum possible frequency, when used in non-redundant mode of operation.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Methodical design approaches to multiple node collection robustness for flip-flop soft error mitigation

Description

The space environment comprises cosmic ray particles, heavy ions and high energy electrons and protons. Microelectronic circuits used in space applications such as satellites and space stations are prone to

The space environment comprises cosmic ray particles, heavy ions and high energy electrons and protons. Microelectronic circuits used in space applications such as satellites and space stations are prone to upsets induced by these particles. With transistor dimensions shrinking due to continued scaling, terrestrial integrated circuits are also increasingly susceptible to radiation upsets. Hence radiation hardening is a requirement for microelectronic circuits used in both space and terrestrial applications.

This work begins by exploring the different radiation hardened flip-flops that have been proposed in the literature and classifies them based on the different hardening techniques.

A reduced power delay element for the temporal hardening of sequential digital circuits is presented. The delay element single event transient tolerance is demonstrated by simulations using it in a radiation hardened by design master slave flip-flop (FF). Using the proposed delay element saves up to 25% total FF power at 50% activity factor. The delay element is used in the implementation of an 8-bit, 8051 designed in the TSMC 130 nm bulk CMOS.

A single impinging ionizing radiation particle is increasingly likely to upset multiple circuit nodes and produce logic transients that contribute to the soft error rate in most modern scaled process technologies. The design of flip-flops is made more difficult with increasing multi-node charge collection, which requires that charge storage and other sensitive nodes be separated so that one impinging radiation particle does not affect redundant nodes simultaneously. We describe a correct-by-construction design methodology to determine a-priori which hardened FF nodes must be separated, as well as a general interleaving scheme to achieve this separation. We apply the methodology to radiation hardened flip-flops and demonstrate optimal circuit physical organization for protection against multi-node charge collection.

Finally, the methodology is utilized to provide critical node separation for a new hardened flip-flop design that reduces the power and area by 31% and 35% respectively compared to a temporal FF with similar hardness. The hardness is verified and compared to other published designs via the proposed systematic simulation approach that comprehends multiple node charge collection and tests resiliency to upsets at all internal and input nodes. Comparison of the hardness, as measured by estimated upset cross-section, is made to other published designs. Additionally, the importance of specific circuit design aspects to achieving hardness is shown.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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An innovative radiation hardened by design flip-flop

Description

Radiation hardening by design (RHBD) has become a necessary practice when creating circuits to operate within radiated environments. While employing RHBD techniques has tradeoffs between size, speed and power, novel

Radiation hardening by design (RHBD) has become a necessary practice when creating circuits to operate within radiated environments. While employing RHBD techniques has tradeoffs between size, speed and power, novel designs help to minimize these penalties. Space radiation is the primary source of radiation errors in circuits and two types of single event effects, single event upsets (SEU), and single event transients (SET) are increasingly becoming a concern. While numerous methods currently exist to nullify SEUs and SETs, special consideration to the techniques of temporal hardening and interlocking are explored in this thesis. Temporal hardening mitigates both SETs and SEUs by spacing critical nodes through the use of delay elements, thus allowing collected charge to be removed. Interlocking creates redundant nodes to rectify charge collection on one single node. This thesis presents an innovative, temporally hardened D flip-flop (TFF). The TFF physical design is laid out in the 130 nm TSMC process in the form of an interleaved multi-bit cell and the circuitry necessary for the flip-flop to be hardened against SETs and SEUs is analyzed with simulations verifying these claims. Comparisons are made to an unhardened D flip-flop through speed, size, and power consumption depicting how the RHBD technique used increases all three over an unhardened flip-flop. Finally, the blocks from both the hardened and the unhardened flip-flops being placed in Synthesis and auto-place and route (APR) design flows are compared through size and speed to show the effects of using the high density multi-bit layout. Finally, the TFF presented in this thesis is compared to two other flip-flops, the majority voter temporal/DICE flip-flop (MTDFF) and the C-element temporal/DICE flip-flop (CTDFF). These circuits are built on the same 130 nm TSMC process as the TFF and then analyzed by the same methods through speed, size, and power consumption and compared to the TFF and unhardened flip-flops. Simulations are completed on the MTDFF and CTDFF to show their strengths against D node SETs and SEUs as well as their weakness against CLK node SETs. Results show that the TFF is faster and harder than both the MTDFF and CTDFF.

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Date Created
  • 2010