Matching Items (2)
- All Subjects: Indians of North America--Education (Elementary)--New Mexico--Church Rock.
- All Subjects: Metals--Environmental aspects.
- Genre: Masters Thesis
- Creators: Olson, Larry
- Creators: Cadillo – Quiroz, Hinsby
- Resource Type: Text
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) had identified and recommended air quality monitoring to take place at 63 schools throughout the country. Unfortunately, tribal schools were not considered during the time USEPA conducted the analysis. The importance of identifying any air toxic pollutants affecting school children needs to be analyzed. Conducting an air monitoring toxic analysis on the Navajo Nation at Church Rock Elementary School, Church Rock, New Mexico (CRNM) was carried out. The current school location posed a concern, in regards to the surrounding stationary, mobile, and natural emissions emitted all types of toxic pollutants. USEPA sponsors various air monitoring program, which Tribal Air Monitoring Support (TAMS) program undertook, and offered tribal programs, organizations or agencies to utilized air monitoring equipment's. The air monitoring setup was conducted with the contract Eastern Research Group, Inc. (ERG) laboratory, where collection of 24-hour ambient air samples for 60 days on a 6-day sampling interval were performed. The analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)were collected from canister samples using USEPA Compendium Method TO-15, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2 resin samples using USEPA Compendium Method TO-13A. Carbonyl compounds were collected by sorbent cartridge samples using USEPA Compendium Method TO-11A, and trace of metals from filters were sampled using USEPA Compendium Method IO-3.5 and FEM EQL-0512-202. A total of 53 VOC concentrations were greater than 1 μg/m3, where dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, chloromethane, dichloromethane, propylene, toluene, acrolein and acetylene were detected. A total of 23 carbonyl compound concentrations were greater than 1 μg/m3, where acetone and formaldehyde were measured. Naphthalene average with the highest average for PAHs, where phenanthrene and retene were the second and third highest averages. As for the metals the highest averages resulted from manganese, chromium and lead. Overall, the air toxic pollutants resulted from CRNM surrounding monitoring site were detected. Identifying the potential emitter source or sources cannot be assessed.
Zero-Valent Metals (ZVM) are highly reactive materials and have been proved to be effective in contaminant reduction in soils and groundwater remediation. In fact, zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) has proven to be very effective in removing, particularly chlorinated organics, heavy metals, and odorous sulfides. Addition of ZVI has also been proved in enhancing the methane gas generation in anaerobic digestion of activated sludge. However, no studies have been conducted regarding the effect of ZVM stimulation to Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) degradation. Therefore, a collaborative study was developed to manipulate microbial activity in the landfill bioreactors to favor methane production by adding ZVMs. This study focuses on evaluating the effects of added ZVM on the leachate generated from replicated lab scale landfill bioreactors. The specific objective was to investigate the effects of ZVMs addition on the organic and inorganic pollutants in leachate. The hypothesis here evaluated was that adding ZVM including ZVI and Zero Valent Manganese (ZVMn) will enhance the removal rates of the organic pollutants present in the leachate, likely by a putative higher rate of microbial metabolism. Test with six (4.23 gallons) bioreactors assembled with MSW collected from the Salt River Landfill and Southwest Regional Landfill showed that under 5 grams /liter of ZVI and 0.625 grams/liter of ZVMn additions, no significant difference was observed in the pH and temperature data of the leachate generated from these reactors. The conductivity data suggested the steady rise across all reactors over the period of time. The removal efficiency of sCOD was highest (27.112 mg/lit/day) for the reactors added with ZVMn at the end of 150 days for bottom layer, however the removal rate was highest (16.955 mg/lit/day) for ZVI after the end of 150 days of the middle layer. Similar trends in the results was observed in TC analysis. HPLC study indicated the dominance of the concentration of heptanoate and isovalerate were leachate generated from the bottom layer across all reactors. Heptanoate continued to dominate in the ZVMn added leachate even after middle layer injection. IC analysis concluded the chloride was dominant in the leachate generated from all the reactors and there was a steady increase in the chloride content over the period of time. Along with chloride, fluoride, bromide, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and sulfate were also detected in considerable concentrations. In the summary, the addition of the zero valent metals has proved to be efficient in removal of the organics present in the leachate.