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The indices of bone changes in response to exercise

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The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin (OST) (a bone formation marker) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of

The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin (OST) (a bone formation marker) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus can be used as indicators of bone change but the sensitivity and time course of these indices to short term interventions are unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold: to compare monthly changes in OST and QUS in response to jump training and to evaluate the relationship between DXA, OST and QUS. Young women with QUS t-scores less than 1.0 were randomized into a jump training (J) (n=16) or control (C) (n=16). J consisted of a progressive routine of 1 and 2-footed jumping performed 3 days per week for 4 months. Body composition, QUS and OST were measured at baseline, and monthly for 4 months. DXA and 24-hour dietary recalls were completed at baseline and 4 months. Low attrition rate (12.5%) and high compliance (98%) with the exercise intervention was recorded. No significant correlations between QUS and OST existed. No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline in body composition or bone variables. Monthly increases in OST were observed but there were no significant differences over time between groups in any bone variables. OST and QUS may be indicative of short term bone changes but these variables were not specifically sensitive to the jumping intervention in this population of women.

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2011

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Incidence of injury in relation to limb dominance in Arizona State University men's and women's gymnastics teams

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Previous research on gymnastics injuries has examined several differences in the types of injuries and event/location where injury is most likely to occur. This research shows that male gymnasts are more likely to have more upper body injuries compared to

Previous research on gymnastics injuries has examined several differences in the types of injuries and event/location where injury is most likely to occur. This research shows that male gymnasts are more likely to have more upper body injuries compared to lower body injuries whereas female gymnasts are more likely to have lower body injuries. The majority of all gymnastics injuries are sprains that are most likely to occur during the landing phase on the floor exercise during routine performance or competition. Gymnastics injuries are also more prevalent in older gymnasts, like those at the collegiate level. However, there is limited research on the effects of limb dominance on injury occurrence in both male and female gymnasts at the collegiate level. This study was designed to examine the effect of both upper and lower body limb dominance on injury occurrence in Division I male and female gymnasts at Arizona State University during competition season. Thirty-seven subjects were recruited from the Arizona State University Men's and Women's Gymnastics teams. Athletic trainers/coaches from each team were asked to record injury incidence during the 2013 competition season from January through April. Injury type, body location, event of occurrence, and location of injury (practice or competition) were recorded along with the gymnast's upper and lower body limb dominance (right or left). Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant difference between male and female gymnasts in that female gymnasts are more likely to be injured than their male counterparts (P = 0.023). However, there were no significant findings between limb dominance and injury incidence. Limb dominance did not show any relationship with side of injury, but a trend in the data shows that right-sided dominant athletes, both upper and lower body, were more likely to be injured overall than left-sided dominant athletes. A trend in the data also shows that injury is more likely to occur on the floor exercise than any other gymnastics event for both men and women.

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2013

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The effect of high intensity interval training on VO2 peak and performance in trained high school rowers

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High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a phrase quickly becoming popularized through current research due to the physical and physiological success this method of training has proven to yield in both untrained and trained individuals. There is no set definition

