Matching Items (9)

157225-Thumbnail Image.png

Chronic unpredictable intermittent restraint stress disrupts hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in male, but not female rats

Description

The present series of studies examined whether a novel implementation of an

intermittent restraint (IR) chronic stress paradigm could be used to investigate hippocampal-dependent spatial ability in both sexes. In experiments

The present series of studies examined whether a novel implementation of an

intermittent restraint (IR) chronic stress paradigm could be used to investigate hippocampal-dependent spatial ability in both sexes. In experiments 1 and 2, Sprague- Dawley male rats were used to identify the optimal IR parameters to assess spatial ability. For IR, rats were restrained for 2 or 6hrs/day (IR2, IR6, respectively) for five days and then given two days off, a process that was repeated for three weeks and compared to rats restrained for 6hrs/d for each day (DR6) and non-stressed controls (CON). Spatial memory was tested on the radial arm water maze (RAWM), object placement (OP), novel object recognition (NOR) and Y-maze. The results for the first two experiments revealed that IR6, but not IR2, was effective in impairing spatial memory in male rats and that task order impacted performance. In experiment 3, an extended IR paradigm for six weeks was implemented before spatial memory testing commenced in male and female rats (IR- M, IR-F). Unexpectedly, an extended IR paradigm failed to impair spatial memory in either males or females, suggesting that when extended, the IR paradigm may have become predictable. In experiment 4, an unpredictable IR (UIR) paradigm was implemented, in which restraint duration (30 or 60-min) combined with orbital shaking, time of day, and the days off from UIR were varied. UIR impaired spatial memory in males, but not females. Together with other reports, these findings support the interpretation that chronic stress negatively impairs hippocampal-dependent function in males, but not females, and that females appear to be resilient to spatial memory deficits in the face of chronic stress.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

156178-Thumbnail Image.png

Improved Discrimination Between Tone and Context During Fear Extinction in Chronically Stressed Rats Provided with a Post-Stress Rest Period

Description

The goal of the present study was to investigate whether a rest period following the end of chronic stress would impact fear extinction. Past research has indicated that chronic

The goal of the present study was to investigate whether a rest period following the end of chronic stress would impact fear extinction. Past research has indicated that chronic stress leads to impairments in the learning and recall of fear conditioning extinction. Moreover, the effects of chronic stress can return to levels similar to controls when a post-stress “rest” period (i.e., undisturbed except for normal husbandry) is given prior to testing. Male rats underwent chronic restraint stress for 6hr/day/21days (STR-IMM). Some rats, underwent a post-stress rest period for 6- or 3-weeks after the end of stress (STR-R6, STR-R3). Control (CON) rats were unrestrained for the duration of the experiment. In Experiment 1, following the stress or rest manipulation, all rats were acclimated to conditioning and extinction contexts, fear conditioned with 3 tone-foot shock pairings, and then had two days of extinction training. All groups froze similarly to the tone across all training sessions. However, STR-R6/R3 froze less in the non-shock context than did STR-IMM or CON. During extinction training, STR-IMM showed high levels of freezing to the non-shock context, leading to a concern they may be generalizing across contexts. Consequently, a follow-up experiment tested for context generalization. In Experiment 2, STR-IMM rats underwent a generalization test in an environment that was either different or the same as the conditioning environment, using STR-R6 as a comparison. STR-IMM and STR-R6 showed similar relative levels of freezing to tone and context, regardless of their conditioning environment to reveal that STR-IMM did not generalize and instead, maybe expressing hypervigilance. Thus, the present study demonstrated the novel finding that a rest period from chronic stress can lead to reduced fear responsiveness in a non-shock environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

154914-Thumbnail Image.png

Clarifying the dehydration cascade: the relationship between water, stress, and immune function in squamates

Description

There is considerable recent interest in the dynamic nature of immune function in the context of an animal’s internal and external environment. An important focus within this field of ecoimmunology

