Matching Items (7)

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Synthesis and Structural Properties of FAU-Type Zeolite Prepared from Fly Ash

Description

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash,

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sodium chloride (NaCl). Three faujasite varieties, labeled X, P and S, were prepared for each mix design. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was used to obtain porosity information on the samples. Mechanical strength testing was performed on solid blocks of the zeolite samples prepared in a mold. It was found that the S variety in mix design (iv) had the most desirable balance of porosity and strength for engineering applications.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Alkali activated systems: understanding the influence of curing conditions and activator type/chemistry on the mechanical strength and chemical structure of fly ash/slag systems

Description

The alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms enhanced material properties, while increasing

The alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms enhanced material properties, while increasing sustainability by the reuse of industrial waste and byproducts and reducing the adverse impacts of OPC production. Fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag are commonly used for their content of soluble silica and aluminate species that can undergo dissolution, polymerization with the alkali, condensation on particle surfaces and solidification. The following topics are the focus of this thesis: (i) the use of microwave assisted thermal processing, in addition to heat-curing as a means of alkali activation and (ii) the relative effects of alkali cations (K or Na) in the activator (powder activators) on the mechanical properties and chemical structure of these systems. Unsuitable curing conditions instigate carbonation, which in turn lowers the pH of the system causing significant reductions in the rate of fly ash activation and mechanical strength development. This study explores the effects of sealing the samples during the curing process, which effectively traps the free water in the system, and allows for increased aluminosilicate activation. The use of microwave-curing in lieu of thermal-curing is also studied in order to reduce energy consumption and for its ability to provide fast volumetric heating. Potassium-based powder activators dry blended into the slag binder system is shown to be effective in obtaining very high compressive strengths under moist curing conditions (greater than 70 MPa), whereas sodium-based powder activation is much weaker (around 25 MPa). Compressive strength decreases when fly ash is introduced into the system. Isothermal calorimetry is used to evaluate the early hydration process, and to understand the reaction kinetics of the alkali powder activated systems. A qualitative evidence of the alkali-hydroxide concentration of the paste pore solution through the use of electrical conductivity measurements is also presented, with the results indicating the ion concentration of alkali is more prevalent in the pore solution of potassium-based systems. The use of advanced spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques to distinguish the influence of studied parameters is also discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Early age characterization and microstructural features of sustainable binder systems for concrete

Description

Concrete is the most widely used infrastructure material worldwide. Production of portland cement, the main binding component in concrete, has been shown to require significant energy and account for approximately

Concrete is the most widely used infrastructure material worldwide. Production of portland cement, the main binding component in concrete, has been shown to require significant energy and account for approximately 5-7% of global carbon dioxide production. The expected continued increased use of concrete over the coming decades indicates this is an ideal time to implement sustainable binder technologies. The current work aims to explore enhanced sustainability concretes, primarily in the context of limestone and flow. Aspects such as hydration kinetics, hydration product formation and pore structure add to the understanding of the strength development and potential durability characteristics of these binder systems. Two main strategies for enhancing this sustainability are explored in this work: (i) the use of high volume limestone in combination with other alternative cementitious materials to decrease the portland cement quantity in concrete and (ii) the use of geopolymers as the binder phase in concrete. The first phase of the work investigates the use of fine limestone as cement replacement from the perspective of hydration, strength development, and pore structure. The nature of the potential synergistic benefit of limestone and alumina will be explored. The second phase will focus on the rheological characterization of these materials in the fresh state, as well as a more general investigation of the rheological characterization of suspensions. The results of this work indicate several key ideas. (i) There is a potential synergistic benefit for strength, hydration, and pore structure by using alumina and in portland limestone cements, (ii) the limestone in these systems is shown to react to some extent, and fine limestone is shown to accelerate hydration, (iii) rheological characteristics of cementitious suspensions are complex, and strongly dependent on several key parameters including: the solid loading, interparticle forces, surface area of the particles present, particle size distribution of the particles, and rheological nature of the media in which the particles are suspended, and (iv) stress plateau method is proposed for the determination of rheological properties of concentrated suspensions, as it more accurately predicts apparent yield stress and is shown to correlate well with other viscoelastic properties of the suspensions.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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FTIR analysis of alkali activated slag and fly ash using deconvolution techniques

Description

The studies on aluminosilicate materials to replace traditional construction materials such as ordinary Portland cement(OPC) to reduce the effects caused has been an important research area for the past decades.

