Matching Items (17)

REFLEX: Relative Executive Function Level Examination

Description

The goal of this thesis project was to develop a digital, quantitative assessment of executive functioning skills and problem solving abilities. This assessment was intended to serve as a relative

The goal of this thesis project was to develop a digital, quantitative assessment of executive functioning skills and problem solving abilities. This assessment was intended to serve as a relative measure of executive functions and problem solving abilities rather than a diagnosis; the main purpose was to identify areas for improvement and provide individuals with an understanding of their current ability levels. To achieve this goal, we developed a web-based assessment through Unity that used gamelike modifications of Flanker, Antisaccade, Embedded Images, Raven’s Matrices, and Color / Order Memory tasks. Participants were invited to access the assessment at www.ExecutiveFunctionLevel.com to complete the assessment and their results were analyzed. The findings of this project indicate that these tasks accurately represent executive functioning skills, the Flanker Effect is present in the collected data, and there is a notable correlation between each of the REFLEX challenges. In conclusion, we successfully developed a short, gamelike, online assessment of executive functioning and problem solving abilities. Future developments of REFLEX could look into immediate scoring, developing a mobile application, and externally validating the results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

REFLEX: Relative Executive Function Level Examination

Description

The goal of this thesis project was to develop a digital, quantitative assessment of executive functioning skills and problem solving abilities. This assessment was intended to serve as a relative

The goal of this thesis project was to develop a digital, quantitative assessment of executive functioning skills and problem solving abilities. This assessment was intended to serve as a relative measure of executive functions and problem solving abilities rather than a diagnosis; the main purpose was to identify areas for improvement and provide individuals with an understanding of their current ability levels. To achieve this goal, we developed a web-based assessment through Unity that used gamelike modifications of Flanker, Antisaccade, Embedded Images, Raven’s Matrices, and Color / Order Memory tasks. Participants were invited to access the assessment at www.ExecutiveFunctionLevel.com to complete the assessment and their results were analyzed. The findings of this project indicate that these tasks accurately represent executive functioning skills, the Flanker Effect is present in the collected data, and there is a notable correlation between each of the REFLEX challenges. In conclusion, we successfully developed a short, gamelike, online assessment of executive functioning and problem solving abilities. Future developments of REFLEX could look into immediate scoring, developing a mobile application, and externally validating the results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Problem-Solving with Algebra I Students: The Effects on Accuracy, Attitude, and Fluency

Description

Current research on problem based tasks in the mathematics classroom and the effects are examined. As well educators are provided with an analysis regarding the importance of teaching students to

Current research on problem based tasks in the mathematics classroom and the effects are examined. As well educators are provided with an analysis regarding the importance of teaching students to problem solve through the use of novel problems, as well as equip them with the know-how to implement a problem-based unit in their classrooms. A sample unit plan and fifteen novel problems and their solutions appropriate for Algebra I students are also provided. Keywords: problem-solving, attitude, algebra

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Pay to Play: Metacognitive Judgements, & Motivation in Multiply-Constrained Problem Solving

Description

Problem solving is a crucial skill needed to accomplish everyday tasks and overcome potential obstacles. One way to measure individual differences in problem solving ability is through performance differences on

Problem solving is a crucial skill needed to accomplish everyday tasks and overcome potential obstacles. One way to measure individual differences in problem solving ability is through performance differences on multiply-constrained problem solving tasks. Multiple cognitive processes are involved in multiply-constrained problem solving. An individual uses prospective metacognitive monitoring judgments to gauge future allocation of resources before engaging in the necessary semantic search. Problem solvers also vary in their semantic search strategies, and use either an active analytical strategy or a passive insight strategy to arrive at asolution. Prospective metacognitive monitoring judgments and solution strategies are two aspects of the problem solving process that occur at specific points in the process while motivation influences problem solving throughout the process. The goal of this study is to examine prospective metacognitive judgments, problem solving accuracy, solution strategy, and motivation in multiply-constrained problem solving. Motivation was manipulated using a performance based monetary incentive. Participants self reported prospective Feeling-of-Knowing judgments after brief exposure to the problem, and solution strategy ratings after each problem. No significant differences were found to support the effect of motivation on problem solving accuracy, prospective metacognitive judgments, relative accuracy, or solution strategies. Significant differences were found between groups when comparing the number of problems skipped, indicating that participants were sensitive to the incentive structure. The findings suggest that motivation may not be an overarching mediator in multiply-constrained problem solving or problem solving may require a specific type of incentive structure to increase accuracy. However, little is known in the research literature about the type of incentive structure needed to consistently increase individual motivation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Problem map: a framework for investigating the role of problem formulation in creative design