There is considerable recent interest in the dynamic nature of immune function in the context of an animal’s internal and external environment. An important focus within this field of ecoimmunology is on how availability of resources such as energy can alter immune function. Water is an additional resource that drives animal development, physiology, and behavior, yet the influence hydration has on immunity has received limited attention. In particular, hydration state may have the greatest potential to drive fluctuations in immunity and other physiological functions in species that live in water-limited environments where they may experience periods of dehydration. To shed light on the sensitivity of immune function to hydration state, I first tested the effect of hydration states (hydrated, dehydrated, and rehydrated) and digestive states on innate immunity in the Gila monster, a desert-dwelling lizard. Though dehydration is often thought to be stressful and, if experienced chronically, likely to decrease immune function, dehydration elicited an increase in immune response in this species, while digestive state had no effect. Next, I tested whether dehydration was indeed stressful, and tested a broader range of immune measures. My findings validated the enhanced innate immunity across additional measures and revealed that Gila monsters lacked a significant stress hormone response during dehydration (though results were suggestive). I next sought to test if life history (in terms of environmental stability) drives these differences in dehydration responses using a comparative approach. I compared four confamilial pairs of squamate species that varied in habitat type within each pair—four species that are adapted to xeric environments and four that are adapted to more mesic environments. No effect of life history was detected between groups, but hydration was a driver of some measures of innate immunity and of stress hormone concentrations in multiple species. Additionally, species that exhibited a stress response to dehydration did not have decreased innate immunity, suggesting these physiological responses may often be decoupled. My dissertation work provides new insight into the relationship between hydration, stress, and immunity, and it may inform future work exploring disease transmission or organismal responses to climate change.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

149369-Thumbnail Image.png

Outer membrane biogenesis and stress response in Escherichia coli

Description

Protein folding is essential in all cells, and misfolded proteins cause many diseases. In the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, protein folding must be carefully controlled during envelope biogenesis to

Protein folding is essential in all cells, and misfolded proteins cause many diseases. In the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, protein folding must be carefully controlled during envelope biogenesis to maintain an effective permeability barrier between the cell and its environment. This study explores the relationship between envelope biogenesis and cell stress, and the return to homeostasis during envelope stress. A major player in envelope biogenesis and stress response is the periplasmic protease DegP. Work presented here explores the growth phenotypes of cells lacking degP, including temperature sensitivity and lowered cell viability. Intriguingly, these cells also accumulate novel cytosolic proteins in their envelope not present in wild-type. Association of novel proteins was found to be growth time- and temperature-dependent, and was reversible, suggesting a dynamic nature of the envelope stress response. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of envelopes followed by mass spectrometry identified numerous cytoplasmic proteins, including the elongation factor/chaperone TufA, illuminating a novel cytoplasmic response to envelope stress. A suppressor of temperature sensitivity was characterized which corrects the defect caused by the lack of degP. Through random Tn10 insertion analysis, aribitrarily-primed polymerase chain reaction and three-factor cross, the suppressor was identified as a novel duplication-truncation of rpoE, here called rpoE'. rpoE' serves to subtly increase RpoE levels in the cell, resulting in a slight elevation of the SigmaE stress response. It does so without significantly affecting steady-state levels of outer membrane proteins, but rather by increasing proteolysis in the envelope independently of DegP. A multicopy suppressor of temperature sensitivity in strains lacking degP and expressing mutant OmpC proteins, yfgC, was characterized. Bioinformatics suggests that YfgC is a metalloprotease, and mutation of conserved domains resulted in mislocalization of the protein. yfgC-null mutants displayed additive antibiotic sensitivity and growth defects when combined with null mutation in another periplasmic chaperone, surA, suggesting that the two act in separate pathways during envelope biogenesis. Overexpression of YfgC6his altered steady-state levels of mutant OmpC in the envelope, showing a direct relationship between it and a major constituent of the envelope. Curiously, purified YfgC6his showed an increased propensity for crosslinking in mutant, but not in a wild-type, OmpC background.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

153514-Thumbnail Image.png

Mu-opioid receptor: pAKT signaling in the ventral tegmental area is critical for the behavioral and cellular consequences of social stress

Description

Intermittent social defeat stress produces vulnerability to drugs of abuse, a phenomena known as cross-sensitization, which is proceeded by a corresponding upregulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) mu-opioid receptors (MORs).

