Matching Items (7)

148469-Thumbnail Image.png

The Associations of Positive and Negative Parenting with Executive Functioning Outcomes During Middle Childhood: Moderation by Early Life Socioeconomic Status

Description

Executive functioning (EF) is the cognitive processing of goal-oriented actions that are predictive of important life functioning skills. Middle childhood is an important time for academic achievement and social development.

Executive functioning (EF) is the cognitive processing of goal-oriented actions that are predictive of important life functioning skills. Middle childhood is an important time for academic achievement and social development. Positive and negative parenting practices were examined in the prediction of several child executive functioning outcomes in middle childhood, this thesis further examined whether early life socioeconomic status moderated such associations. This sample consisted of 708 twins (32% monozygotic, 36% same-sex dizygotic, and 32% opposite-sex dizygotic) with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds at two age points, 12 months old (M = 12.5 months, SD = 1.06) and 8 years old (M = 8.41, SD = .40).There was a significant negative main effect between negative parenting and CPT. Further, positive parenting interacted with SES to predict CPT and Digit Span Forward. A significant positive effect was identified between positive parenting and CPT in low SES families, but not high SES families. Interestingly, greater positive parenting was associated with lower Digit Span Forward in high SES families, but not low SES families. These findings suggest that while negative parenting was associated with worse EF across the entire sample, the relationship between positive parenting practices and executive functioning outcomes differed based on early life socioeconomic status. Future research should examine whether various domains of executive functioning may follow different developmental patterns.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

131964-Thumbnail Image.png

Executive Functioning as a Mediator of Authoritarian Parenting and Child Externalized Behavior Problems

Description

The first step in providing adequate prevention of children’s behavior problems is identifying possible predictors. There is an established relation between parenting style and behaviors and children’s future outcomes, including

The first step in providing adequate prevention of children’s behavior problems is identifying possible predictors. There is an established relation between parenting style and behaviors and children’s future outcomes, including risk of externalizing behavior problems, but the mechanisms that may explain this relation are unclear. The current study investigated whether child executive functioning plays a mediating role between parenting style and externalizing behavior problems. I hypothesized that parenting style, specifically harsh authoritarian parenting, would predict a decrease in child executive performance, then leading to increased child behavior problems. Additionally, sex differences within this model were examined. Parenting styles and child externalizing behavior problems were measured through mother’s self-report within a sample of 322 low-income, Mexican-American mother child dyads in the Phoenix metropolitan area. A mediation model was performed, including relevant covariates, to test for significance of the mediated pathway. The results of the current study indicated that authoritarian parenting style significantly predicted greater externalizing behavior problems in the sample, but only for girls. Interestingly, it was also found that the addition of biological siblings predicted less behavior problems, again only for girls. These results promote understanding of the influences on behavior problems in children that can escalate to delinquency and criminal behavior. This information is critical for the development and improvement of strategic interventions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

157759-Thumbnail Image.png

Social Skills and Executive Functioning in Children with PCDH-19

Description

Social skill impairments and executive dysfunctions caused by epilepsy adversely affect the social, psychological, and cognitive wellbeing of children and their families.

Studies show that children with epilepsy are exposed

Social skill impairments and executive dysfunctions caused by epilepsy adversely affect the social, psychological, and cognitive wellbeing of children and their families.

Studies show that children with epilepsy are exposed to social, emotional, academic, personality, and behavioral problems when compared to healthy peers. This study focused on identifying the gaps between social skills and executive functioning among children with PCDH-19.

The researcher relied on the responses from the sampled population to create reliable findings, discussions, conclusions, and recommendations for this project. The study used quantitative design and self-report approach whereby the participants completed survey that was comprised of various rating scales. The study sample consisted of 25 participants. Results demonstrated a close correlation between social skills and executive functions among the children with PCDH-19 epilepsy. SSIS assessment indicated that children exhibited problems in social skills, academic competence, and behaviors. BRIEF-2 rating showed planning, attention, problem-solving, cognitive and emotional problems. The findings exhibited that the significant challenges encountered by girls with PCDH-19 include low levels of social competence which affect decision making in friendships, communicating, and interaction.

Keywords: social skills, executive functioning, PCDH-19, epilepsy, seizures, social assessment, cognitive measurement

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

157392-Thumbnail Image.png

Cognition and Hippocampal Volumes in Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

With a growing number of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), more and more research has been conducted on majority male cohorts with ASD from young, adolescence, and some older

With a growing number of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), more and more research has been conducted on majority male cohorts with ASD from young, adolescence, and some older age. Currently, males make up the majority of individuals diagnosed with ASD, however, recent research states that the gender gap is closing due to more advanced screening and a better understanding of how females with ASD present their symptoms. Little research has been published on the neurocognitive differences that exist between older adults with ASD compared to neurotypical (NT) counterparts, and nothing has specifically addressed older women with ASD. This study utilized neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests to examine differences between diagnosis and sex of four distinct groups: older men with ASD, older women with ASD, older NT men, and older NT women. In each group, hippocampal size (via FreeSurfer) was analyzed for differences as well as correlations with neuropsychological tests. Participants (ASD Female, n = 12; NT Female, n = 14; ASD Male, n = 30; NT Male = 22), were similar according to age, IQ, and education. The results of the study indicated that the ASD Group as a whole performed worse on executive functioning tasks (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trails Making Test) and memory-related tasks (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Weschler Memory Scale: Visual Reproduction) compared to the NT Group. Interactions of sex by diagnosis approached significance only within the WCST non-perseverative errors, with the women with ASD performing worse than NT women, but no group differences between men. Effect sizes between the female groups (ASD female vs. NT female) showed more than double that of the male groups (ASD male vs. NT male) for all WCST and AVLT measures. Participants with ASD had significantly smaller right hippocampal volumes than NT participants. In addition, all older women showed larger hippocampal volumes when corrected for total intracranial volume (TIV) compared to all older men. Overall, NT Females had significant correlations across all neuropsychological tests and their hippocampal volumes whereas no other group had significant correlations. These results suggest a tighter coupling between hippocampal size and cognition in NT Females than NT Males and both sexes with ASD. This study promotes further understanding of the neuropsychological differences between older men and women, both with and without ASD. Further research is needed on a larger sample of older women with and without ASD.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

