Matching Items (4)

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Semantic feature extraction for narrative analysis

Description

A story is defined as "an actor(s) taking action(s) that culminates in a resolution(s)''. I present novel sets of features to facilitate story detection among text via supervised classification and

A story is defined as "an actor(s) taking action(s) that culminates in a resolution(s)''. I present novel sets of features to facilitate story detection among text via supervised classification and further reveal different forms within stories via unsupervised clustering. First, I investigate the utility of a new set of semantic features compared to standard keyword features combined with statistical features, such as density of part-of-speech (POS) tags and named entities, to develop a story classifier. The proposed semantic features are based on triplets that can be extracted using a shallow parser. Experimental results show that a model of memory-based semantic linguistic features alongside statistical features achieves better accuracy. Next, I further improve the performance of story detection with a novel algorithm which aggregates the triplets producing generalized concepts and relations. A major challenge in automated text analysis is that different words are used for related concepts. Analyzing text at the surface level would treat related concepts (i.e. actors, actions, targets, and victims) as different objects, potentially missing common narrative patterns. The algorithm clusters triplets into generalized concepts by utilizing syntactic criteria based on common contexts and semantic corpus-based statistical criteria based on "contextual synonyms''. Generalized concepts representation of text (1) overcomes surface level differences (which arise when different keywords are used for related concepts) without drift, (2) leads to a higher-level semantic network representation of related stories, and (3) when used as features, they yield a significant (36%) boost in performance for the story detection task. Finally, I implement co-clustering based on generalized concepts/relations to automatically detect story forms. Overlapping generalized concepts and relationships correspond to archetypes/targets and actions that characterize story forms. I perform co-clustering of stories using standard unigrams/bigrams and generalized concepts. I show that the residual error of factorization with concept-based features is significantly lower than the error with standard keyword-based features. I also present qualitative evaluations by a subject matter expert, which suggest that concept-based features yield more coherent, distinctive and interesting story forms compared to those produced by using standard keyword-based features.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Advancing biomedical named entity recognition with multivariate feature selection and semantically motivated features

Description

Automating aspects of biocuration through biomedical information extraction could significantly impact biomedical research by enabling greater biocuration throughput and improving the feasibility of a wider scope. An important step in

Automating aspects of biocuration through biomedical information extraction could significantly impact biomedical research by enabling greater biocuration throughput and improving the feasibility of a wider scope. An important step in biomedical information extraction systems is named entity recognition (NER), where mentions of entities such as proteins and diseases are located within natural-language text and their semantic type is determined. This step is critical for later tasks in an information extraction pipeline, including normalization and relationship extraction. BANNER is a benchmark biomedical NER system using linear-chain conditional random fields and the rich feature set approach. A case study with BANNER locating genes and proteins in biomedical literature is described. The first corpus for disease NER adequate for use as training data is introduced, and employed in a case study of disease NER. The first corpus locating adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in user posts to a health-related social website is also described, and a system to locate and identify ADRs in social media text is created and evaluated. The rich feature set approach to creating NER feature sets is argued to be subject to diminishing returns, implying that additional improvements may require more sophisticated methods for creating the feature set. This motivates the first application of multivariate feature selection with filters and false discovery rate analysis to biomedical NER, resulting in a feature set at least 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the set created by the rich feature set approach. Finally, two novel approaches to NER by modeling the semantics of token sequences are introduced. The first method focuses on the sequence content by using language models to determine whether a sequence resembles entries in a lexicon of entity names or text from an unlabeled corpus more closely. The second method models the distributional semantics of token sequences, determining the similarity between a potential mention and the token sequences from the training data by analyzing the contexts where each sequence appears in a large unlabeled corpus. The second method is shown to improve the performance of BANNER on multiple data sets.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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An effective approach to biomedical information extraction with limited training data

Description

In the current millennium, extensive use of computers and the internet caused an exponential increase in information. Few research areas are as important as information extraction, which primarily involves extracting