Description

Design problem formulation is believed to influence creativity, yet it has received only modest attention in the research community. Past studies of problem formulation are scarce and often have small

Design problem formulation is believed to influence creativity, yet it has received only modest attention in the research community. Past studies of problem formulation are scarce and often have small sample sizes. The main objective of this research is to understand how problem formulation affects creative outcome. Three research areas are investigated: development of a model which facilitates capturing the differences among designers' problem formulation; representation and implication of those differences; the relation between problem formulation and creativity.

This dissertation proposes the Problem Map (P-maps) ontological framework. P-maps represent designers' problem formulation in terms of six groups of entities (requirement, use scenario, function, artifact, behavior, and issue). Entities have hierarchies within each group and links among groups. Variables extracted from P-maps characterize problem formulation.

Three experiments were conducted. The first experiment was to study the similarities and differences between novice and expert designers. Results show that experts use more abstraction than novices do and novices are more likely to add entities in a specific order. Experts also discover more issues.

The second experiment was to see how problem formulation relates to creativity. Ideation metrics were used to characterize creative outcome. Results include but are not limited to a positive correlation between adding more issues in an unorganized way with quantity and variety, more use scenarios and functions with novelty, more behaviors and conflicts identified with quality, and depth-first exploration with all ideation metrics. Fewer hierarchies in use scenarios lower novelty and fewer links to requirements and issues lower quality of ideas.

The third experiment was to see if problem formulation can predict creative outcome. Models based on one problem were used to predict the creativity of another. Predicted scores were compared to assessments of independent judges. Quality and novelty are predicted more accurately than variety, and quantity. Backward elimination improves model fit, though reduces prediction accuracy.

P-maps provide a theoretical framework for formalizing, tracing, and quantifying conceptual design strategies. Other potential applications are developing a test of problem formulation skill, tracking students' learning of formulation skills in a course, and reproducing other researchers’ observations about designer thinking.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Mathematics in a second grade classroom: the effects of cognitively guided problem solving

Description

The need for improved mathematics education in many of America's schools that serve students from low income households has been extensively documented. This practical action research study, set in a

The need for improved mathematics education in many of America's schools that serve students from low income households has been extensively documented. This practical action research study, set in a suburban Title I school with a primarily Hispanic, non-native English speaking population, is designed to explore the effects of the progression through a set of problem solving solution strategies on the mathematics problem solving abilities of 2nd grade students. Students worked in class with partners to complete a Cognitively Guided Instruction-style (CGI) mathematics word problem using a dictated solution strategy five days a week for twelve weeks, three or four weeks for each of four solution strategies. The phases included acting out the problem using realia, representing the problem using standard mathematics manipulatives, modeling the problem using a schematic representation, and solving the problem using a number sentence. Data were collected using a five question problem solving pre- and post-assessment, video recorded observations, and Daily Answer Recording Slips or Mathematics Problem Solving Journals. Findings showed that this problem solving innovation was effective in increasing the problem solving abilities of all participants in this study, with an average increase of 63% in the number of pre-assessment to post-assessment questions answered correctly. Additionally, students increased the complexity of solutions used to solve problems and decreased the rate of guessing at answers to word problems. Further rounds of research looking into the direct effects of the MKO are suggested as next steps of research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Behavioral Pattern Mining and Modeling in Programming Problem Solving

Description

Online learning platforms such as massive online open courses (MOOCs) and

intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have made learning more accessible and personalized. These systems generate unprecedented amounts of behavioral data and

Online learning platforms such as massive online open courses (MOOCs) and

intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have made learning more accessible and personalized. These systems generate unprecedented amounts of behavioral data and open the way for predicting students’ future performance based on their behavior, and for assessing their strengths and weaknesses in learning.

This thesis attempts to mine students’ working patterns using a programming problem solving system, and build predictive models to estimate students’ learning. QuizIT, a programming solving system, was used to collect students’ problem-solving activities from a lower-division computer science programming course in 2016 Fall semester. Differential mining techniques were used to extract frequent patterns based on each activity provided details about question’s correctness, complexity, topic, and time to represent students’ behavior. These patterns were further used to build classifiers to predict students’ performances.