156757-Thumbnail Image.png

The Influence of Bilingual Ability on Pathways to Academic Achievement in Latino Children

Description

Dual language use is thought to afford certain cognitive advantages to bilingual children and may function as an additional resource to help low-income Mexican-American children achieve academically. Emotion regulation and

Dual language use is thought to afford certain cognitive advantages to bilingual children and may function as an additional resource to help low-income Mexican-American children achieve academically. Emotion regulation and executive functioning (e.g., inhibition) have been found to be particularly important in studies investigating pathways to early academic achievement. Understanding how we can capitalize on children’s bilingual abilities to strengthen their executive functioning and emotion regulation, or to offset problems in these domains, may be important to promote better educational outcomes and inform policy. Thus, the current study investigated the relation between emerging bilingualism, inhibition, emotion regulation, and academic achievement across early childhood in sample of 322 low-income, Mexican-American children. Data were collected in a laboratory space at child ages 36-, 54-, and 72-months. Bilingualism was indexed as the interaction of Spanish and English vocabulary, and a mediated moderation model was examined. Results provided further evidence that inhibition positively predicts academic achievement during early childhood. Greater Spanish language vocabulary indirectly predicted academic achievement while controlling for English language vocabulary, suggesting that children from immigrant families may benefit from maintaining their Spanish language abilities as they begin to immerse themselves in an English-speaking classroom. Advancing our understanding of the development of self-regulatory abilities within bilingual, immigrant populations could have significant implications for educational policy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

150946-Thumbnail Image.png

Physical activity and executive functioning in college students

Description

ABSTRACT PHYSCIAL ACTIVITY AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity may increase neurological development, which has been shown to increase cognitive functioning in older adults and those

ABSTRACT PHYSCIAL ACTIVITY AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity may increase neurological development, which has been shown to increase cognitive functioning in older adults and those with dementia. Studies have also shown physical activity and exercise may positively affect executive functioning in children. Little is known about the influence of physical activity on executive functioning in college students between the ages of 18-21 years, a population that is traditionally thought of as healthy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the association between physical activity and executive functioning in college-aged students. We hypothesize that regular physical activity is positively associated with executive functioning scores and that this association is independent of adiposity. METHODS: Twenty males and 29 females (19.5 ± 0.1 yrs. old) participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Executive function was assessed by Stroop Color and Word Association Test (Stroop) and Trail Making Test A & B. A verbal ability test (analogies, synonyms, antonyms) was given in order to control for intelligence. Body composition was determined by a Tanita TBF-300 Body Composition Analyzer. RESULTS: Partial correlations between physical activity/inactivity measures and measures of executive functioning were generally small (r-values ≤ 0.2) and not significant. However, there was a significant inverse correlation between log moderate physical activity minutes per week and Stroop interference scores (r=0.50, p=0.01). Also, a trend towards significance was noted for the correlation between sitting minutes per week and Stroop interference scores (r=0.4 p=0.08) CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in college students, moderate physical activity is inversely associated with executive functioning while sitting time may be positively associated with executive functioning. These findings are in contrast to previous studies in children and older adults, and may indicate a unique relationship between physical activity/inactivity and executive functioning in college students. Future studies to further examine this population in greater depth are warranted.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

156806-Thumbnail Image.png

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Executive Functioning in Middle Childhood: The Role of Early Adversity

Description

This study examined whether early adversity at 30-months moderated the heritability of common and individual components of EF at 8 years. It was hypothesized that early adversity would not moderate

This study examined whether early adversity at 30-months moderated the heritability of common and individual components of EF at 8 years. It was hypothesized that early adversity would not moderate the common EF factor, but instead moderate individual EF components. The sample included 208 twin pairs from the Arizona Twin Project. Early Adversity, assessed at 30 months of age, included Parenting Daily Hassles, low perceived MOS social support, punitive punishment (Parental Responses to Child Misbehavior), home chaos (Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale), CES-D maternal depression, and low maternal emotional availability. EF at 8 years included the Eriksen Flanker Task, Continuous Performance Task, Digit Span Forward and Backward, and parent-reported Attentional Focusing and Inhibitory Control (Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire). For both early adversity and EF, the first principal components were extracted as composites. A confirmatory factor analysis was also conducted to index common EF. Genetic analyses were tested on the common EF composites as well as each individual task using umx. Univariate models revealed genetic influences on all individual measures and common EF, with broad sense heritability from .22 (Digit Span Backwards) to .61 (parent-reported inhibitory control). Shared environmental influences were found for the Flanker Task (.13) and parent-reported inhibitory control (.24), and E was moderate to high (.40-.73) for all measures except parent-report inhibitory control (.15) and attentional focusing (.31). Moderation of heritability was not observed in for Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward, and Attentional Focusing. However, the nonshared environment was moderated for Common EF, and the Flanker Task, and additive genes and the nonshared environment were moderated for the Continuous Performance Task and Inhibitory Control. Generally, total variance decreased as early adversity increased, suggesting that homes with low levels of adversity may allow children to interact with more proximal processes that can promote EF development.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018