Matching Items (55)

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Does Online "Working Out Work" as a Treatment and Prevention for Depression in Older Adults?

Description

RESEARCH QUESTION: Does Online "Working Out Work" as a Treatment and Prevention for Depression in Older Adults? An Analysis of a Prescribed and Monitored Exercise Program Administered via the Internet

RESEARCH QUESTION: Does Online "Working Out Work" as a Treatment and Prevention for Depression in Older Adults? An Analysis of a Prescribed and Monitored Exercise Program Administered via the Internet for Senior Adults with Depression.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate and access the effectiveness of an online prescribed and monitored exercise program for the treatment of depression in Older Adults. The Dependent Variable for the study is Depression. The Independent Variable for the study is the Effects of Exercise administered via the Internet and the population is geriatric adults defined as senior adults aged 50 and older. Depression is defined by Princeton University Scholars (Wordnet, 2006) as a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity.
METHODS: The presence and severity of depression will be assessed by using The Merck Manual of Geriatrics (GDS-15) Geriatric Depression Scale. Assessments will be performed at baseline, before and after the treatment is concluded. The subjects will complete the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) prior to participating in an exercise program three times per week.
LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH: The limitations of this study are: 1) There is a small sample size limited to Senior Adults aged 50 - 80, and 2) there is no control group with structured activity or placebo, therefore researcher is unable to evaluate if the marked improvement was due to a non-specific therapeutic effect associated with taking part in a social activity (group online exercise program). Further research could compare and analyze the positive effects of a muscular strength training exercise program verses a cardiovascular training exercise program.

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Date Created
  • 2011-05-02

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The Effects of Multimedia Learning on Task Performance Among the Aging Population

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As one of the first attempts to research multimedia platforms for older adults when learning an online photo-editing software, this study examined whether an audio only, a text only, or

As one of the first attempts to research multimedia platforms for older adults when learning an online photo-editing software, this study examined whether an audio only, a text only, or a combination of an audio and text tutorial would be the most effective teaching method. Elderly adults aged 65 and older (N-45) were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. They first went through a training phase that utilized their assigned condition to teach five tasks within the photo-editing program, and they were then tested on how well they learned these tasks as well as a transfer task. It was predicted that the multimedia condition would increase learning efficiency, produce more successes in the transfer task, and decrease cognitive load compared to the two unimodal conditions. The multimedia condition (text and audio) had no significant effect on transfer task successes or decreases in cognitive load compared to the unimodal conditions (text only and audio only). The multimedia condition, however, did produce significantly less errors on Tasks 2, 4, and 5 than the unimodal conditions. This suggests that redundancy principles may play an important role when designing learning platforms for elderly users, and that age needs to be considered as an additional factor during the technological design process.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Motor system integrity in older adults with autism spectrum disorder

Description

Background: Gait disturbance, clumsiness, and other mild movement problems are often observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Maurer and Damasio 1982). As the brain ages, these symptoms may

Background: Gait disturbance, clumsiness, and other mild movement problems are often observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Maurer and Damasio 1982). As the brain ages, these symptoms may persist or worsen in late adulthood in those diagnosed with ASD. This study focused on older adults with ASD to study motor behavior and underlying brain integrity. Using a finger tapping task, motor performance was measured in a cross-sectional study comparing older adults with ASD and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls. We hypothesized that older adults with ASD would show poorer motor performance (slower finger tapping speed). We also hypothesized that underlying brain differences, measured using MRI, in regions associated with motor function including the primary motor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, as well as the white matter connecting tracts would exist between groups and be associated with the proposed disparity in motor performance.

Method: A finger oscillation (Finger Tapping) test was administered to both ASD (n=21) and TD (n=20) participants aged 40-70 year old participants as a test of fine motor speed. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were collected using a Philips 3 Tesla scanner. 3D T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images (DTI) were obtained to measure gray and white matter volume and white matter integrity, respectively. FreeSurfer, an automated volumetric measurement software, was used to determine group volumetric differences. Mean, radial, and axial diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and local diffusion homogeneity were measured from DTI images using PANDA software in order to evaluate white matter integrity.