Intermittent social defeat stress produces vulnerability to drugs of abuse, a phenomena known as cross-sensitization, which is proceeded by a corresponding upregulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) mu-opioid receptors (MORs). Since VTA MORs are implicated in the expression of psychostimulant sensitization, they may also mediate social stress-induced vulnerability to drugs of abuse. Social stress and drugs of abuse increase mesolimbic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling with its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). These studies examined whether VTA MOR signaling is important for the behavioral and cellular consequences of social stress. First, the function of VTA MORs in the behavioral consequences of intermittent social defeat stress was investigated. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of VTA MORs prevented social stress-induced cross-sensitization, as well as stress-induced social avoidance and weight gain deficits. Next it was examined whether VTA MOR expression is critical for stress-induced alterations in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. At the time cross-sensitization was known to occur, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced increases in VTA BDNF and its receptor, TrkB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and attenuated NAc expression of delta FosB. There was no effect of either stress or virus on BDNF expression in the prefrontal cortex. Since social stress-induced upregulation of VTA MORs is necessary for consequences of social stress, next activity dependent changes in AKT, a downstream target of MOR stimulation associated with sensitization to psychostimulant drugs, were investigated. Using fluorescent immunohistochemical double labeling for the active form of AKT (pAKT) and markers of either GABA or dopamine neurons in the VTA, it was determined that social stress significantly increased the expression of pAKT in GABA, but not dopamine neurons, and that this effect was dependent on VTA MOR expression. Moreover, intra-VTA inhibition of pAKT during stress prevented stress-induced weight gain deficits, while acute inhibition of VTA pAKT blocked the expression of cross-sensitization in subjects that had previously exhibited sensitized locomotor activity. Together these results suggest that social stress upregulates MORs on VTA GABA neurons, resulting in AKT phosphorylation, and that increased VTA MOR-pAKT signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target for the intervention of substance abuse disorders.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

151931-Thumbnail Image.png

Bullying, loneliness, and future responses to stress

Description

Bully victimization has been associated with blunted cardiovascular responses to stress as well as elevated responses to stress. The difference between these altered physiological responses to stress is largely unknown.

Bully victimization has been associated with blunted cardiovascular responses to stress as well as elevated responses to stress. The difference between these altered physiological responses to stress is largely unknown. This study explored several possible moderators to the relationship between chronic stress and future cardiac output (an indicator of increased stress) in response to future stressors. These moderators include the difference between social and physical stressors and individual levels of loneliness. Participants were administered measures of loneliness and victimization history, and led to anticipate either a "social" (recorded speech) or "non-social" (pain tolerance test ) stressor, neither of which occurred. EKG and impedance cardiography were measured throughout the session. When anticipating both stressors, loneliness and victimization were associated with increased CO. A regression revealed a three-way interaction, with change in cardiac output depending on victimization history, loneliness, and condition in the physical stressor condition. Loneliness magnified the CO output levels of non-bullied individuals when facing a physical stressor. These results suggest that non- bullied participants high in loneliness are more stressed out when facing stressors, particularly stressors that are physically threatening in nature.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

151959-Thumbnail Image.png

Neuropsychological functioning and stress reactivity In type 1 diabetes mellitus

Description

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease that requires maintaining tight metabolic control through complex behavioral and pharmaceutical regimens. Subtle cognitive impairments and stress response dysregulation may partially

