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Volumetric particle velocimetry for microscale flows

Description

Microfluidics is the study of fluid flow at very small scales (micro -- one millionth of a meter) and is prevalent in many areas of science and engineering. Typical applications include lab-on-a-chip devices, microfluidic fuel cells, and DNA separation technologies.

Microfluidics is the study of fluid flow at very small scales (micro -- one millionth of a meter) and is prevalent in many areas of science and engineering. Typical applications include lab-on-a-chip devices, microfluidic fuel cells, and DNA separation technologies. Many of these microfluidic devices rely on micron-resolution velocimetry measurements to improve microchannel design and characterize existing devices. Methods such as micro particle imaging velocimetry (microPIV) and micro particle tracking velocimetry (microPTV) are mature and established methods for characterization of steady 2D flow fields. Increasingly complex microdevices require techniques that measure unsteady and/or three dimensional velocity fields. This dissertation presents a method for three-dimensional velocimetry of unsteady microflows based on spinning disk confocal microscopy and depth scanning of a microvolume. High-speed 2D unsteady velocity fields are resolved by acquiring images of particle motion using a high-speed CMOS camera and confocal microscope. The confocal microscope spatially filters out of focus light using a rotating disk of pinholes placed in the imaging path, improving the ability of the system to resolve unsteady microPIV measurements by improving the image and correlation signal to noise ratio. For 3D3C measurements, a piezo-actuated objective positioner quickly scans the depth of the microvolume and collects 2D image slices, which are stacked into 3D images. Super resolution microPIV interrogates these 3D images using microPIV as a predictor field for tracking individual particles with microPTV. The 3D3C diagnostic is demonstrated by measuring a pressure driven flow in a three-dimensional expanding microchannel. The experimental velocimetry data acquired at 30 Hz with instantaneous spatial resolution of 4.5 by 4.5 by 4.5 microns agrees well with a computational model of the flow field. The technique allows for isosurface visualization of time resolved 3D3C particle motion and high spatial resolution velocity measurements without requiring a calibration step or reconstruction algorithms. Several applications are investigated, including 3D quantitative fluorescence imaging of isotachophoresis plugs advecting through a microchannel and the dynamics of reaction induced colloidal crystal deposition.

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2011

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Modeling cardiac function with particle image velocimetry

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The application of novel visualization and modeling methods to the study of cardiovascular disease is vital to the development of innovative diagnostic techniques, including those that may aid in the early detection and prevention of cardiovascular disorders. This dissertation focuses

The application of novel visualization and modeling methods to the study of cardiovascular disease is vital to the development of innovative diagnostic techniques, including those that may aid in the early detection and prevention of cardiovascular disorders. This dissertation focuses on the application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to the study of intracardiac hemodynamics. This is accomplished primarily though the use of ultrasound based PIV, which allows for in vivo visualization of intracardiac flow without the requirement for optical access, as is required with traditional camera-based PIV methods.

The fundamentals of ultrasound PIV are introduced, including experimental methods for its implementation as well as a discussion on estimating and mitigating measurement error. Ultrasound PIV is then compared to optical PIV; this is a highly developed technique with proven accuracy; through rigorous examination it has become the “gold standard” of two-dimensional flow visualization. Results show good agreement between the two methods.

Using a mechanical left heart model, a multi-plane ultrasound PIV technique is introduced and applied to quantify a complex, three-dimensional flow that is analogous to the left intraventricular flow. Changes in ventricular flow dynamics due to the rotational orientation of mechanical heart valves are studied; the results demonstrate the importance of multi-plane imaging techniques when trying to assess the strongly three-dimensional intraventricular flow.

The potential use of ultrasound PIV as an early diagnosis technique is demonstrated through the development of a novel elasticity estimation technique. A finite element analysis routine is couple with an ensemble Kalman filter to allow for the estimation of material elasticity using forcing and displacement data derived from PIV. Results demonstrate that it is possible to estimate elasticity using forcing data derived from a PIV vector field, provided vector density is sufficient.

