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The Great Divide: Gender Inequality Stereotyping in the Business and Construction Fields

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This study aims to identify the presence and impact of gender stereotypes for the business and construction industries and how women are hindered by these stereotypes. Through a two part study including a survey and one-on-one interviews with male and

This study aims to identify the presence and impact of gender stereotypes for the business and construction industries and how women are hindered by these stereotypes. Through a two part study including a survey and one-on-one interviews with male and female participants, qualitative and quantitative data was collected to identify trends in stereotypes. The analysis identified the existence of gender stereotypes in four general categories: Education, Occupational Advancement, Work-Life Balance, and Glass Ceiling. In the subsequent passages, testimonials from study participants and additional research elaborate on how these categories of gender stereotypes impact women at specific companies and women in the business and construction industries as a whole. These testimonials allowed us to form conclusions on gender stereotyping in business and construction revealing the overall impact of many "unwritten" blockades against women's occupational success including the Glass Ceiling, Good Ol' Boys Club, and "Think Manager \u2014 Think Male". Although many of these stereotypes have impacted the business and construction industries for decades, many individuals currently in the workforce believe the new entrants into the workforce, the Millennial Generation, will likely cause gender stereotypes in the workforce to diminish.

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2017-05

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Gender Inequality in the Venture Capital Industry

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This project examines the secretive world of the Venture Capital Industry specifically focusing on the ideology of gender inequality. Through research it has been found that females within the industry at the partnership level have actually decreased. By completing a

This project examines the secretive world of the Venture Capital Industry specifically focusing on the ideology of gender inequality. Through research it has been found that females within the industry at the partnership level have actually decreased. By completing a literature review, we found that there were several biases and stereotypes that are prevalent within the industry and could be contributing factors for the decreasing participation. Following our literature review, we focused on a sample of 100 from the LPJ Index, and gathered data on all individuals listed, those at the partnership level and all other individuals within the industry. Through analyzing our data we found that female participation at the partner level is low and more importantly that 68% of firms do not even have a female partner in their ranks. We found that male and female partners have relatively the same education and the same areas of interest, which should suggest that they are on the same playing field, which is clearly not represented in the partnership composition, where males are dominating the industry. These findings lend credence to some of the deep rooted stereotypes that are facing females in the Venture Capital Industry and could explain why there are not many opportunities for them. Through future research and participation from firms to actively help increase the opportunities for women, the gender inequality that is facing the Venture Capital Industry can begin to narrow.

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2015-05

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The Balancing Act of Working Mothers: A Deeper Look into Women Pursuing Medical Careers

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The intent of this thesis was to explore current literature to further understand the work environments of medical fields and the obstacles that are unique to women pursuing medical careers. It is acknowledged that a significant glass ceiling exists for

The intent of this thesis was to explore current literature to further understand the work environments of medical fields and the obstacles that are unique to women pursuing medical careers. It is acknowledged that a significant glass ceiling exists for women in medical fields, specifically areas such as academia and surgery. Thus, the research is focused on determining explanations for a lack of women in said medical specialties, as well as understanding the source of the obstacles women face in medicine. This study was designed to obtain a general background from a literature review and then, to compare and supplement the findings with in-depth interviews of females in a variety of medical careers. From the literature review and the interviews, it was confirmed that the largest area of inequality women in medical fields faced was struggling to balance work and personal life, specifically motherhood. Furthermore, the knowledge gained from the literature review and interviews provided a framework for suggesting possible solutions to help women successfully balance a professional medical career and a personal life.

