Matching Items (5)

Planning for Cooler Cities: A Framework to Prioritize Green Infrastructure to Mitigate High Temperatures in Urban Landscapes

Description

Warming associated with urban development will be exacerbated in future years by temperature increases due to climate change. The strategic implementation of urban green infrastructure (UGI) e.g. street trees, parks,

Warming associated with urban development will be exacerbated in future years by temperature increases due to climate change. The strategic implementation of urban green infrastructure (UGI) e.g. street trees, parks, green roofs and facades can help achieve temperature reductions in urban areas while delivering diverse additional benefits such as pollution reduction and biodiversity habitat. Although the greatest thermal benefits of UGI are achieved in climates with hot, dry summers, there is comparatively little information available for land managers to determine an appropriate strategy for UGI implementation under these climatic conditions. We present a framework for prioritisation and selection of UGI for cooling. The framework is supported by a review of the scientific literature examining the relationships between urban geometry, UGI and temperature mitigation which we used to develop guidelines for UGI implementation that maximises urban surface temperature cooling. We focus particularly on quantifying the cooling benefits of four types of UGI: green open spaces (primarily public parks), shade trees, green roofs, and vertical greening systems (green walls and facades) and demonstrate how the framework can be applied using a case study from Melbourne, Australia.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-11

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Chinese Tourism and its Effects on Cairns, Australia

Description

The Chinese tourism market has become the largest tourism market in the world and continues to show promise in its future development. Global destinations such as Southeast Asia, France and

The Chinese tourism market has become the largest tourism market in the world and continues to show promise in its future development. Global destinations such as Southeast Asia, France and now Australia have begun to see a major boom in Chinese tourists within the past decade due to less restrictive travel policies, a growing economy and higher disposable income rates within urban centers in China. Australia has become the top destination among Chinese citizens that wish to travel due to its coastal and beach attractions, unique wildlife, and general welcoming attitude toward Chinese citizens. As the market continues to grow, the characteristics and demographics change as well. The Chinese government did not allow for international travel until the early 1990s. During this time, package tours offered by government-regulated travel agencies were the prominent method of travel planning with travelers over the age of 35 making up the majority of travelers. However, in the past decade there has been a shift from group travel toward independent travel due to higher income and more independence among young adults. There remains a stigma against Chinese tourists due to behavioral and cultural challenges Chinese tourists face when traveling abroad, but as Chinese travelers begin to travel in smaller groups and have greater exposure to international cultures, these negative stereotypes will start to disappear. This paper focuses on the impact the Chinese tourism market has on Cairns, Australia. Cairns is characterized by its backpacking culture, easy access to environmental attractions and a high number of annual travelers from Asia and China specifically. The paper uses qualitative research and compiles information from news sources, government documents and statistical data regarding Chinese outbound tourism and its impacts on Australian tourism. There is also a case study composed of personal observations of a nature park in North Queensland which uses specific marketing and attraction coordination to appeal to Chinese tourists. This case study analyzes the tactics used by local destinations that cater to group travel over independent travel and points out the benefits of this type of specialized tourism. The research concludes by arguing the trend toward independent travel is beneficial to the Cairns tourism industry rather than harmful as long as the industry recognizes the new trends in Chinese tourism and does not focus on the previous trends of group travel when appealing to Chinese tourists. Instead, the industry should continue to focus on the backpacking culture and work toward catering to the demands of millennial travelers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Literature review: A Comparison between the US and Australia of Economic Factors affecting breastfeeding and Policies to Increase Breastfeeding in the Workplace

Description

Breastfeeding has been shown by a number of studies to have numerous benefits on both the mother and the infant. Major health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO),

Breastfeeding has been shown by a number of studies to have numerous benefits on both the mother and the infant. Major health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), now agree that breastfeeding should be encouraged and supported in all countries. But like many things, the wheels of the law are slow to catch up with scientific evident. Although breastfeeding is supported, working women do not have the option of breastfeeding without consequences. For example, in 2003, Kirstie Marshall, a then member of parliament in Australia was ejected from the lower house chamber on February 23, for breastfeeding her baby [3]. According to standing order 30 at the time, "Unless by order of the House, no Member of this House shall presume to bring any stranger into any part of the House appropriated to the Members of this House while the House, or a Committee of the whole House, is sitting" [3]. The rules did not specify the age of strangers, so the then 11-day-old baby, Charlotte Louise and her mother were shown the exit door of parliament. She had to choose between being present at times of major discussions or leaving the house to breastfeed her child, she chose to leave. More recent statistics show that developed nations like the US and Australia which also have high rates of women employment had low rates of breastfeeding. This might mean that workplace policies do not favor breastfeeding or expressing milk at work. Fortunately, laws have since been introduced in both the United States and Australia that support breastfeeding at the workplace. The next step would be to access how these laws affect breastfeeding statistics and how variation between these two countries like the paid parental leave in Australia (which is not present in all US states) would affect these numbers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Procurement in Public & Private Hospitals in Costa Rica and Australia: the Roles of Centralization & Policy

Description

This article summarizes exploratory research conducted on private and public hospital systems in Australia and Costa Rica analyzing the trends observed within supply chain procurement. Physician preferences and a general

This article summarizes exploratory research conducted on private and public hospital systems in Australia and Costa Rica analyzing the trends observed within supply chain procurement. Physician preferences and a general lack of available comparative effectiveness research—both of which are challenges unique to the health care industry—were found to be barriers to effective supply chain performance in both systems. Among other insights, the ability of policy to catalyze improved procurement performance in public hospital systems was also was observed. The role of centralization was also found to be fundamental to the success of the systems examined, allowing hospitals to focus on strategic rather than operational decisions and conduct value-streaming activities to generate increased cost savings.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

Aboriginal Voices - Testimonials Reflecting Indigenous Experience in Australia

Description

Aboriginal Voices Testimonials Reflecting Indigenous Experience in Australia "Aboriginal Voices: Testimonials Reflecting Indigenous Experience in Australia," is a collection of four audio portraits of Aboriginal artists interviewed between January and

Aboriginal Voices Testimonials Reflecting Indigenous Experience in Australia "Aboriginal Voices: Testimonials Reflecting Indigenous Experience in Australia," is a collection of four audio portraits of Aboriginal artists interviewed between January and May of 2016. It enabled me to cover an underserved population, consistent with journalistic and human rights standards. The testimonials are paired with visuals, such as portraits and graphics. The artists who participated each discussed different aspects of life, although key and overlapping themes surfaced with each. Nicole Phillips, a highly educated animator and teacher, discussed systemic poverty and the generational trauma of mistreatment. She emphasizes, however, that Aboriginal Australians are still fighting back. Gordon Syron talks about his family's land and how it was taken from them. Syron killed the man responsible and spent time in prison, where he began his art career. He focuses on justice issues and fair representation. Peta-Joy Williams is fair-skinned and brings up issues of inclusion and identity. Additionally, Williams is fluent in Pitjara, one of 120 remaining Aboriginal languages. She teaches this to youth and Elders, passing on and restoring culture. Finally, Jeffrey Samuels reveals his experience in a boys home and getting fostered by a white family. He was denied his culture and worked very hard at a young age. Samuels is part of the Stolen Generation, a large population of Aboriginal Australians taken from their families as part of government policies. The paper discusses outreach techniques, summarizes the interview experience with each artists, technical requirements and reflections on the subjects that came up most prominently. The website, serving as the visual element of the project, can be found at aboriginalvoices.wordpress.com

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12