Matching Items (6)

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Human-Wildlife Conflict Management in a Rapidly Changing World

Description

As human populations continue to expand, interactions with wildlife are expected to increase due to destruction of land and global climate change threatening native habitats. Established areas of protection are

As human populations continue to expand, interactions with wildlife are expected to increase due to destruction of land and global climate change threatening native habitats. Established areas of protection are becoming essential to species survival and biodiversity protection. National Parks (NP) are a globally ubiquitous method employed to protect wildlife and habitats. Often NPs are mosaics of relatively small protected areas in a “sea” of human-dominated landscapes, and these remaining habitat “islands” are becoming essential to preventing species extinction. However, the establishment of a NP can lead to increased human-wildlife conflicts (HWC) and disenfranchisement of local communities, particularly along their borders. We conducted semi-structured interviews in six different countries to better understand the nature of HWCs at the borders of major NPs: (1) Khao Yai NP, Thailand; (2) Myall Lakes NP, Australia; (3) Chitwan NP, Nepal; (4) Kruger NP, South Africa; (5) Chingaza NP, Colombia, and (6) Yellowstone NP, United States. We evaluated affinity to wildlife, perception of conflicts, management success, and potential solutions at each park to better understand the global nature of HWCs.We also evaluated these data in relationship to the Human Development Index (HDI) to determine if there was a correlation between development and conflict issues. We found the intrinsic value of wildlife to not markedly differ between countries. Conflict was perceived as higher in the United States and Australia but was known to be of greater intensity in Nepal and South Africa. Management of NPs was well-regarded with a slight decrease from less-developed countries to more-developed countries, with solutions that were creative and unique to each region. Results appeared to be related to shifting baselines between countries and also to equivalency in a cross-cultural assessment. When these theories are taken into account, the complexity of HWCs globally is better understood. As our world continues to expand and NPs become some of the only contiguous native habitat and refuges for wildlife, it is important to understand the complex relationships occurring at the interface between natural and human communities and to explore effective solutions to these problems.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Arizona's mature education market: how school and community stakeholders make meaning of school choice policies

Description

School choice reforms such as charter schools, vouchers, open enrollment, and private and public school tax credit donation programs have expanded throughout the United States over the past twenty years.

School choice reforms such as charter schools, vouchers, open enrollment, and private and public school tax credit donation programs have expanded throughout the United States over the past twenty years. Arizona’s long-standing public school choice system enrolls a higher percentage of public school students in charter schools than any state besides Washington D.C. A growing number of Arizona’s charter schools are managed by for-profit and nonprofit Education Management Organizations (EMOs). Advocates of school choice argue that free-market education approaches will make public schools competitive and nimble as parents’ choices place pressures on schools to improve or close. This, then, improves all schools: public, private, and charter. Critics are concerned that education markets produce segregation along racial and social class lines and inequalities in educational opportunities, because competition favors advantaged parents and children who can access resources. Private and for-profit schools may see it in their interest to exclude students who require more support. School choice programs, then, may further marginalize students who live in poverty, who receive special education services, and English language learners.

We do not fully understand how Arizona’s mature school choice system affects parents and other stakeholders in communities “on the ground.” That is, how are school policies understood and acted out? I used ethnographic methods to document and analyze the social, cultural, and political contexts and perspectives of stakeholders at one district public school and in its surrounding community, including its charter schools. I examined: (a) how stakeholders perceived and engaged with schools; (b) how stakeholders understood school policies, including school choice policies; and (c) what influenced families’ choices.

Findings highlight how most stakeholders supported district public schools. At the same time, some “walked the line” between choices that were good for their individual families and those they believed were good for public schools and society. Stakeholders imagined “community” and “accountability” in a range of ways, and they did not all have equal access to policy knowledge. Pressures related to parental accountability in the education market were apparent as stakeholders struggled to make, and sometimes revisit, their choices, creating a tenuous schooling environment for their families.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Discovering pathways to sustainability: small communities in transition

Description

Driven by concern over environmental, economic and social problems, small, place based communities are engaging in processes of transition to become more sustainable. These communities may be viewed as innovative