High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a phrase quickly becoming popularized through current research due to the physical and physiological success this method of training has proven to yield in both untrained and trained individuals. There is no set definition used to describe HIIT, but it typically refers to repeated bouts of fairly brief intermittent exercise. A great deal of research outlines the benefits associated with utilizing HIIT in untrained and recreationally trained individuals. However, research on the effect HIIT has or could possibly have on the well-trained endurance athlete is limited, specifically in the sport of rowing. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of HIIT on VO2 peak and performance in trained rowers when compared to traditional, endurance training. It was hypothesized that HIIT would be just as effective at improving VO2 peak and performance as the endurance training protocol in well-trained rowers. A total of 20 high school female rowers participated in the study (mean ± SD; age = 16 ± 1). Baseline testing was comprised of a 2000m time-trial test on the Concept IIc Rowing Ergometer and a maximal exercise test, which was also completed on the Concept IIc Ergometer, in order to determine VO2 peak. Subjects were randomly assigned to a HIIT or endurance group for four weeks of intervention. Three days/week the HIIT group completed a 6 by 30second repeated Wingate protocol on the Concept II Ergometer at or above 100% VO2 peak, in which each 30s maximal effort was immediately followed by an active recovery of four-minutes. The endurance group completed 30 minutes of sub-maximal rowing at 65% of VO2 peak three days/week. After four weeks of intervention, post-testing took place, which was identical to baseline testing. Results from this study suggest HIIT was just as effective as endurance training at improving 2k time (mean ± SD; HIIT: 498.7 ± 23.1; Endurance: 497.5 ± 17.6). There were no significant within or between group differences in VO2 peak post-intervention (mean ± SD; HIIT: 44.8 ± 4.0; Endurance: 45.8 ± 5.6). The current study suggests four-weeks of HIIT training can yield similar adaptations in performance when compared to endurance training.

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2011

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Serious running: factors that lead to awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty to long distance running

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Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure

Commitment to an activity is widely studied in leisure research. Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) describes characteristics a committed activity participant possesses. The Psychological Continuum Model (PCM) describes the psychological process a person goes through to become committed to a leisure activity. Awareness, attraction, attachment and loyalty make of the four stages of PCM. Both perspectives have been used to describe committed leisure activity participants and commitment to organized recreational events. Research on leisure activity has yet to determine how the individual becomes loyal. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the process in which recreation activity participates becomes loyal and to identify who can be labels as serious within the PCM Framework. Data was obtained from an online electronic survey distributed to participants of four U.S. marathon and half marathon events. A total of 579 responses were used in the final analysis. Path analysis determined the process in which a runner becomes committed. MANOVA is used to determine difference between leisure groups in the four stages of PCM. Results indicate that activity participants need to go through all four stages of PCM before becoming loyal. As knowledge increases, individuals are more motivated to participate. When the activity satisfies motives and becomes a reflection of their identity, feelings become stronger which results in loyalty. Socialization is instrumental to the progression through the PCM Framework. Additionally, attachment is the "bottleneck" in which all loyal activity participants my pass through. Differences exist between serious leisure groups in the attachment and loyalty stages. Those that are `less serious' are not as committed to the activity as their counterparts.

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2014

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The effects of assisted cycle therapy on executive and motor functioning in young adult females with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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Voluntary exercise has been shown to generate post exercise improvements in executive function within the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population. Research is limited on the link between exercise and motor function in this population. Whether or not changes in executive

Voluntary exercise has been shown to generate post exercise improvements in executive function within the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population. Research is limited on the link between exercise and motor function in this population. Whether or not changes in executive and motor function are observed under assisted exercise conditions is unknown. This study examined the effect of a six-week cycling intervention on executive and motor-function responses in young adult females with ADHD. Participants were randomized to either a voluntary exercise (VE) or an assisted exercise (AE) group. Both groups performed 30 minute cycling sessions, three times per week, at either a voluntary or assisted rate, on a modified Theracycle Model 200 motorized stationary cycle ergometer. The Mann-Whitney U tests were used to detect median differences between groups, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to test median differences within groups. Executive function improvements were greater for AE compared to VE in activation (MDNAE = 162 vs. MDNVE = 308, U = .00, p = .076, ES = .79); planning (MDNAE = 51.0 vs. MDNAE = 40.5, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); attention (MDNAE = 13.0 vs. MDNVE = 10.0, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); and working memory (MDNAE = 10.0 vs. MDNVE = 6.5, U = .00, p = .076, ES = .79). Motor function improvements were greater for AE compared to VE in manual dexterity (MDNAE = 18 vs. MDNVE = 15.8, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); bimanual coordination (MDNAE = 28.0 vs. MDNVE = 25.3, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); and gross motor movements of the fingers, hands, and arms (MDNAE = 61.7 vs. MDNVE = 56.0, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77). Deficits in executive and motor functioning have been linked to lifelong social and psychological impairments in individuals with ADHD. Finding ways to improve functioning in these areas is important for cognitive, emotional and social stability. Compared to VE, AE is a more effective strategy for improving executive and motor functioning in young adult females with ADHD.