Results: All participants were right-handed and there were no significant differences in demographic variables (ASD/TD, means) including age (51.9/49.1 years), IQ (107/112) and years education (15/16). Total brain volume was not significantly different between groups. No statistically significant group differences were observed in finger tapping speed. ASD participants compared to TDs showed a trend of slower finger tapping (taps/10 seconds) speed on the dominant hand (47.00 (±11.2) vs. (50.5 (±6.6)) and nondominant hand (44.6 (±7.6) vs. (47.2 (±6.6)). However, a large degree of variability was observed in the ASD group, and the Levene’s test for homogeneity of variance approached significance (p=0.053) on the dominant, but not the nondominant, hand. No significant group differences in gray matter regional volume were found for brain regions associated with performing motor tasks. In contrast, group differences were found on several measures of white matter including the corticospinal tract, anterior internal capsule and middle cerebellar peduncle. Brain-behavior correlations showed that dominant finger tapping speed correlated with left hemisphere white matter integrity of the corticospinal tract and right hemisphere cerebellar white matter in the ASD group.

Conclusions: No significant differences were observed between groups in finger tapping speed but the high degree of variability seen in the ASD group. Differences in motor performance appear to be associated with observed brain differences, particularly in the integrity of white matter tracts contributing to motor functioning.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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An Evaluation of the Cognitive Effects of Clinically Used Combination Hormone Therapy

Description

Estradiol (E2) and Levonorgestrel (Levo) are two hormones commonly used in hormone therapy (HT) to decrease symptoms associated with menopause. Both of these hormones have been shown to have beneficial

Estradiol (E2) and Levonorgestrel (Levo) are two hormones commonly used in hormone therapy (HT) to decrease symptoms associated with menopause. Both of these hormones have been shown to have beneficial effects on cognition when given alone in a rodent model of menopause. However, it is unknown whether these hormones, when taken in combination, are beneficial or harmful to cognition. This is a critically important question given that these hormones are most often given in combination versus separately. This thesis is composed of two studies examining the cognitive effects of E2 and Levo using a rat model of surgical menopause. Study 1 assessed how the dose of E2 treatment in rats impacted cognitive performance, and found that low dose E2 enhanced working memory performance. Next, based on the results from Study 1, Study 2 used low dose E2 in combination with different doses of Levo to examine the cognitive effects of several E2 to Levo ratio combinations. The results from Study 2 demonstrated that the combination of low dose E2 with a high dose of Levo at a 1:2 ratio impaired cognition, and that the ratio currently used in HT, 3:1, may also negatively impact cognition. Indeed, there was a dose response effect indicating that working and reference memory performance was incrementally impaired as Levo dose increased. The findings in this thesis suggest that the E2 plus Levo combination is likely not neutral for cognitive function, and prompts further evaluation in menopausal women, as well as drug discovery research to optimize HT using highly controlled preclinical models.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Elderly People and Individuals with Disabilities: An Analysis of the Civil Right to Mobility

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Abstract Older adults and people with disabilities are two unique populations, though they intersect in their need for mobility options that are often not met by traditional transportation services. There

Abstract Older adults and people with disabilities are two unique populations, though they intersect in their need for mobility options that are often not met by traditional transportation services. There is consensus that the government should provide assistance for older adults and people with disabilities to achieve and maintain independence. However, the challenge lies in addressing the many forms of mobility inequity. Population projections for the twenty-first century have sparked interest in the rights of these two populations. As the population of the United States of America ages, supporting the mobility of seniors and individuals with disabilities will become imperative to maintaining their quality of life. One existing federal grant, Section 5310: Enhanced Mobility for Seniors and Individuals with Disabilities (49 U.S.C. 5310) provides formula funding for services that provide transportation options to older adults and people with disabilities. While the 5310 program provides crucial funding to non-profits and government agencies to support mobility options for older adults and people with disabilities, it does not address the full scope of mobility issues faced by these two communities. This thesis project provides a thorough analysis of this grant from the federal legislation it is founded on, to the local administration of this grant as applied by the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG). Finally, this thesis looks at emerging technology with the potential to revolutionize mobility, along with sobering historical context of the barriers faced older adults and people with disabilities.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Emergence of New Technology and Statistical Analysis to Explore Aging Patterns in Latent Fingerprint Analysis

Description

Abstract Latent fingerprints are a critical component of the evidence that is captured and analyzed from crime scenes and presented for convictions in court. Although fingerprint science has been used

