Matching Items (5)

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Design of a modified Cherry-Hooper transimpedance amplifier with DC offset cancellation

Description

Optical receivers have many different uses covering simple infrared receivers, high speed fiber optic communication and light based instrumentation. All of them have an optical receiver that converts photons to

Optical receivers have many different uses covering simple infrared receivers, high speed fiber optic communication and light based instrumentation. All of them have an optical receiver that converts photons to current followed by a transimpedance amplifier to convert the current to a useful voltage. Different systems create different requirements for each receiver. High speed digital communication require high throughput with enough sensitivity to keep the bit error rate low. Instrumentation receivers have a lower bandwidth, but higher gain and sensitivity requirements. In this thesis an optical receiver for use in instrumentation in presented. It is an entirely monolithic design with the photodiodes on the same substrate as the CMOS circuitry. This allows for it to be built into a focal-plane array, but it places some restriction on the area. It is also designed for in-situ testing and must be able to cancel any low frequency noise caused by ambient light. The area restrictions prohibit the use of a DC blocking capacitor to reject the low frequency noise. In place a servo loop was wrapped around the system to reject any DC offset. A modified Cherry-Hooper architecture was used for the transimpedance amplifier. This provides the flexibility to create an amplifier with high gain and wide bandwidth that is independent of the input capacitance. The downside is the increased complexity of the design makes stability paramount to the design. Another drawback is the high noise associated with low input impedance that decouples the input capacitance from the bandwidth. This problem is compounded by the servo loop feed which leaves the output noise of some amplifiers directly referred to the input. An in depth analysis of each circuit block's noise contribution is presented.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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A 500MSPs bipolar SiGe track and hold circuit with high SFDR

Description

The front end of almost all ADCs consists of a Sample and Hold Circuit in order to make sure a constant analog value is digitized at the end of ADC.

The front end of almost all ADCs consists of a Sample and Hold Circuit in order to make sure a constant analog value is digitized at the end of ADC. The design of Track and Hold Circuit (THA) mainly focuses on following parameters: Input frequency, Sampling frequency, dynamic Range, hold pedestal, feed through error. This thesis will discuss the importance of these parameters of a THA to the ADCs and commonly used architectures of THA. A new architecture with SiGe HBT transistors in BiCMOS 130 nm technology is presented here. The proposed topology without complicated circuitry achieves high Spurious Free Dynamic Range(SFDR) and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).These are important figure of merits for any THA which gives a measure of non-linearity of the circuit. The proposed topology is implemented in IBM8HP 130 nm BiCMOS process combines typical emitter follower switch in bipolar THAs and output steering technique proposed in the previous work. With these techniques and the cascode transistor in the input which is used to isolate the switch from the input during the hold mode, better results have been achieved. The THA is designed to work with maximum input frequency of 250 MHz at sampling frequency of 500 MHz with input currents not more than 5mA achieving an SFDR of 78.49 dB. Simulation and results are presented, illustrating the advantages and trade-offs of the proposed topology.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Ion channel reconstitution platform allowing simultaneous recording from multiple bilayer sites

Description

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that stable lipid bilayers can be set up on an array of silicon micropores and can be used as

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that stable lipid bilayers can be set up on an array of silicon micropores and can be used as sites for self-inserting ion-channel proteins which can be studied independently of each other. In course of this study an acrylic based holder was designed and machined to ensure leak-free fluidic access to the silicon micropores and physical isolation of the individual array channels. To measure the ion-channel currents, we simulated, designed and manufactured low-noise transimpedance amplifiers and support circuits based on published patch clamp amplifier designs, using currently available surface-mount components. This was done in order to achieve a reduction in size and costs as well as isolation of individual channels without the need for multiplexing of the input. During the experiments performed, stable bilayers were formed across an array of four vertically mounted 30 µm silicon micropores and OmpF porins were added for self insertion in each of the bilayers. To further demonstrate the independence of these bilayer recording sites, the antibiotic Ampicillin (2.5 mM) was added to one of the fluidic wells. The ionic current in each of the wells was recorded simultaneously. Sub-conductance states of Ompf porin were observed in two of the measurement sites. In addition, the conductance steps in the site containing the antibiotic could be clearly seen to be larger compared to those of the unmodified site. This is due to the transient blocking of ion flow through the porin due to translocation of the antibiotic. Based on this demonstration, ion-channel array reconstitution is a potential method for efficient electrophysiological characterization of different types of ion-channels simultaneously as well as for studying membrane permeation processes.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Phase noise reduction using active biasing