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2014

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The use of an internal locus of control scale as a predictor of exercise adherence in children ages 6-12

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The U.S. Surgeon General has recommended that all Americans engage in regular physical activity throughout the lifespan as a way to maintain and improve health and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, or other chronic conditions. The

The U.S. Surgeon General has recommended that all Americans engage in regular physical activity throughout the lifespan as a way to maintain and improve health and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, or other chronic conditions. The recommendation for children is a minimum of 60 minutes of moderate and intense physical activity everyday. As children enter adolescence their level of physical activity often decreases; and active adults were typically active adolescents. More than 50% of adults that begin a physical activity program discontinue the behavior within 9 months. Interventions to increase physical activity have looked at self-esteem and self-efficacy. Locus of control (LOC) is a concept that people either view their own behavior as influencing the events around them (internal) or other events controlling their fate or destiny (external). This study looked at locus of control as a predictor of exercise adherence and future exercise patterns in children ages 6-12 in Mesa, AZ. Locus of control as measured by the Child Nowicki-Strickland Internal External (CNSIE) scale differed by gender and by physical activity group at school at post-intervention. Self-reported physical activity as measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) showed differences in physical activity (PA) levels by gender for baseline school PA, by age group for baseline non-school PA, by gender and age group for post-intervention school PA, and by gender only for post-intervention non-school PA. A secondary objective was to assess if the Think Healthy About Nutrition and eXercise (THANX) after school program influenced participants' LOC or PA patterns. This study found that the THANX program had no effect on LOC or PA level at any time point.

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2012

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Muscle quality, muscle mass, muscle strength, and pulse wave velocity between healthy young and elderly adults

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Although maintaining an optimal level of muscle quality in older persons is necessary to prevent falls and disability, there has been limited research on muscle quality across age and gender groups. The associations of muscle quality, muscle strength, and

Although maintaining an optimal level of muscle quality in older persons is necessary to prevent falls and disability, there has been limited research on muscle quality across age and gender groups. The associations of muscle quality, muscle strength, and muscle mass also remain less explored. Purpose: This study examined the muscle quality differences (arm and leg) between healthy young and elderly adults across gender groups. This study also examined the associations of muscle quality, muscle strength, and muscle mass in young and elderly adults, respectively. Methods: Seventy-one total subjects were recruited for this study within age groups 20-29 years old (20 females and 20 males) and 60-80 years old (18 females and 13 males). All participants completed anthropometric measures, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, pulse wave velocity, handgrip strength and leg strength tests, gait speed, and sit to stand test. Results: Young male adults had a greater leg muscle quality index (leg MQI) than did elderly male adults (21.8 Nm/kg vs. 16.3 Nm/kg, p = 0.001). Similarly, young female adults had a greater leg MQI than did old female adults (21.3 Nm/kg and 15.6 Nm/kg, p<0.001). For arm muscle quality index (arm MQI), there was a gender difference in young adults (p = 0.001), but not for the elderly adults. Among elderly adults, there was a positive association between leg MQI and isometric leg strength (r = 0.79, p<0.001). Notably, there was a negative association between leg MQI and leg lean mass (r = -0.70, p<0.001) and between arm MQI and arm lean mass (r = -0.58, p = 0.001). In young adults, there was also a positive association between arm MQI and handgrip strength (r = 0.53, p<0.001) and between leg MQI and isometric leg strength (r = 0.81, p<0.001). There was no association between muscle quality and muscle mass in young adults. Conclusion: Young adults had a greater leg muscle quality than did elderly adults in both men and women. Leg muscle quality is positively associated with leg muscle strength in both young and elderly adults but is inversely associated with leg muscle mass in the elderly adults.

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2017