Abstract Latent fingerprints are a critical component of the evidence that is captured and analyzed from crime scenes and presented for convictions in court. Although fingerprint science has been used for many years in forensics, it is not without many criticisms and critiques from those that believe it is too subjective. Researchers from many disciplines have tried to refute this claim by completing experiments that would eventually lead to a fingerprint aging technique as well as providing statistical models and mathematical support. In this literature review, the research that has been widely published and talked about in this field was reviewed and analyzed to determine what aspects of the experiments are benefitting the study of degradation. By carefully combing through the methods and results of each study, it can be determined where future focuses should be and what disciplines need to be exploited for knowledge. Lastly, an important aspect of the experiments in recent years have depended on the collaboration with statistics so this evidence was examined to identify what models are realistic in determining error rates and likelihood ratios to support latent fingerprint evidence in court. After a thorough review, it is seen that although large strides have been taken to study the degradation of fingerprints, the day where fingerprints will be able to be definitively aged may be ways away. The current experiments have provided methods such as three-dimensional and visual parameters that could potentially find the solution, but also uncovered methods such as immunolabeling and chemical composition that face major challenges. From the statistically point of view, researchers are very close in developing equations that exploit the likelihood ratios of similarity and even calculate the various possible error rates. The evidence found in this review shows that science is one step closer to the age determination of fingerprints.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Discovering why less is more: A comparative evaluation of protein expression in the central nervous system, and how it relates to cognition, following treatment with different doses of 17beta-estradiol

Description

Hormone therapy (HT) containing 17beta-estradiol (E2) can greatly reduce physiological symptoms associated with declines in ovarian hormones that are seen with menopause. HT containing E2 has also been shown to

Hormone therapy (HT) containing 17beta-estradiol (E2) can greatly reduce physiological symptoms associated with declines in ovarian hormones that are seen with menopause. HT containing E2 has also been shown to play a beneficial role in cognitive function. There is discrepancy, however, surrounding which dose of E2 is the most optimal for cognition. A previous rodent behavioral study in our laboratory evaluated the effects of different doses of E2 on spatial memory performance, and results indicated that rats treated with a low E2 dose (0.3 g E2) made fewer working memory incorrect (WMI) errors, indicating enhanced spatial memory performance, compared to vehicle (0.1ml sesame oil)- and high E2 (3.0 g E2)- treated groups. This finding warranted the present investigation with the overarching aim to evaluate underlying neuromolecular mechanisms that may be modulating these cognitive effects. Both the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R) and extracellular regulated kinase (Erk) 2 have been observed to mediate E2-induced memory enhancements. We used the Western Blot to measure IGF1-R and activated Erk1/2 expression in brain regions involved in learning and memory, including the dorsal hippocampus, ventral CA1/CA2 hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex. Results demonstrated a linear relationship between IGF1-R expression and administered E2 dose in the perirhinal cortex, whereby IGF1-R expression increased as the dose of E2 increased. Additionally, in the perirhinal cortex, IGF1-R expression tended to increase as activated Erk1 increased for all treatment groups. Further, number of WMI errors tended to decrease as IGF1-R expression and activated Erk1 expression in the perirhinal cortex tended to increase in the low E2 treatment group. Collectively, these findings suggest a downstream-dependent relationship between IGF1-R and activated Erk1 in the perirhinal cortex that may be contributing to the enhancements in spatial memory performance observed in animals in the low E2 treatment group. These findings are a crucial piece in the greater understanding of what underlying molecular mechanisms may be modulating a cognitively beneficial dose of E2, and further contribute to the search for a HT that would be beneficial for cognition in menopausal women.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Aging in Autism: Changes in the Hippocampal System and Verbal/ Visual Memory

Description

The aim of this study was to explore cross-sectional and longitudinal aging differences in immediate and delayed visual and verbal memory abilities in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared

The aim of this study was to explore cross-sectional and longitudinal aging differences in immediate and delayed visual and verbal memory abilities in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared with neurotypicals (NTs). We measured hippocampal size, fornix fractional anisotropy (FA), and hippocampal and fornix freewater to understand how aging impacts memory structures. Longitudinal findings highlight vulnerabilities in immediate verbal memory and hippocampal volume, while cross-sectional findings indicate fornix freewater may increase at a faster rate in adults with ASD. Future research will examine cognitive and structural sex differences and will study how cognitive measures correlate with structural measures.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Disease and Signaling: The Role of Vitamin D in Healthful Aging

