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Optimization of Packaging Conditions for Long-term Stability of Colorimetric Carbon Dioxide Sensors for Capnography Applications in Non-intubated Patients

Description

Capnography is the monitoring of concentrations of carbon dioxide in exhaled breath. It allows reliable insight into patients' metabolism, ventilation, and blood circulation. Capnography has become an integral part of

Capnography is the monitoring of concentrations of carbon dioxide in exhaled breath. It allows reliable insight into patients' metabolism, ventilation, and blood circulation. Capnography has become an integral part of anesthesiology monitoring in operating rooms. However, its used is limited in other contexts due to deeply engrained protocols, size of capnographs, and the complexity of its interpretation. Intensive care units and in-home use could greatly benefit by a widespread usage of capnographs. Measuring methods include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and chemical colorimetric analysis. Infrared technology is currently the most widely used and cost-effective method for measuring carbon dioxide. However, this device can be bulky and costly. A novel portable breath CO2 analyzer was developed for this purpose. The analyzer features an accurate colorimetric CO2 sensor that can analyze ETCO2 in real time. Many advancements have been in made in the sensor fabrication process. Nevertheless, research on optimal packaging conditions and accelerated aging times have been limited. In this experiment, carbon dioxide sensors were packaged at four different environmental conditions to test their long-term stability. This was done to determine if these conditions had an effect on sensor degradation. In the second part of the experiment, a separate batch of sensors was placed inside an oven at 48 oC to investigate the effect of stabilization temperature dependence and accelerated aging. In conclusion, the data obtained from the sensors packaged at different conditions could not be concluded to be statistically different. Sensors packaged at ambient conditions had the highest average value at 0.45030 V and the ones at controlled 33% humidity had the lowest at 0.39348 V. The sensors packaged at 8.25% CO2 had the smallest variance in their voltage measurements. From these data, it can be concluded that environmental testing conditions had the greatest effect on the measured signal. The oven experiment showed that sensors rapidly stabilize at high temperature and these stay constant after reaching this stabilization. For future work, the signal difference at different environmental conditions should be done. Control of environmental conditions can be achieved by building a glove box to control temperature and humidity.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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A Portable Colorimetric Sensing Platform for the Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide in Breath

Description

This work describes the development of a device for measuring CO2 in breath, which has applications in monitoring a variety of health issues, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD),

This work describes the development of a device for measuring CO2 in breath, which has applications in monitoring a variety of health issues, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, and cardiovascular disease. The device takes advantage of colorimetric sensing technology in order to maintain a low cost and high user-friendliness. The sensor consists of a pH dye, reactive element, and base coated on a highly porous Teflon membrane. The transmittance of the sensor is measured in the device via a simple LED/photodiode system, along with the flow rate, ambient relative humidity, and barometric pressure. The flow is measured by a newly developed flow meter described in this work, the Confined Pitot Tube (CPT) flow meter, which provides a high accuracy with reduced flow-resistance with a standard differential pressure transducer. I demonstrate in this work that the system has a high sensitivity, high specificity, fast time-response, high reproducibility, and good stability. The sensor has a simple calibration method which requires no action by the user, and utilizes a sophisticated, yet lightweight, model in order to predict temperature changes on the sensor during breathing and track changes in water content. It is shown to be effective for measuring CO2 waveform parameters on a breath-by-breath basis, such as End-Tidal CO2, Alveolar Plateau Slope, and Beginning Exhalation Slope.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Pressure based spirometry: mobile spirometry using a pressure transducer

Description

Spirometry is a type of pulmonary function test that measures the amount of air volume and the speed of air flow from a patient's breath in order to assess lung

Spirometry is a type of pulmonary function test that measures the amount of air volume and the speed of air flow from a patient's breath in order to assess lung function. The goal of this project is to develop and validate a mobile spirometer technology based on a differential pressure sensor. The findings in this paper are used in a larger project that combines the features of a capnography device and a spirometer into a single mobile health unit known as the capno-spirometer. The following paper discusses the methods, experiments, and prototypes that were developed and tested in order to create a robust and accurate technology for all of the spirometry functions within the capno-spirometer. The differential pressure sensor is set up with one inlet measuring the pressure inside the spirometer tubing and the other inlet measuring the ambient pressure of the environment. The inlet measuring the inside of the tubing is very sensitive to its orientation and position with respect to the path of the air flow. It is found that taking a measurement from the center of the flow is 50% better than from the side wall. The sensor inlet is optimized at 37 mm from the mouthpiece inlet. The unit is calibrated by relating the maximum pressure sensor voltage signal to the peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) taken during a series of spirometry tests. In conclusion, this relationship is best represented as a quadratic function and a calibration equation is computed to provide a flow rate given a voltage change. The flow rates are used to calculate the four main spirometry parameters: PEF, FVC, FEV1, and FER. These methods are then referenced with the results from a commercial spirometer for validation. After validation, the pressure-based spirometry technology is proven to be both robust and accurate.

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Date Created
  • 2013