Matching Items (5)

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Direct nose-to-brain delivery of targeted polymeric nanoparticles

Description

There is growing interest in intranasal delivery of therapeutics because of direct nose-to-brain pathways which are able to bypass biological barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), that have historically

There is growing interest in intranasal delivery of therapeutics because of direct nose-to-brain pathways which are able to bypass biological barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), that have historically limited our ability to effectively deliver drugs to the central nervous system (CNS). Since these pathways were first discovered, there has been significant preclinical success in delivering a wide range of therapeutics to the CNS with additional growing efforts to further improve delivery through nanoparticle drug delivery systems. Here we sought to improve intranasal delivery of DiR, a lipophilic small molecule cyanine dye, to the CNS by surface modifying a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle with a short peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG). The specific aims of this thesis were to evaluate administration route-dependent delivery of RVG nanoparticles to the CNS, and to identify anatomical transport pathways by which nanoparticles facilitate transport of small lipophilic molecules. Route-dependent delivery kinetics and distribution were studied by administering DiR loaded nanoparticles to healthy Balb/C mice. Specific tissues were homogenized and the fluorescent intensity of DiR was measured and compared to control tissue spiked with known amounts of dye. While bioavailability of DiR after intranasal administration was near 0% with minimal exposure to peripheral organs, quick and efficient delivery to the CNS was still observed. CNS delivery after intranasal administration was rapid with peak concentrations at 30 minutes post-administration followed by broad clearance by 2 hours. Regional differences of delivery of DiR to the CNS demonstrated engagement of direct nose-to-brain transport pathways with high delivery being observed to the olfactory bulb, brain stem, and trigeminal nerve. RVG modification however presented only modest targeting benefits. In conclusion, the biodistribution of DiR after intranasal administration of DiR loaded nanoparticles showed high potential for the direct nose-to-brain delivery while limiting peripheral exposure of lipophilic small molecule drugs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Novel protein delivery platforms to modulate SDF-1a/CXCR4 signaling in the adult cortex

Description

Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its key receptor, CXCR4 are ubiquitously expressed in systems across the body (e.g. liver, skin, lung, etc.). This signaling axis regulates a myriad of physiological

Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its key receptor, CXCR4 are ubiquitously expressed in systems across the body (e.g. liver, skin, lung, etc.). This signaling axis regulates a myriad of physiological processes that range from maintaining of organ homeostasis in adults to, chemotaxis of stem/progenitor and immune cell types after injury. Given its potential role as a therapeutic target for diverse applications, surprisingly little is known about how SDF-1α mediated signaling propagates through native tissues. This limitation ultimately constrains rational design of interventional biomaterials that aim to target the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling axis. One application of particular interest is traumatic brain injury (TBI) for which, there are currently no means of targeting the underlying biochemical pathology to improve prognosis.

Growing evidence suggests a relationship between SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling and endogenous neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSC)-mediated regeneration after neural injury. Long-term modulation of the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling axis is thus hypothesized as a possible avenue for harnessing and amplifying endogenous regenerative mechanisms after TBI. In order to understand how the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling can be modulated in vivo, we first developed and characterized a sustained protein delivery platform in vitro. We were the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that protein release profiles from poly(D,L,-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) particles can be tuned independent of particle fabrication parameters via centrifugal fractioning. This process of physically separating the particles altered the average diameter of a particle population, which is in turn was correlated to critical release characteristics. Secondly, we demonstrated sustained release of SDF-1α from PLGA/fibrin composites (particles embedded in fibrin) with tunable burst release as a function of fibrin concentration. Finally, we contrasted the spatiotemporal localization of endogenous SDF-1α and CXCR4 expression in response to either bolus or sustained release of exogenous SDF-1α. Sustained release of exogenous SDF-1α induced spatially diffuse endogenous SDF-1/CXCR4 expression relative to bolus SDF-1 administration; however, the observed effects were transient in both cases, persisting only to a maximum of 3 days post injection. These studies will inform future systematic evaluations of strategies that exploit SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling for diverse applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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An Integrated Biomanufacturing Platform for the Large-Scale Expansion and Differentiation of Neural Progenitor Cells

Description

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are defined by the loss of several types of neurons and glial cells within the central nervous system

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are defined by the loss of several types of neurons and glial cells within the central nervous system (CNS). Combatting these diseases requires a robust population of relevant cell types that can be employed in cell therapies, drug screening, or patient specific disease modeling. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC)-derived neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) have the ability to self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into the various neuronal and glial cell types of the CNS. In order to realize the potential of hNPCs, it is necessary to develop a xeno-free scalable platform for effective expansion and differentiation. Previous work in the Brafman lab led to the engineering of a chemically defined substrate—vitronectin derived peptide (VDP), which allows for the long-term expansion and differentiation of hNPCs. In this work, we use this substrate as the basis for a microcarrier (MC)-based suspension culture system. Several independently derived hNPC lines were cultured on MCs for multiple passages as well as efficiently differentiated to neurons. Finally, this MC-based system was used in conjunction with a low shear rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor for the integrated, large-scale expansion and neuronal differentiation of hNPCs. Finally, VDP was shown to support the differentiation of hNPCs into functional astrocytes. Overall, this fully defined and scalable biomanufacturing system will facilitate the generation of hNPCs and their derivatives in quantities necessary for basic and translational applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Ultrasound modulation of the central and peripheral nervous system