Description

Vitamin D, a bioactive lipid and essential nutrient, is obtained by humans through either endogenous synthesis in response to UV light exposure or via nutritional intake. Once activated to its

Vitamin D, a bioactive lipid and essential nutrient, is obtained by humans through either endogenous synthesis in response to UV light exposure or via nutritional intake. Once activated to its hormonal form, vitamin D binds to and activates the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). Activation of VDR is known to modulate gene transcription in vitamin D target tissues such as kidney, colon, and bone; however, less is known about the ability of VDR to respond to "nutritional modulators". One such potential VDR modulator is resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol and potent antioxidant nutrient that also functions as a chemopreventative. Resveratrol is known to activate sirtuin-1, a deacetylase enzyme with potential anti-aging properties. This study explores the potential for resveratrol, an anticancer nutraceutical, to upregulate VDR activity through its effector protein, sirtuin-1. Furthermore, due to its putative interactions with several intracellular signaling pathways, klotho has been proposed as an anti-aging protein and tumor suppressor gene, while the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drives enhanced cellular proliferation leading to numerous types of cancers, especially colorectal neoplasia. Thus, the ability of klotho to cooperate with vitamin D to inhibit oncogenic β-catenin signaling was also analyzed. The experiments and resultant data presented in this thesis explore the potential role of VDR as a physiologically relevant nutritional sensor in human cells. This novel study reveals the importance of nutrient modulation of the VDR system by vitamin D and resveratrol and how this might represent a molecular mechanism that is responsible for the putative anti-cancer actions of vitamin D. Furthermore, this study enhances our understanding of how vitamin D/VDR and resveratrol interact with klotho and how this interaction affects β-catenin signaling to mitigate oncogenic growth and differentiation. This works demonstrates that the vitamin D hormone serves as a likely chemopreventive agent for various types of cancers through control of anti-oxidation and cellular proliferation pathways via its nuclear receptor. Our results also indicate the potential for resveratrol, an anticancer nutraceutical, to upregulate VDR activity through SIRT1. Furthermore, the novel data presented in this work illustrate that klotho, an anti-aging protein, cooperates with vitamin D to synergistically inhibit oncogenic β-catenin signaling. Ultimately, this study enhances our understating of the molecular pathways that underpin nutritional chemoprevention, and how modulation of these pathways via dietary intervention may lead to advances in public health strategies to eventually curb carcinogenesis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

Mechanisms of Sarcopenia

Description

Sarcopenia, a disease defined by age-related muscle loss and function, impacts each and every one of us as we age. Medical research over the past 40 years has identified dozens

Sarcopenia, a disease defined by age-related muscle loss and function, impacts each and every one of us as we age. Medical research over the past 40 years has identified dozens of factors that contribute to Sarcopenia, including, hormonal changes, deficiencies in nutrition, denervation, changes in physical activity and diseases. Developing effective therapeutic treatments for Sarcopenia is dependent on identifying the mechanisms by which these factors affect muscle loss and understanding the interrelationship of these mechanisms. I conducted my research by compiling and analyzing several previous studies on many different mechanisms that contribute to Sarcopenia. Of these mechanisms, I determined the most significant mechanisms and mapped them out on a visual presentation. In addition to the contributing factors listed above, I found that dysregulated cell signaling, mitochondrial abnormalities, impaired autophagy/protein regulation, altered nitric oxide production, and systemic inflammation all contribute to Sarcopenia. Their impact on skeletal muscle is manifested by reduced satellite function, reduced regenerative capacity, loss of muscle mass, accumulation of damaged products, and fibrosis. My research clearly demonstrated that there was not a one-to-one correlation between factors and specific pathological characteristics of Sarcopenia. Instead, factors funneled into a discrete number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and autophagy and apoptosis. Based on my findings, the overall cause of Sarcopenia appears to be a loss of balance between these pathways. The results of my thesis indicate that Sarcopenia is a multifactorial disorder, and therefore, effective therapy should consist of those that prevent necrosis associated with autophagy and apoptosis.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05