Matching Items (13)

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Protein-mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

Description

Gold nanoparticles are valuable for their distinct properties and nanotechnology applications. Because their properties are controlled in part by nanoparticle size, manipulation of synthesis method is vital, since the chosen

Gold nanoparticles are valuable for their distinct properties and nanotechnology applications. Because their properties are controlled in part by nanoparticle size, manipulation of synthesis method is vital, since the chosen synthesis method has a significant effect on nanoparticle size. By aiding mediating synthesis with proteins, unique nanoparticle structures can form, which open new possibilities for potential applications. Furthermore, protein-mediated synthesis favors conditions that are more environmentally and biologically friendly than traditional synthesis methods. Thus far, gold particles have been synthesized through mediation with jack bean urease (JBU) and para mercaptobenzoic acid (p-MBA). Nanoparticles synthesized with JBU were 80-90nm diameter in size, while those mediated by p-MBA were revealed by TEM to have a size between 1-3 nm, which was consistent with the expectation based on the black-red color of solution. Future trials will feature replacement of p-MBA by amino acids of similar structure, followed by peptides containing similarly structured amino acids.

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  • 2018-05

Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Catalysts with Applications in Solar Fuels

Description

Metalloporphyrins serve important roles in biological processes and in emerging technologies with applications to energy conversion. When electrochemically activated in solution, metalloporphyrins have the ability to catalyze the conversion of

Metalloporphyrins serve important roles in biological processes and in emerging technologies with applications to energy conversion. When electrochemically activated in solution, metalloporphyrins have the ability to catalyze the conversion of protons into hydrogen fuels. In this report, the synthesis and characterization of zinc, nickel, cobalt and copper analogs of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PF20) and 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-tolyporphyrin (TTP) are described. All target compounds are characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The freebase porphyrins and non-paramagnetic metalloporphyrins are further characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and all proton resonances are assigned. Electrochemical measurements show the reduction potential of the fluorinated phenyl substituted porphyrins is shifted to less negative values as compared to the reduction potential measured using non-fluorinated analogs. These results illustrate the ability to use fluorine as a synthetic tool for altering the electronic properties of metalloporphyrins. Further, these findings serve a critical role in choosing metalloporphyrin electrocatalysts with the appropriate energetic and optical properties for integration to semiconductors with applications to solar-to- fuels technologies.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS UTILIZING AN EXTENDED VINYLOGOUS AMIDINE SYSTEM

Description

Continuing work has been done on a novel class of anti-cancer drugs employing a vinylogous extended amidine system functionalized into benzimidazole ring. Three new derivatives, utilizing a true sugar mimic

Continuing work has been done on a novel class of anti-cancer drugs employing a vinylogous extended amidine system functionalized into benzimidazole ring. Three new derivatives, utilizing a true sugar mimic at the N1-position, have been synthesized. Compounds 6-amino-1-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl-4-imino-2,5-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole- 7-one (5), 6-amino-1-[2-(2-hydroxysulfonoethoxy)ethyl-4-imino-2,5-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (6), and 6-amino-1-[2-(2-hydroxysulfonoethoxy)ethyl-4-methylimino-2,5-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole-7-one (7) have been synthesized utilizing similar protocols used in the synthesis of previously screened anti-tumor drugs produced by this laboratory. Compounds (5) and (6) have undergone screening similar to the National Cancer Institute’s (NCIs) Developmental Therapeutic Program (DTP), performed by Dr. Dan LaBarbera at the University of Boston. Both compounds show high cytotoxicity, with complete cell death at 5 µM and bioactive concentrations in the low nanomolar concentrations; more complete data is forthcoming. The proposed mechanism of action is through inhibition of p90RSK 1-2 which is responsible for the phosphorylation of Bcl-2 associated death promoter (BAD), a key metabolite in directing the onset of apoptosis. Future directions of next generation derivatives include modifying the 2-position of the benzimidazole ring into a halogenating or alkylating agent and possibly replacing the methanesulfonate with a phosphate group. This research is being published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

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  • 2014-05

LeapMax: Gestural Interaction System

Description

The LeapMax Gestural Interaction System is a project which utilizes the Leap Motion controller and visual programming language Max to extract complex and accurate skeletal hand tracking data from a

The LeapMax Gestural Interaction System is a project which utilizes the Leap Motion controller and visual programming language Max to extract complex and accurate skeletal hand tracking data from a performer in a global 3-D context. The goal of this project was to develop a simple and efficient architecture for designing dynamic and compelling digital gestural interfaces. At the core of this work is a Max external object which uses a custom API to extract data from the Leap Motion service and retrieve it in Max. From this data, a library of Max objects for determining more complex gesture and posture information was generated and refined. These objects can be are highly flexible and modular and can be used to create complex control schemes for a variety of systems. To demonstrate the use of this system in a performance context, an experimental musical instrument was designed in which the Leap is combined with an absolute orientation sensor and mounted on the head of a performer. This setup leverages the head mounted Leap Motion paradigm used in VR systems to construct an interactive sonic environment within the context of the user's environment. The user's gestures are mapped to the controls of a synthesis engine which utilizes several forms of synthesis including granular synthesis, frequency modulation, and delay modulation.