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2015

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Experimental study of the flow field in a model rotor-stator disk cavity using particle image velocimetry

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Modern day gas turbine designers face the problem of hot mainstream gas ingestion into rotor-stator disk cavities. To counter this ingestion, seals are installed on the rotor and stator disk rims and purge air, bled off from the compressor, is

Modern day gas turbine designers face the problem of hot mainstream gas ingestion into rotor-stator disk cavities. To counter this ingestion, seals are installed on the rotor and stator disk rims and purge air, bled off from the compressor, is injected into the cavities. It is desirable to reduce the supply of purge air as this decreases the net power output as well as efficiency of the gas turbine. Since the purge air influences the disk cavity flow field and effectively the amount of ingestion, the aim of this work was to study the cavity velocity field experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Experiments were carried out in a model single-stage axial flow turbine set-up that featured blades as well as vanes, with purge air supplied at the hub of the rotor-stator disk cavity. Along with the rotor and stator rim seals, an inner labyrinth seal was provided which split the disk cavity into a rim cavity and an inner cavity. First, static gage pressure distribution was measured to ensure that nominally steady flow conditions had been achieved. The PIV experiments were then performed to map the velocity field on the radial-tangential plane within the rim cavity at four axial locations. Instantaneous velocity maps obtained by PIV were analyzed sector-by-sector to understand the rim cavity flow field. It was observed that the tangential velocity dominated the cavity flow at low purge air flow rate, its dominance decreasing with increase in the purge air flow rate. Radially inboard of the rim cavity, negative radial velocity near the stator surface and positive radial velocity near the rotor surface indicated the presence of a recirculation region in the cavity whose radial extent increased with increase in the purge air flow rate. Qualitative flow streamline patterns are plotted within the rim cavity for different experimental conditions by combining the PIV map information with ingestion measurements within the cavity as reported in Thiagarajan (2013).

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2013

Fundamentals and Applications of N-pulse Particle Image Velocimetry-accelerometry: Towards Advanced Measurements of Complex Flows and Turbulence

Description

Over the past three decades, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been continuously growing to become an informative and robust experimental tool for fluid mechanics research. Compared to the early stage of PIV development, the dynamic range of PIV has been

Over the past three decades, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been continuously growing to become an informative and robust experimental tool for fluid mechanics research. Compared to the early stage of PIV development, the dynamic range of PIV has been improved by about an order of magnitude (Adrian, 2005; Westerweel et al., 2013). Further improvement requires a breakthrough innovation, which constitutes the main motivation of this dissertation. N-pulse particle image velocimetry-accelerometry (N-pulse PIVA, where N>=3) is a promising technique to this regard. It employs bursts of N pulses to gain advantages in both spatial and temporal resolution. The performance improvement by N-pulse PIVA is studied using particle tracking (i.e. N-pulse PTVA), and it is shown that an enhancement of at least another order of magnitude is achievable. Furthermore, the capability of N-pulse PIVA to measure unsteady acceleration and force is demonstrated in the context of an oscillating cylinder interacting with surrounding fluid. The cylinder motion, the fluid velocity and acceleration, and the fluid force exerted on the cylinder are successfully measured. On the other hand, a key issue of multi-camera registration for the implementation of N-pulse PIVA is addressed with an accuracy of 0.001 pixel. Subsequently, two applications of N-pulse PTVA to complex flows and turbulence are presented. A novel 8-pulse PTVA analysis was developed and validated to accurately resolve particle unsteady drag in post-shock flows. It is found that the particle drag is substantially elevated from the standard drag due to flow unsteadiness, and a new drag correlation incorporating particle Reynolds number and unsteadiness is desired upon removal of the uncertainty arising from non-uniform particle size. Next, the estimation of turbulence statistics utilizes the ensemble average of 4-pulse PTV data within a small domain of an optimally determined size. The estimation of mean velocity, mean velocity gradient and isotropic dissipation rate are presented and discussed by means of synthetic turbulence, as well as a tomographic measurement of turbulent boundary layer. The results indicate the superior capability of the N-pulse PTV based method to extract high-spatial-resolution high-accuracy turbulence statistics.