The studies on aluminosilicate materials to replace traditional construction materials such as ordinary Portland cement(OPC) to reduce the effects caused has been an important research area for the past decades. Many properties like strength have already been studied and the primary focus is to learn about the reaction mechanism and the effect of the parameters on the formed products. The aim of this research was to explore the structural changes and reaction product analysis of geopolymers (Slag & Fly Ash) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and deconvolution

techniques. Spectroscopic techniques give valuable information at a molecular level but not all methods are economic and simple. To understand the mechanisms of alkali activated aluminosilicate materials, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR has been used where the effect of the parameters on the reaction products have been analyzed. To analyze complex systems like geopolymers using FTIR, deconvolution techniques help to obtain the properties of a particular peak attributed to a certain molecular vibration.

Time and temperature dependent analysis were done on slag pastes to understand the polymerization of reactive silica in the system with time and temperature variance. For time dependent analysis slag has been activated with sodium and potassium silicates using two different `n'values and three different silica modulus [Ms- (SiO2 /M2O)] values. The temperature dependent analysis was done by curing the samples at 60C and 80C. Similarly fly ash has been studied by activating with alkali hydroxides and alkali silicates. Under the same curing conditions the fly ash samples were evaluated to analyze the effects of added silicates for alkali activation.

The peak shifts in the FTIR explains the changes in the structural nature of the matrix and can be identified using the deconvolution technique. A strong correlation is found between the concentrations of silicate monomer in the activating position of the main Si-O-T (where T is Al/Si) stretching band in the FTIR spectrum, which

gives an indication of the relative changes in the Si/Al ratio. Also, the effect of the cation and silicate concentration in the activating solution has been discussed using the Fourier self deconvolution technique.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Multiscale engineering response of alkali activated aluminosilicate binders

Description

Sustainable materials and methods have achieved a pivotal role in the research plethora of the new age due to global warming. Cement production is responsible in contributing to 5% of

Sustainable materials and methods have achieved a pivotal role in the research plethora of the new age due to global warming. Cement production is responsible in contributing to 5% of global CO2 emissions. Complete replacement of cement by alkaline activation of aluminosilicate waste materials such as slag and fly ash is a major advancement towards reducing the adverse impacts of cement production. Comprehensive research has been done, to understand the optimized composition and hydration products. The focus of this dissertation is to understand the multiscale behavior ranging from early age properties, fundamental material structure, fracture and crack resistance properties, durability responses and alternative activation methods to existing process.

The utilization of these materials has relied primarily on the dual benefits of reduced presence in landfills and cost. These have also proven to yield a higher service life as opposed to conventional ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete due to an enhanced microstructure. The use of such materials however has not been readily acceptable due to detrimental early age behavior. The influence of design factors is studied to understand the reaction mechanism. Silicon polymerization at the molecular level is studied to understand the aluminosilicate interactions which are responsible for prevention of any leaching of ions. A comparative study between fly ash and slag binders is carried out to evaluate the stable states of sodium, aluminum and silicon in both these binders, since the likelihood of the sodium ions leaching out is high.

Compressive and flexural strength have been reported in previous literature, but the impact of crack resistance was unevaluated from an approach of characterizing the fracture process zone. Alternative routes of activation are explored with an intent to reduce the high alkalinity by use of neutral salts such as sodium sulfate. High volume OPC replacement by both class C and F fly ash is performed to evaluate the differences in hydration phase formation responsible for its pore refinement and strength. Spectroscopic studies have also allowed to study the fundamental material structure. Durability studies are also performed on these samples to understand the probability external sulfate attacks as opposed to OPC mixes.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Time dependent rheological response of composite binders

Description

The need for sustainability in construction has encouraged scientists to develop novel environmentally friendly materials. The use of supplementary cementitious materials was one such initiative which aided in enhancing the

The need for sustainability in construction has encouraged scientists to develop novel environmentally friendly materials. The use of supplementary cementitious materials was one such initiative which aided in enhancing the fresh and hardened concrete properties. This thesis aims to explore the understanding of the early age rheological properties of such cementitious systems.