Driven by concern over environmental, economic and social problems, small, place based communities are engaging in processes of transition to become more sustainable. These communities may be viewed as innovative front runners of a transition to a more sustainable society in general, each one, an experiment in social transformation. These experiments present learning opportunities to build robust theories of community transition and to create specific, actionable knowledge to improve, replicate, and accelerate transitions in real communities. Yet to date, there is very little empirical research into the community transition phenomenon. This thesis empirically develops an analytical framework and method for the purpose of researching community transition processes, the ultimate goal of which is to arrive at a practice of evidence based transitions. A multiple case study approach was used to investigate three community transitions while simultaneously developing the framework and method in an iterative fashion. The case studies selected were Ashton Hayes, a small English village, BedZED, an urban housing complex in London, and Forres, a small Scottish town. Each community was visited and data collected by interview and document analysis. The research design brings together elements of process tracing, transformative planning and governance, sustainability assessment, transition path analysis and transition management within a multiple case study envelope. While some preliminary insights are gained into community transitions based on the three cases the main contribution of this thesis is in the creation of the research framework and method. The general framework and method developed has potential for standardizing and synthesizing research of community transition processes leading to both theoretical and practical knowledge that allows sustainability transition to be approached with confidence and not just hope.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Protecting those most vulnerable: building beloved families and communities to end violence against Native women, girls and Mother Earth

Description

Tewa Women United (TWU) is a Native women-founded, centered and run organization located in northern New Mexico, in the original boundaries of the Tewa homelands. TWU is the only independent

Tewa Women United (TWU) is a Native women-founded, centered and run organization located in northern New Mexico, in the original boundaries of the Tewa homelands. TWU is the only independent Native women’s non-profit organization providing direct services, advocacy and prevention services in the Pojoaque-Española Valley area within Northern Santa Fe and Rio Arriba Counties. TWU believes in building beloved families and communities to end all forms of violence against women, girls and Mother Earth and have been working for the past 25 years toward fulfillment of this vision. This dissertation, including a journal article, book chapter, and policy red paper, looks at what happens when Pueblo/ Tewa women become active agents in resistance to the Colonial-White Supremacist Capitalist Scientist Patriarchy. In these distinct dissertation pieces, I examine how TWU has developed a theory of Opide (pronounced Oh-Peh-dee) and Research Methodology to design and implement culturally responsive programs and projects which support ending violence against Pueblo/ Tewa women, girls and Mother Earth. In this instance looking at a campaign and project that Tewa Women United has developed: The Protect Those Most Vulnerable Campaign under the Environmental Justice and Health Program and A’gin Healthy Sexuality and Body Sovereignty project under the Women’s Leadership and Economic Freedom Program. Opide means braiding and weaving together, it is a theory of practice to action.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The impact of refugee resettlement in the Phoenix metropolitan area: groundwork for assessment

Description

The United States resettles more refugees each year than any country, yet little is known about the influence that the Refugee Resettlement Program has on our communities. Program evaluation in

The United States resettles more refugees each year than any country, yet little is known about the influence that the Refugee Resettlement Program has on our communities. Program evaluation in the United States is primarily concerned with outcomes and efficiency; while there has been an absence of collecting data to measure the impact that social programs have on communities. This study explores the impact of refugee resettlement on a metropolitan area by surveying professionals with experience working or volunteering with refugee populations. These professionals rate the extent to which they believe refugee resettlement influences social, economic, and environmental variables in the community, and explain the nature of the influence they believe the program has on the community. The data collected from these surveys will introduce the perceived impact of refugee resettlement from the perspective of those with professional experience in the area. By exploring the effects that the Refugee Resettlement Program has on Phoenix, this data can assist in the creation of community assessments for refugee resettlement and comparable social programs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Toward small community discovery in social networks

Description

A community in a social network can be viewed as a structure formed by individuals who share similar interests. Not all communities are explicit; some may be hidden in a

A community in a social network can be viewed as a structure formed by individuals who share similar interests. Not all communities are explicit; some may be hidden in a large network. Therefore, discovering these hidden communities becomes an interesting problem. Researchers from a number of fields have developed algorithms to tackle this problem.

Besides the common feature above, communities within a social network have two unique characteristics: communities are mostly small and overlapping. Unfortunately, many traditional algorithms have difficulty recognizing these small communities (often called the resolution limit problem) as well as overlapping communities.

In this work, two enhanced community detection techniques are proposed for re-working existing community detection algorithms to find small communities in social networks. One method is to modify the modularity measure within the framework of the traditional Newman-Girvan algorithm so that more small communities can be detected. The second method is to incorporate a preprocessing step into existing algorithms by changing edge weights inside communities. Both methods help improve community detection performance while maintaining or improving computational efficiency.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015