Description

Noninvasive neuromodulation could help treat many neurological disorders, but existing techniques have low resolution and weak penetration. Ultrasound (US) shows promise for stimulation of smaller areas and subcortical structures. However,

Noninvasive neuromodulation could help treat many neurological disorders, but existing techniques have low resolution and weak penetration. Ultrasound (US) shows promise for stimulation of smaller areas and subcortical structures. However, the mechanism and parameter design are not understood. US can stimulate tail and hindlimb movements in rats, but not forelimb, for unknown reasons. Potentially, US could also stimulate peripheral or enteric neurons for control of blood glucose.

To better understand the inconsistent effects across rat motor cortex, US modulation of electrically-evoked movements was tested. A stimulation array was implanted on the cortical surface and US (200 kHz, 30-60 W/cm2 peak) was applied while measuring changes in the evoked forelimb and hindlimb movements. Direct US stimulation of the hindlimb was also studied. To test peripheral effects, rat blood glucose levels were measured while applying US near the liver.

No short-term motor modulation was visible (95% confidence interval: -3.5% to +5.1% forelimb, -3.8% to +5.5% hindlimb). There was significant long-term (minutes-order) suppression (95% confidence interval: -3.7% to -10.8% forelimb, -3.8% to -11.9% hindlimb). This suppression may be due to the considerable heating (+1.8°C between US
on-US conditions); effects of heat and US were not separable in this experiment. US directly evoked hindlimb and scrotum movements in some sessions. This required a long interval, at least 3 seconds between US bursts. Movement could be evoked with much shorter pulses than used in literature (3 ms). The EMG latency (10 ms) was compatible with activation of corticospinal neurons. The glucose modulation test showed a strong increase in a few trials, but across all trials found no significant effect.

The single motor response and the long refractory period together suggest that only the beginning of the US burst had a stimulatory effect. This would explain the lack of short-term modulation, and suggests future work with shorter pulses could better explore the missing forelimb response. During the refractory period there was no change in the electrically-evoked response, which suggests the US stimulation mechanism is independent of normal brain activity. These results challenge the literature-standard protocols and provide new insights on the unknown mechanism.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Understanding the role of predictive, diagnostic and pathogenic autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and its central nervous system (CNS) involvement

Description

Systemic lupus erytematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease where the immune system is reactive to self antigens resulting in manifestations like glomerulonephritis and arthritis. The immune system also affects

Systemic lupus erytematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease where the immune system is reactive to self antigens resulting in manifestations like glomerulonephritis and arthritis. The immune system also affects the central nervous system (known as CNS-SLE) leading to neuropsychiatric manifestations such as depression, cognitive impairment, psychosis and seizures. A subset of pathogenic brain-reactive autoantibodies (BRAA) is hypothesized to bind to integral membrane brain proteins, affecting their function, leading to CNS-SLE. I have tested this BRAA hypothesis, using our lupus-mouse model the MRL/lpr mice, and have found it to be a reasonable explanation for some of the manifestations of CNS-SLE. Even when the MRL/lpr had a reduced autoimmune phenotype, their low BRAA sera levels correlated with CNS involvement. The correlation existed between BRAA levels to integral membrane protein and depressive-like behavior. These results were the first to show a correlation between behavioral changes and BRAA levels from brain membrane antigen as oppose to cultured neuronal cells. More accurate means of predicting and diagnosing lupus and CNS-SLE is necessary. Using microarray technology I was able to determine peptide sets that could be predictive and diagnostic of lupus and each specific CNS manifestation. To knowledge no test currently exists that can effectively diagnose lupus and distinguish between each CNS manifestations. Using the peptide sets, I was able to determine possible natural protein biomarkers for each set as well as for five monoclonal BRAA from one MRL/lpr. These biomarkers can provide specific targets for therapy depending on the manifestation. It was necessary to investigate how these BRAA enter the brain. I hypothesized that substance P plays a role in altering the blood-brain barrier (BBB) allowing these BRAA to enter and affect brain function, when bound to its neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Western blotting results revealed an increase in the levels of NK-1R in the brain of the MRL/lpr compared to the MRL/mp. These MRL/lpr with increased levels of both NK-1R and BRAA displayed CNS dysfunction. Together, these results demonstrate that NK-1R may play a role in CNS manifestations. Overall, the research conducted here, add to the role that BRAA are playing in CNS-lupus.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011