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease that requires maintaining tight metabolic control through complex behavioral and pharmaceutical regimens. Subtle cognitive impairments and stress response dysregulation may partially account for problems negotiating life changes and maintaining treatment adherence among emerging adults. The current study examined whether young adults with T1DM physiologically respond to psychological stress in a dysregulated manner compared to non-diabetic peers, and if such individuals also demonstrated greater cognitive declines following psychological stress. Participants included 23 young adults with T1DM and 52 non-diabetic controls yoked to T1DM participants based on age, gender, ethnicity, participant education, and maternal education. Participants completed a laboratory-based social stressor, pre- and post-stressor neurocognitive testing, provided fingerstick blood spots (for glucose levels) and salivary samples (for cortisol levels) at five points across the protocol, and completed psychosocial questionnaires. Related measures ANOVAs were conducted to assess differences between T1DM participants and the average of yoked controls on cortisol and cognitive outcomes. Results demonstrated that differences in cortisol reactivity were dependent on T1DM participants' use of insulin pump therapy (IPT). T1DM participants not using IPT demonstrated elevated cortisol reactivity compared to matched controls. There was no difference in cortisol reactivity between the T1DM participants on IPT and matched controls. On the Stroop task, performance patterns did not differ between participants with T1DM not on IPT and matched controls. The performance of participants with T1DM on IPT slightly improved following the stressor and matched controls slightly worsened. On the Trail Making Test, the performance of participants with T1DM was not different following the stressor whereas participants without T1DM demonstrated a decline following the stressor. Participants with and without T1DM did not differ in patterns of performance on the Rey Verbal Learning Task, Sustained Attention Allocation Task, Controlled Oral Word Association Task, or overall cortisol output across participation. The results of this study are suggestive of an exaggerated cortisol response to psychological stress in T1DM and indicate potential direct and indirect protective influences of IPT.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

149337-Thumbnail Image.png

From the brain to the barrio: energy and stress interact to facilitate the urbanization of Sonoran Desert birds

Description

The impact of urbanization on wildlife is becoming an important topic in conservation. However little is known concerning the proximate mechanisms involved which enable some species to persist in cities,

The impact of urbanization on wildlife is becoming an important topic in conservation. However little is known concerning the proximate mechanisms involved which enable some species to persist in cities, while others perish. Adapting to novel city environments requires individuals to maintain a functional physiological response to stressful stimuli, while concurrently using the necessary resources (food) needed to persist. A primary function of the stress response is the mobilization of intrinsic energy resources, and thus both requirements (energy and stress) are explicably linked. This dissertation investigates the interaction of energetic reserves and the physiological stress response in a native bird species, the Curve-billed Thrasher, within the context of this species' colonization of Phoenix, Arizona. This research uses a combination of comparative studies, statistical modeling, and experimental approaches conducted in field and captive settings to demonstrate how urban and desert populations of these species differ in energetic state and stress physiology. These studies reveal that the current energetic status of an individual bird influences the secretion of glucocorticoids (primary stress hormones) and can alter how energy reserves are used for gluconeogenesis to produce energy during acute stress. In addition, this research also identifies how differing levels of a hypothalamic neuropeptide (vasotocin) may play a role in mediating differences in stress physiology between populations. The quantity of food available and even temporal variability in its abundance may alter how native birds respond to stress. Increased body condition offsets the costs of maintaining the stress response in urban areas.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

149536-Thumbnail Image.png

Maternal depression and stress response: the effect on offspring in emerging adulthood

Description

Dysregulated cortisol has been linked to a variety of adverse physical and psychological consequences. Stressors in the childhood family environment can influence cortisol activity throughout development. For example, research has

Dysregulated cortisol has been linked to a variety of adverse physical and psychological consequences. Stressors in the childhood family environment can influence cortisol activity throughout development. For example, research has shown that both infants and children of depressed mothers exhibit altered levels of cortisol compared to infants and children of non-depressed mothers. It is unclear, however, whether exposure to maternal depression in childhood and adolescence is related to cortisol activity at later stages of development. The current study examined the longitudinal relation between maternal depressive symptoms during late childhood (9-12 years old) and adolescence (15-19 years old) and cortisol activity in offspring in young adulthood (24- 28 years old) in a sample of 40 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depressive symptoms were prospectively assessed at four time points across the 15 year study. Cortisol samples were collected from young adult offspring at the final time point. Findings revealed that higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during late childhood were associated with lower total cortisol output in young adulthood. Results suggest that attenuated cortisol levels, which put these young adults at risk for a variety of stress-related physical and psychological illnesses, may be a long-term consequence of exposure to maternal depression,. Depressive symptoms in mothers during their child's adolescence, however, did not relate to cortisol output. These findings suggest a sensitive period in late childhood during which the development of HPA activity may be susceptible to the environmental stressor of maternal depression.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011