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  • 2018-12

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Techniques for soundscape retrieval and synthesis

Description

The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the

The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the soundscape: the acoustic environment as perceived by a listener. This dissertation examines the application of several computational tools in the realms of digital signal processing, multimedia information retrieval, and computer music synthesis to the analysis of the soundscape. Namely, these tools include a) an open source software library, Sirens, which can be used for the segmentation of long environmental field recordings into individual sonic events and compare these events in terms of acoustic content, b) a graph-based retrieval system that can use these measures of acoustic similarity and measures of semantic similarity using the lexical database WordNet to perform both text-based retrieval and automatic annotation of environmental sounds, and c) new techniques for the dynamic, realtime parametric morphing of multiple field recordings, informed by the geographic paths along which they were recorded.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Synthesis and application of porphyrin, phthalocyanine and perylene chromophores for solar energy conversion

Description

Photosynthesis, one of the most important processes in nature, has provided an energy basis for nearly all life on Earth, as well as the fossil fuels we use today to

Photosynthesis, one of the most important processes in nature, has provided an energy basis for nearly all life on Earth, as well as the fossil fuels we use today to power modern society. This research aims to mimic the photosynthetic process of converting incident solar energy into chemical potential energy in the form of a fuel via systems capable of carrying out photo-induced electron transfer to drive the production of hydrogen from water. Herein is detailed progress in using photo-induced stepwise electron transfer to drive the oxidation of water and reduction of protons to hydrogen. In the design, use of more blue absorbing porphyrin dyes to generate high-potential intermediates for oxidizing water and more red absorbing phthalocyanine dyes for forming the low potential charge needed for the production of hydrogen have been utilized. For investigating water oxidation at the photoanode, high potential porphyrins such as, bis-pyridyl porphyrins and pentafluorophenyl porphyrins have been synthesized and experiments have aimed at the co-immobilization of this dye with an IrO2-nH2O catalyst on TiO2. To drive the cathodic reaction of the water splitting photoelectrochemical cell, utilization of silicon octabutoxy-phthalocyanines have been explored, as they offer good absorption in the red to near infrared, coupled with low potential photo-excited states. Axially and peripherally substituted phthalocyanines bearing carboxylic anchoring groups for the immobilization on semiconductors such as TiO2 has been investigated. Ultimately, this work should culminate in a photoelectrochemical cell capable of splitting water to oxygen and hydrogen with the only energy input from light. A series of perylene dyes bearing multiple semi-conducting metal oxide anchoring groups have been synthesized and studied. Results have shown interfacial electron transfer between these perylenes and TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated within reverse micelles and naked nanoparticles. The binding process was followed by monitoring the hypsochromic shift of the dye absorption spectra over time. Photoinduced electron transfer from the singlet excited state of the perylenes to the TiO2 conduction band is indicated by emission quenching of the TiO2-bound form of the dyes and confirmed by transient absorption measurements of the radical cation of the dyes and free carriers (injected electrons) in the TiO2.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Synthesis and properties of Sn-based group IV alloys

Description

Sn-based group IV materials such as Ge1-xSnx and Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys have great potential for developing Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible devices on Si because of their tunable band structure

Sn-based group IV materials such as Ge1-xSnx and Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys have great potential for developing Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible devices on Si because of their tunable band structure and lattice constants by controlling Si and/or Sn contents. Growth of Ge1-xSnx binaries through Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) started in the early 1980s, producing Ge1-xSnx epilayers with Sn concentrations varying from 0 to 100%. A Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) method was developed in the early 2000s for growing Ge1-xSnx alloys of device quality, by utilizing various chemical precursors. This method dominated the growth of Ge1-xSnx alloys rapidly because of the great crystal quality of Ge1-xSnx achieved. As the first practical ternary alloy completely based on group IV elements, Ge1-x-ySixSny decouples bandgap and lattice constant, becoming a prospective CMOS compatible alloy. At the same time, Ge1-x-ySixSny ternary system could serve as a thermally robust alternative to Ge1-ySny binaries given that it becomes a direct semiconductor at a Sn concentration of 6%-10%. Ge1-x-ySixSny growths by CVD is summarized in this thesis. With the Si/Sn ratio kept at ~3.7, the ternary alloy system is lattice matched to Ge, resulting a tunable direct bandgap of 0.8-1.2 eV. With Sn content higher than Si content, the ternary alloy system could have an indirect-to-direct transition, as observed for Ge1-xSnx binaries. This thesis summarizes the development of Ge1-xSnx and Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys through MBE and CVD in recent decades and introduces an innovative direct injection method for synthesizing Ge1-x-ySixSny ternary alloys with Sn contents varying from 5% to 12% and Si contents kept at 1%-2%. Grown directly on Si (100) substrates in a Gas-phase Molecular Epitaxy (GSME) reactor, both intrinsic and n-type doped Ge1-x-ySixSny with P with thicknesses of 250-760 nm have been achieved by deploying gas precursors Ge4H10, Si4H10, SnD4 and P(SiH3)3 at the unprecedented low growth temperatures of 190-220 °C. Compressive strain is reduced and crystallinity of the Ge1-x-ySixSny epilayer is improved after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatments. High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HR-XRD), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscope (XTEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) have been combined to characterize the structural properties of the Ge1-x-ySixSny samples, indicating good crystallinity and flat surfaces.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Synthesis and evaluation of multifunctional radical quenchers for the protection of mitochondrial function