Description

An investigation of phase noise in amplifier and voltage-controller oscillator (VCO) circuits was conducted to show that active direct-current (DC) bias techniques exhibit lower phase noise performance than traditional resistive

An investigation of phase noise in amplifier and voltage-controller oscillator (VCO) circuits was conducted to show that active direct-current (DC) bias techniques exhibit lower phase noise performance than traditional resistive DC bias techniques. Low-frequency high-gain amplifiers like those found in audio applications exhibit much better 1/f phase noise performance and can be used to bias amplifier or VCO circuits that work at much higher frequencies to reduce the phase modulation caused by higher frequency devices. An improvement in single-side-band (SSB) phase noise of 15 dB at offset frequencies less than 50 KHz was simulated and measured. Residual phase noise of an actively biased amplifier also exhibited significant noise improvements when compared to an equivalent resistive biased amplifier.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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Temperature compensated, high common mode range, Cu-trace based current shunt monitors design and analysis

Description

Sensing and controlling current flow is a fundamental requirement for many electronic systems, including power management (DC-DC converters and LDOs), battery chargers, electric vehicles, solenoid positioning, motor control, and power

Sensing and controlling current flow is a fundamental requirement for many electronic systems, including power management (DC-DC converters and LDOs), battery chargers, electric vehicles, solenoid positioning, motor control, and power monitoring. Current Shunt Monitor (CSM) systems have various applications for precise current monitoring of those aforementioned applications. CSMs enable current measurement across an external sense resistor (RS) in series to current flow. Two different types of CSMs designed and characterized in this paper. First design used direct current reading method and the other design used indirect current reading method. Proposed CSM systems can sense power supply current ranging from 1mA to 200mA for the direct current reading topology and from 1mA to 500mA for the indirect current reading topology across a typical board Cu-trace resistance of 1 ohm with less than 10 µV input-referred offset, 0.3 µV/°C offset drift and 0.1% accuracy for both topologies. Proposed systems avoid using a costly zero-temperature coefficient (TC) sense resistor that is normally used in typical CSM systems. Instead, both of the designs used existing Cu-trace on the printed circuit board (PCB) in place of the costly resistor. The systems use chopper stabilization at the front-end amplifier signal path to suppress input-referred offset down to less than 10 µV. Switching current-mode (SI) FIR filtering technique is used at the instrumentation amplifier output to filter out the chopping ripple caused by input offset and flicker noise by averaging half of the phase 1 signal and the other half of the phase 2 signal. In addition, residual offset mainly caused by clock feed-through and charge injection of the chopper switches at the chopping frequency and its multiple frequencies notched out by the since response of the SI-FIR filter. A frequency domain Sigma Delta ADC which is used for the indirect current reading type design enables a digital interface to processor applications with minimally added circuitries to build a simple 1st order Sigma Delta ADC. The CSMs are fabricated on a 0.7µm CMOS process with 3 levels of metal, with maximum Vds tolerance of 8V and operates across a common mode range of 0 to 26V for the direct current reading type and of 0 to 30V for the indirect current reading type achieving less than 10nV/sqrtHz of flicker noise at 100 Hz for both approaches. By using a semi-digital SI-FIR filter, residual chopper offset is suppressed down to 0.5mVpp from a baseline of 8mVpp, which is equivalent to 25dB suppression.

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Date Created
  • 2011