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The Emotional Responses of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizure Patients During Four Relived Emotion Tasks

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Abstract Individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) experience seizure-like behaviors, but without the physiological aspect of a typical epileptic seizure. PNES patients are hypothesized to have seizures to cope with past trauma or current adverse life events. Also, avoidance of

Abstract Individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) experience seizure-like behaviors, but without the physiological aspect of a typical epileptic seizure. PNES patients are hypothesized to have seizures to cope with past trauma or current adverse life events. Also, avoidance of emotion may be implicated in the development and maintenance of this disorder, specifically with regard to emotional suppression. The current study examined different facets of PNES patients' emotional responses (self-report, physiological reactivity, and facial expressivity) using a relived emotion task. During this task, participants recalled specific memories related to four target emotions: neutral, angry, shame, and happy in a counterbalanced order for each participant. There was a total of 61 participants involved in the study: 11 PNES patients and two trauma-exposed comparison groups with either high (25) or low (25) levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Patients were hypothesized to have greater physiological reactivity and self-reported intensity, but less overall emotional expressivity, than comparison groups. We explored these hypotheses based on descriptive analyses, or an examination of group means. Contrary to our first hypothesis, PNES patients showed smaller decreases in physiological reactivity, compared to controls during all conditions. Furthermore, PNES patients showed less expressiveness than comparison groups during the happiness condition, but greater expressiveness during the neutral and negative emotion conditions. Lastly, our third hypothesis was supported, as PNES patients reported greater emotional intensity than comparison groups to the neutral, shame, and happiness conditions. However, because of the small sample size of PNES patients, the results should be interpreted with caution. This research may have implications for therapeutic settings because clinicians will better understand the emotional experiences and behaviors of PNES patients during treatment.

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2018-05

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Effects of Social Technology Multitasking and Task-switching on Student Learning: A Literature Review

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With social technology on the rise, it is no surprise that young students are at the forefront of its use and impact, particularly in the realm of education. Due to greater accessibility to technology, media multitasking and task-switching are becoming

With social technology on the rise, it is no surprise that young students are at the forefront of its use and impact, particularly in the realm of education. Due to greater accessibility to technology, media multitasking and task-switching are becoming increasingly prominent in learning environments. While technology can have numerous benefits, current literature, though somewhat limited in this scope, overwhelmingly shows it can also be detrimental for academic performance and learning when used improperly. While much of the existing literature regarding the impact of technology on multitasking and task-switching in learning environments is limited to self-report data, it presents important findings and potential applications for modernizing educational institutions in the wake of technological dependence. This literature review summarizes and analyzes the studies in this area to date in an effort to provide a better understanding of the impact of social technology on student learning. Future areas of research and potential strategies to adapt to rising technological dependency are also discussed, such as using a brief "technology break" between periods of study. As of yet, the majority of findings in this research area suggest the following: multitasking while studying lengthens the time required for completion; multitasking during lectures can affect memory encoding and comprehension; excessive multitasking and academic performance are negatively correlated; metacognitive strategies for studying have potential for reducing the harmful effects of multitasking; and the most likely reason students engage in media-multitasking at the cost of learning is the immediate emotional gratification. Further research is still needed to fill in gaps in literature, as well as develop other potential perspectives relevant to multitasking in academic environments.

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2016-12