Description

Mitochondria produce the majority portion of ATP required in eukaryotic cells. ATP is generated through a process known as oxidative phosphorylation, through an pathway consisting five multi subunit proteins (complex

Mitochondria produce the majority portion of ATP required in eukaryotic cells. ATP is generated through a process known as oxidative phosphorylation, through an pathway consisting five multi subunit proteins (complex I-IV and ATP synthase), embedded inside the mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction increases reactive oxygen species in the cell and causes several serious disorders. Described herein are the synthesis of antioxidant molecules to reduce the effects in an already dysfunctional system. Also described is the study of the mitochondrial electron transport chain to understand the mechanism of action of a library of antioxidants. Illustrated in chapter 1 is the general history of research on mitochondrial dysfunction and reported ways to ameliorate them. Chapter 2 describes the design and synthesis of a series of compounds closely resembling the redox-active quinone core of the natural product geldanamycin. Geldanamycin has been reported to confer cytoprotection to FRDA lymphocytes in a dose dependent manner under conditions of induced oxidative stress. A library of rationally designed derivatives has been synthesized as a part of our pursuit of a better neuroprotective drug. Chapter 3 describes the design and synthesis of a library of pyrimidinol analogues. Compounds of this type have demonstrated the ability to quench reactive oxygen species and sustain mitochondrial membrane potential. Described herein are our efforts to increase their metabolic stability and total ATP production. It is crucial to understand the nature of interaction between a potential drug molecule and the mitochondrial electron transport chain to enable the design and synthesis a better therapeutic candidates. Chapter 4 describes a part of the enzymatic

binding studies between a molecular library synthesized in our laboratory and the mitochondrial electron transport chain using sub mitochondrial particles (SMP).

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Progress towards the synthesis of polyalthenol

Description

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of these natural products is the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Methicillin-resistant Staphylcoccus aureus (MRSA) continues to plague the United States as well as throughout the world, at least in part because of increasing antibiotic resistance. Therefore, scientists continue to scour natural products as potential leads, either directly or indirectly, for antibiotics to treat MRSA. The structure of the indole sesquiterpene, polyalthenol, was discovered in 1976 and recent work shows a 4µg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a variety of strains of MRSA. Given the unique framework of this natural product and its biological activity against MRSA, the total synthesis becomes the next logical step. Presently a racemic synthesis has successfully afforded an indole ketone with the correct relative stereochemistry of polyalthenol, however, the completion of the total synthesis of polyalthenol presents several challenges. Herein, the work towards the synthesis is described in addition to the proposed completion of the synthesis.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Synthesis and Characterization of Amphiphilic molecules for their use in health care industry

Description

Amphipathic molecules consist of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, which make them surface-active molecules. The uniqueness of these compounds results in inducing low surface tension and self-assembly of the molecules inside

Amphipathic molecules consist of hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, which make them surface-active molecules. The uniqueness of these compounds results in inducing low surface tension and self-assembly of the molecules inside a solvent which have been exploited in personal care, the oil industry and agriculture industry. Amphipathic molecules are also used in the healthcare industry as drug delivery systems and other bio-nanotechnology applications.

In this thesis, a novel series of grafted siloxanes have been explored for their probable application in the healthcare industry. The siloxanes are grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and quaternary ammonium salt (QUAT). The effects of varying 1) molar ratios of QUAT to PEG and 2) PEG chain length on contact angle, surface tension, critical micelle concentration (CMC), and micelle assembly properties were studied. In contact angle experiments, the hydrophilicity of grafted siloxanes increased by grafting PEG and QUAT. The amphiphilicity increases and CMC decreases as the PEG chain length shortens. Adding QUAT also reduces CMC. These trends were observed in surface tension and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments. A change in self-assembly behaviour was also observed in Dynamic Light Scattering experiments upon increasing the PEG chain length and its ratio relative to the quaternary ammonium in the siloxane polymer.

These polymers have also been studied for their probable application as a sensitive 1H NMR spectroscopy indicator of tissue oxygenation (pO2) based on spectroscopic spin-lattice relaxometry. The proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels (PISTOL) technique is used to map T1 of siloxane polymer, which is correlated to dynamic changes in tissue pO2 at various locations by a linear relationship between pO2 and 1/T1. The T1-weighted echo spin signals were observed in an initial study of siloxanes using the PISTOL technique.

The change in the ratio of QUAT to PEG and the varying chain length of PEG have a significant effect on the physical property characteristics of siloxane graft copolymers. The conclusions and observations of the present work serve as a benchmark study for further development of adaptive polymers and for the creation of integrated “nanoscale” probes for PISTOL oximetry and drug delivery.

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Date Created
  • 2018