Seven main learning behaviors were discovered based on these patterns, which provided insight into students’ metacognitive skills and thought processes. Besides predicting students’ performance group, the classification models also helped in finding important behaviors which were crucial in determining a student’s positive or negative performance throughout the semester.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Engineering-based problem solving strategies In AP calculus: an investigation into high school student performance on related rate free-response problems

Description

A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance

A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple post-assessment model with three periods of data collection. Four high school calculus classes were selected for the study, with one class designated as the treatment and three as the controls. Measures for this study include a skills assessment, Related Rate word problem assessments, and a motivation problem solving survey. Data analysis utilized a mixed methods approach. Quantitative analysis consisted of descriptive and inferential methods utilizing nonparametric statistics for performance comparisons and structural equation modeling to determine the underlying structure of the problem solving motivation survey. Statistical results indicate that time on task was a major factor in enhanced performance between measurement time points 1 and 2. In the experimental classroom, the engineering design process as a problem solving strategy emerged as an important factor in demonstrating sustained achievement across the measurement time series when solving volumetric rates of change as compared to traditional problem solving strategies. In the control classrooms, where traditional problem solving strategies were emphasized, a greater percentage of students than in the experimental classroom demonstrated enhanced achievement from point 1 to 2, but showed decrease in achievement from point 2 to 3 in the measurement time series. Results from the problem solving motivation survey demonstrated that neither time on task nor instruction strategy produced any effect on student beliefs about and perceptions of problem solving. Qualitative error analysis showed that type of instruction had little effect on the type and number of errors committed, with the exception of procedural errors from performing a derivative and errors decoding the problem statement. Results demonstrated that students who engaged in the engineering design-based committed a larger number of decoding errors specific to Pythagorean type Related Rate problems; while students who engaged in routine problem solving did not sustain their ability to correctly differentiate a volume equation over time. As a whole, students committed a larger number of misused data errors than other types of errors. Where, misused data errors are the discrepancy between the data as given in a problem and how the student used the data in problem solving.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The principal network: a model of peer collaboration around critical case studies of practice

Description

This action research study explored what would happen if a principal network was created to provide time for collaboration about critical case studies of practice. The participants in this

This action research study explored what would happen if a principal network was created to provide time for collaboration about critical case studies of practice. The participants in this study were novice and experienced principals in an elementary school district in Arizona. Based on the underpinnings of the Wallace Foundation principal support programs, the study was designed to combat the limited professional development offerings for in-service principals. Modeling the use of cases from the legal and medical professions, this study utilized case studies as the base for peer collaboration to extend the principals' critical thinking skills of relevance, breadth, and depth.

The study design aligned with adult learning theory and focused on authentic problem solving. Participants read case studies, completed individual case analysis, collaborated, and wrote reflections. The cases were intentionally selected to match current problems of practice for the participants. This mixed methods study followed a sequential analysis process beginning with qualitative analysis using a grounded theory approach and moving to quantitative analysis.

The results of this study indicated that the participants' ability to think critically about the problem (relevance) and its complexity (breadth and depth) increased over time. The data also showed that the principals gained an increased awareness and appreciation for multiple perspectives. Lastly, the participants valued the time to collaborate together, gain insight from one another and reduce feelings of isolation in their role as administrators. Future research should continue to explore the use of critical case studies of practice as a in participatory action research with in-service principals.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The cognitive underpinnings of multiply-constrained problem solving

Description

In the daily life of an individual problems of varying difficulty are encountered.

Each problem may include a different number of constraints placed upon the problem

solver. One type of problem commonly

In the daily life of an individual problems of varying difficulty are encountered.

Each problem may include a different number of constraints placed upon the problem

solver. One type of problem commonly used in research are multiply-constrained

problems, such as the compound remote associates. Since their development they have

been related to creativity and insight. Moreover, research has been conducted to

determine the cognitive abilities underlying problem solving abilities. We sought to fully

evaluate the range of cognitive abilities (i.e., working memory, episodic and semantic

memory, and fluid and crystallized intelligence) linked to multiply-constrained problem

solving. Additionally, we sought to determine whether problem solving ability and

strategies (analytical or insightful) were task specific or domain general through the use

of novel problem solving tasks (TriBond and Location Bond). Results indicated that

multiply-constrained problem solving abilities were domain general, solutions derived

through insightful strategies were more often correct than analytical, and crystallized

intelligence was the only cognitive ability that provided unique predictive value.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019