In the current millennium, extensive use of computers and the internet caused an exponential increase in information. Few research areas are as important as information extraction, which primarily involves extracting concepts and the relations between them from free text. Limitations in the size of training data, lack of lexicons and lack of relationship patterns are major factors for poor performance in information extraction. This is because the training data cannot possibly contain all concepts and their synonyms; and it contains only limited examples of relationship patterns between concepts. Creating training data, lexicons and relationship patterns is expensive, especially in the biomedical domain (including clinical notes) because of the depth of domain knowledge required of the curators. Dictionary-based approaches for concept extraction in this domain are not sufficient to effectively overcome the complexities that arise because of the descriptive nature of human languages. For example, there is a relatively higher amount of abbreviations (not all of them present in lexicons) compared to everyday English text. Sometimes abbreviations are modifiers of an adjective (e.g. CD4-negative) rather than nouns (and hence, not usually considered named entities). There are many chemical names with numbers, commas, hyphens and parentheses (e.g. t(3;3)(q21;q26)), which will be separated by most tokenizers. In addition, partial words are used in place of full words (e.g. up- and downregulate); and some of the words used are highly specialized for the domain. Clinical notes contain peculiar drug names, anatomical nomenclature, other specialized names and phrases that are not standard in everyday English or in published articles (e.g. "l shoulder inj"). State of the art concept extraction systems use machine learning algorithms to overcome some of these challenges. However, they need a large annotated corpus for every concept class that needs to be extracted. A novel natural language processing approach to minimize this limitation in concept extraction is proposed here using distributional semantics. Distributional semantics is an emerging field arising from the notion that the meaning or semantics of a piece of text (discourse) depends on the distribution of the elements of that discourse in relation to its surroundings. Distributional information from large unlabeled data is used to automatically create lexicons for the concepts to be tagged, clusters of contextually similar words, and thesauri of distributionally similar words. These automatically generated lexical resources are shown here to be more useful than manually created lexicons for extracting concepts from both literature and narratives. Further, machine learning features based on distributional semantics are shown to improve the accuracy of BANNER, and could be used in other machine learning systems such as cTakes to improve their performance. In addition, in order to simplify the sentence patterns and facilitate association extraction, a new algorithm using a "shotgun" approach is proposed. The goal of sentence simplification has traditionally been to reduce the grammatical complexity of sentences while retaining the relevant information content and meaning to enable better readability for humans and enhanced processing by parsers. Sentence simplification is shown here to improve the performance of association extraction systems for both biomedical literature and clinical notes. It helps improve the accuracy of protein-protein interaction extraction from the literature and also improves relationship extraction from clinical notes (such as between medical problems, tests and treatments). Overall, the two main contributions of this work include the application of sentence simplification to association extraction as described above, and the use of distributional semantics for concept extraction. The proposed work on concept extraction amalgamates for the first time two diverse research areas -distributional semantics and information extraction. This approach renders all the advantages offered in other semi-supervised machine learning systems, and, unlike other proposed semi-supervised approaches, it can be used on top of different basic frameworks and algorithms.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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BioEve: user interface framework bridging IE and IR

Description

Continuous advancements in biomedical research have resulted in the production of vast amounts of scientific data and literature discussing them. The ultimate goal of computational biology is to translate these

Continuous advancements in biomedical research have resulted in the production of vast amounts of scientific data and literature discussing them. The ultimate goal of computational biology is to translate these large amounts of data into actual knowledge of the complex biological processes and accurate life science models. The ability to rapidly and effectively survey the literature is necessary for the creation of large scale models of the relationships among biomedical entities as well as hypothesis generation to guide biomedical research. To reduce the effort and time spent in performing these activities, an intelligent search system is required. Even though many systems aid in navigating through this wide collection of documents, the vastness and depth of this information overload can be overwhelming. An automated extraction system coupled with a cognitive search and navigation service over these document collections would not only save time and effort, but also facilitate discovery of the unknown information implicitly conveyed in the texts. This thesis presents the different approaches used for large scale biomedical named entity recognition, and the challenges faced in each. It also proposes BioEve: an integrative framework to fuse a faceted search with information extraction to provide a search service that addresses the user's desire for "completeness" of the query results, not just the top-ranked ones. This information extraction system enables discovery of important semantic relationships between entities such as genes, diseases, drugs, and cell lines and events from biomedical text on MEDLINE, which is the largest publicly available database of the world's biomedical journal literature. It is an innovative search and discovery service that makes it easier to search
avigate and discover knowledge hidden in life sciences literature. To demonstrate the utility of this system, this thesis also details a prototype enterprise quality search and discovery service that helps researchers with a guided step-by-step query refinement, by suggesting concepts enriched in intermediate results, and thereby facilitating the "discover more as you search" paradigm.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010