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Date Created
2018

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Improved techniques for cardiovascular flow experiments

Description

Aortic pathologies such as coarctation, dissection, and aneurysm represent a

particularly emergent class of cardiovascular diseases and account for significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Computational simulations of aortic flows are growing increasingly important as tools for gaining understanding of these

Aortic pathologies such as coarctation, dissection, and aneurysm represent a

particularly emergent class of cardiovascular diseases and account for significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Computational simulations of aortic flows are growing increasingly important as tools for gaining understanding of these pathologies and for planning their surgical repair. In vitro experiments are required to validate these simulations against real world data, and a pulsatile flow pump system can provide physiologic flow conditions characteristic of the aorta.

This dissertation presents improved experimental techniques for in vitro aortic blood flow and the increasingly larger parts of the human cardiovascular system. Specifically, this work develops new flow management and measurement techniques for cardiovascular flow experiments with the aim to improve clinical evaluation and treatment planning of aortic diseases.

The hypothesis of this research is that transient flow driven by a step change in volume flux in a piston-based pulsatile flow pump system behaves differently from transient flow driven by a step change in pressure gradient, the development time being substantially reduced in the former. Due to this difference in behavior, the response to a piston-driven pump can be predicted in order to establish inlet velocity and flow waveforms at a downstream phantom model.

The main objectives of this dissertation were: 1) to design, construct, and validate a piston-based flow pump system for aortic flow experiments, 2) to characterize temporal and spatial development of start-up flows driven by a piston pump that produces a step change from zero flow to a constant volume flux in realistic (finite) tube geometries for physiologic Reynolds numbers, and 3) to develop a method to predict downstream velocity and flow waveforms at the inlet of an aortic phantom model and determine the input waveform needed to achieve the intended waveform at the test section. Application of these newly improved flow management tools and measurement techniques were then demonstrated through in vitro experiments in patient-specific coarctation of aorta flow phantom models manufactured in-house and compared to computational simulations to inform and execute future experiments and simulations.

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Date Created
2015

Rapid Decompression of Dense Particle Beds

Description

Rapid expansion of dense beds of fine, spherical particles subjected to rapid depressurization is studied in a vertical shock tube. As the particle bed is unloaded, a high-speed video camera captures the dramatic evolution of the particle bed structure. Pressure

Rapid expansion of dense beds of fine, spherical particles subjected to rapid depressurization is studied in a vertical shock tube. As the particle bed is unloaded, a high-speed video camera captures the dramatic evolution of the particle bed structure. Pressure transducers are used to measure the dynamic pressure changes during the particle bed expansion process. Image processing, signal processing, and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques, are used to examine the relationships between particle size, initial bed height, bed expansion rate, and gas velocities.

The gas-particle interface and the particle bed as a whole expand and evolve in stages. First, the bed swells nearly homogeneously for a very brief period of time (< 2ms). Shortly afterward, the interface begins to develop instabilities as it continues to rise, with particles nearest the wall rising more quickly. Meanwhile, the bed fractures into layers and then breaks down further into cellular-like structures. The rate at which the structural evolution occurs is shown to be dependent on particle size. Additionally, the rate of the overall bed expansion is shown to be dependent on particle size and initial bed height.

Taller particle beds and beds composed of smaller-diameter particles are found to be associated with faster bed-expansion rates, as measured by the velocity of the gas-particle interface. However, the expansion wave travels more slowly through these same beds. It was also found that higher gas velocities above the the gas-particle interface measured \textit{via} Particle Image Velocimetry or PIV, were associated with particle beds composed of larger-diameter particles. The gas dilation between the shocktube diaphragm and the particle bed interface is more dramatic when the distance between the gas-particle interface and the diaphragm is decreased-as is the case for taller beds.

To further elucidate the complexities of this multiphase compressible flow, simple OpenFOAM (Weller, 1998) simulations of the shocktube experiment were performed and compared to bed expansion rates, pressure fluctuations, and gas velocities. In all cases, the trends and relationships between bed height, particle diameter, with expansion rates, pressure fluctuations and gas velocities matched well between experiments and simulations. In most cases, the experimentally-measured bed rise rates and the simulated bed rise rates matched reasonably well in early times. The trends and overall values of the pressure fluctuations and gas velocities matched well between the experiments and simulations; shedding light on the effects each parameter has on the overall flow.

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Date Created
2019