Matching Items (4)

131487-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluating Structural Awareness of Community Members through Observations of Fixed Exclusions in the Built Environment

Description

The purpose of this study is to examine the baseline level of structural competency present in the general public and determine whether or not an individual’s demographics meaningfully affect this

The purpose of this study is to examine the baseline level of structural competency present in the general public and determine whether or not an individual’s demographics meaningfully affect this knowledge. This aim was accomplished by analyzing observational data from a citizen social science (CSS) project. Undergraduate students enrolled in the “Urban and Environmental Health” course described in Ruth et al. (2020) trained and recruited 165 CSS to record observations of fixed exclusions of women, minorities/Latinx, and large bodied people in the built environment. Participants walked along nine distinct transects in downtown Tempe, Arizona and recorded their observations. Of the 165 initial participants, 134 satisfactorily completed the task and were included in the statistical analysis. The observations of each CSS were scored against a gold standard, yielding a percent of observations observed for each exclusion category. Statistical analysis using Aligned Rank Transform (ART) Factorial ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U Tests were then employed to test for differences in the number of observations across demographic categories and subcategories. Among the main demographic factors, ethnicity produced a statistically significant difference in observations, but only for gendered exclusions. For the demographic subcategories, the only significant difference was observed in men, where ethnicity and body size both showed an effect on observations of women and ethnicity respectively. Due to the large similarity in observations across demographic categories, any interventions aimed at increasing the structural competency of a population need not target specific groups, but rather the population as a whole.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

158549-Thumbnail Image.png

Role of Microplastics as Anthropogenic Pollutants of Global Ecosystems

Description

Plastic pollution has become a global threat to ecosystems worldwide, with microplastics now representing contaminants reported to occur in ambient air, fresh water, seawater, soils, fauna and people. Over time,

Plastic pollution has become a global threat to ecosystems worldwide, with microplastics now representing contaminants reported to occur in ambient air, fresh water, seawater, soils, fauna and people. Over time, larger macro-plastics are subject to weathering and fragmentation, resulting in smaller particles, termed ‘microplastics’ (measuring < 5 mm in diameter), which have been found to pollute virtually every marine and terrestrial ecosystem on the planet. This thesis explored the transfer of plastic pollutants from consumer products into the built water environment and ultimately into global aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

A literature review demonstrated that municipal sewage sludge produced by wastewater treatment plants around the world contains detectable quantities of microplastics. Application of sewage sludge on land was shown to represent a mechanism for transfer of microplastics from wastewater into terrestrial environments, with some countries reporting as high as 113 ± 57 microplastic particles per gram of dry sludge.

To address the notable shortcoming of inconsistent reporting practices for microplastic pollution, this thesis introduced a novel, online calculator that converts the number of plastic particles into the unambiguous metric of mass, thereby making global studies on microplastic pollution directly comparable.

This thesis concludes with an investigation of a previously unexplored and more personal source of plastic pollution, namely the disposal of single-use contact lenses and an assessment of the magnitude of this emerging source of environmental pollution. Using an online survey aimed at quantifying trends with the disposal of lenses in the US, it was discovered that 20 ± 0.8% of contact lens wearers flushed their used lenses down the drain, amounting to 44,000 ± 1,700 kg y-1 of lens dry mass discharged into US wastewater.

From the results it is concluded that conventional and medical microplastics represent a significant global source of pollution and a long-term threat to ecosystems around the world. Recommendations are provided on how to limit the entry of medical microplastics into the built water environment to limit damage to ecosystems worldwide.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

150963-Thumbnail Image.png

Pathways of knowing: integrating citizen science and critical thinking in the adult ELL classroom

Description

This action research study examines what common perceptions and constructs currently exist in educating adult immigrants in Arizona and considers how might the integration of citizen science with the current

This action research study examines what common perceptions and constructs currently exist in educating adult immigrants in Arizona and considers how might the integration of citizen science with the current English curriculum promote higher order thinking and educational equity in this population. A citizen science project called the Mastodon Matrix Project was introduced to a Level 2 ELAA (English Language Acquisition for Adults) classroom and aligned with the Arizona Adult Standards for ELAA education. Pre and post attitudinal surveys, level tests, and personal meaning maps were implemented to assess student attitudes towards science, views on technology, English skills, and knowledge gained as a result of doing citizen science over a period of 8 weeks.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

155523-Thumbnail Image.png

Tourist-centric citizen science in Denali National Park and Preserve

Description

Citizen Science programs create a bi-directional flow of knowledge between scientists and citizen volunteers; this flow democratizes science in order to create an informed public (Bonney et al. 2014; Brown,

Citizen Science programs create a bi-directional flow of knowledge between scientists and citizen volunteers; this flow democratizes science in order to create an informed public (Bonney et al. 2014; Brown, Kelly, and Whitall 2014). This democratization is a fundamental part of creating a science that can address today’s pressing environmental, economic, and social justice problems (Lubchenco 1998). While citizen science programs create an avenue for sharing knowledge between the public and scientists, the exact program details and dynamics leading to different outcomes have not been studied in detail. The current shortcomings in the literature fall into three categories. First, the concept of ‘volunteer’ is used as a catch-all without considering how different

demographics (e.g. young, old, wealthy, poor, differently abled, local inhabitants, and visitors) affect both volunteer and scientific outcomes of citizen science. The second shortcoming: there are no standards to assess the quality of citizen science datasets. The third shortcoming: the volunteer and scientific outcomes of these programs are not routinely, or strategically, measured, or integrated into policy and planning (Brossard, Lewenstein, and Bonney 2005). This research advances the understanding of tourist volunteers in citizen science by examining these three shortcomings through a case-study in Denali National Park and Preserve. This case study included the development of the Map of Life-Denali citizen science program is a “tourist-friendly” program. Volunteers of the program use the Map of Life- Denali mobile application to record wildlife observations in the park. Research conducted on this program shows that tourists can be successful citizen science volunteers, and when compared to resident volunteers produce similar data, and have positive volunteer outcomes. The development of a fitness for use assessment, called STAAq is also a part of this research. This assessment is shown to be an effective method for assessing citizen science data quality. Throughout the development and launch of the program, stakeholders (the Park Service, and Aramark) were consulted. The Map of Life-Denali program will be integrated into the park’s shuttle and tour bus systems as an educational tool, however, the scientific merits of the program are still disputed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017