The first phase of the work investigates the influence of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) in combination with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the rheological properties of fresh paste with and without the effect of superplasticizers. Yield stress, plastic viscosity and storage modulus are the rheological parameters which were evaluated for all the design mixtures to fundamentally understand the synergistic effects of the SCM. A time-dependent study was conducted on these blends to explore the structure formation at various time intervals which explains the effect of hydration in conjecture to its physical stiffening. The second phase focuses on the rheological characterization of novel iron powder based binder system.

The results of this work indicate that the rheological characteristics of cementitious suspensions are complex, and strongly dependent on several key parameters including: the solid loading, inter-particle forces, shape of the particle, particle size distribution of the particles, and rheological nature of the media in which the particles are suspended. Chemical composition and reactivity of the material play an important role in the time-dependent rheological study.

A stress plateau method is utilized for the determination of rheological properties of concentrated suspensions, as it better predicts the apparent yield stress and is shown to correlate well with other viscoelastic properties of the suspensions. Plastic viscosity is obtained by calculating the slope of the stress-strain rate curve of ramp down values of shear rates. In oscillatory stress measurements the plateau obtained within the linear visco-elastic region was considered to be the value for storage modulus.

Between the different types of fly ash, class F fly ash indicated a reduction in the rheological parameters as opposed to class C fly ash that is attributable to the enhanced ettringite formation in the latter. Use of superplasticizer led to a huge influence on yield stress and storage modulus of the paste due to the steric hindrance effect.

In the study of iron based binder systems, metakaolin had comparatively higher influence than fly ash on the rheology due to its tendency to agglomerate as opposed to the ball bearing effect observed in the latter. Iron increment above 60% resulted in a decrease in all the parameters of rheology discussed in this thesis. In the OPC-iron binder, the iron behaved as reinforcements yielding higher yield stress and plastic viscosity.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Kinetics of alkaline activation of slag and fly ash-slag systems

Description

Alkali-activated aluminosilicates, commonly known as "geopolymers", are being increasingly studied as a potential replacement for Portland cement. These binders use an alkaline activator, typically alkali silicates, alkali hydroxides or a

Alkali-activated aluminosilicates, commonly known as "geopolymers", are being increasingly studied as a potential replacement for Portland cement. These binders use an alkaline activator, typically alkali silicates, alkali hydroxides or a combination of both along with a silica-and-alumina rich material, such as fly ash or slag, to form a final product with properties comparable to or better than those of ordinary Portland cement. The kinetics of alkali activation is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the binder material and the activator concentration. The influence of binder composition (slag, fly ash or both), different levels of alkalinity, expressed using the ratios of Na2O-to-binders (n) and activator SiO2-to-Na2O ratios (Ms), on the early age behavior in sodium silicate solution (waterglass) activated fly ash-slag blended systems is discussed in this thesis. Optimal binder composition and the n values are selected based on the setting times. Higher activator alkalinity (n value) is required when the amount of slag in the fly ash-slag blended mixtures is reduced. Isothermal calorimetry is performed to evaluate the early age hydration process and to understand the reaction kinetics of the alkali activated systems. The differences in the calorimetric signatures between waterglass activated slag and fly ash-slag blends facilitate an understanding of the impact of the binder composition on the reaction rates. Kinetic modeling is used to quantify the differences in reaction kinetics using the Exponential as well as the Knudsen method. The influence of temperature on the reaction kinetics of activated slag and fly ash-slag blends based on the hydration parameters are discussed. Very high compressive strengths can be obtained both at early ages as well as later ages (more than 70 MPa) with waterglass activated slag mortars. Compressive strength decreases with the increase in the fly ash content. A qualitative evidence of leaching is presented through the electrical conductivity changes in the saturating solution. The impact of leaching and the strength loss is found to be generally higher for the mixtures made using a higher activator Ms and a higher n value. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is used to obtain information about the reaction products.

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Date Created
  • 2012