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This body of research sought to explore relationships between cognitive function and physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep, independently and in conjunction, in mid-life to older adults with no known cognitive impairment. Aging is associated with cognitive decline, and lifestyle behaviors such as PA, SB, and sleep, may mitigate this decline. First, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effect of aerobic PA interventions on memory and executive function in sedentary adults. Second, a longitudinal study was conducted to examine the association between SB and odds of incident cognitive impairment, and SB and cognitive decline in older adults. Last, a cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the joint associations between different levels of sleep with levels of PA, and sleep with levels of sedentary time on memory and executive function. This body of research provided evidence to support the association between aerobic PA and improved cognitive function, SB and incident cognitive impairment and cognitive function declines, and the joint association of sleep and different levels of PA and ST on cognitive function by hypertension status.