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2013-05

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Gender at Play: A Discursive Analysis of Children and Gender Scripts Within Parents Magazine

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Parenting magazines within the U.S. have long been a source of comfort and information for parents. As evidenced by subscription numbers in the millions, parents’ desire for ‘expert’ advice on all aspects of child rearing make them prime consumers for

Parenting magazines within the U.S. have long been a source of comfort and information for parents. As evidenced by subscription numbers in the millions, parents’ desire for ‘expert’ advice on all aspects of child rearing make them prime consumers for the magazine industry. One study found that when parents seek advice, parenting magazines were second only to friends as a resource, and were consulted more often than professional resources such as doctors or health organizations (Koepke & Williams, 1989). Ultimately, the images and concepts parents retain from their exposure to parenting magazines are conveyed (explicitly or implicitly) to their children. At its very core, gender scripts serve as an institutionalized form of social control, or as Bem believes, “a basic organizing principle for every human culture” (1981). Further, researchers have elaborated, “gender inequalities and sex stereotypes hurt the majority of individuals by limiting their range of experiences, and thus their growth” (Spees & Zimmerman, 2002). This provides an absolute disservice to individuals and to our communities two fold, as gendered messages in parenting magazines can shape (or indeed limit) the experiences and perceptions of both parents and their children. The intention of this study is to examine the ways in which editorial content in Parents magazine has the potential to influence parents’ perception of gender in relation to their children and child rearing practices. It also seeks to explore how these gender messages have changed over the last ten years, as well as what these messages may be communicating to parents about their children. I aim to frame this discussion within a condensed review of literature that supports the importance and influence of parenting magazines in recent history. I will also consider how early on children display an understanding of gender and a few of the many ways gender typing may affect them in childhood and beyond. In this thesis, I approach this issue through the theory of socialization, in which I argue the magazine’s gender messages are communicated to parents, who then convey these messages to their children during childhood. However, this study acknowledges the importance of observing an issue from multiple standpoints and I believe that further research on this topic should be done from both a socialization and a social construction viewpoint. I will then critically analyze, through a feminist theoretical framework, gender implications found among the images and some of the accompanying text in Parents magazine in 2002 and 2012. Through this thesis, I argue that Parents magazine, through its editorial content, provides some unique spaces in which gender equality can be furthered, while it has also become more stereotyped and restricted within other areas in the last ten years.

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Date Created
2012-12

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The Effect of Empowerment Literature on Perceptions of Gender Inequality

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Society has formed certain stereotypes surrounding genders and the roles that they play in society based on the qualities that each gender is assumed to have (Lopez & Ensari, 2014; Eagly & Wood, 2012; Heilman, 2012). Leadership is seen as

Society has formed certain stereotypes surrounding genders and the roles that they play in society based on the qualities that each gender is assumed to have (Lopez & Ensari, 2014; Eagly & Wood, 2012; Heilman, 2012). Leadership is seen as a masculine role because of the similar perceptions between what qualities men possess and what qualities leadership requires. (Koenig et al., 2011). Biases against women in leadership prevent women from successfully gaining high-level positions at the same rate as men, despite equal qualifications (Lopez & Ensari, 2014). There is great debate on how this problem can be resolved. On the one hand, trends toward institutional and policy changes in the 1970’s and 1980’s were intended to create greater equality and help women reduce bias in the workforce. More recently, however, the tone of the conversation has shifted. Books like Sheryl Sandberg’s “Lean In” have seen great popularity as they emphasize the role women have to combat bias through personal empowerment rather than waiting for the system to change. As a consequence of this shift in ideology, a possible shift has occurred in perceptions of where responsibility for change lies. This presents the question: Does exposure to empowerment literature increase perceptions of women’s responsibility to fix the gender inequality issue in the workplace?

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Date Created
2019-05

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How Privilege and Opportunity Are Associated with Psychological Well-being

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Ethnic groups experience different societal and economic circumstances that contribute to their well-being. Life satisfaction and happiness are commonly used as a measure of well-being; but they are not often used to evaluate well-being in lower income countries. This study

Ethnic groups experience different societal and economic circumstances that contribute to their well-being. Life satisfaction and happiness are commonly used as a measure of well-being; but they are not often used to evaluate well-being in lower income countries. This study focuses on the self-reported life satisfaction and happiness of members of ethnic groups from low- and middle-income countries and its correlation with ethnic privilege, gender opportunity, and income. Using two self-reported measures of well-being—life satisfaction and happiness—among 110,391 women in 27 countries (ages 15-49) surveyed in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, this study examines how country-level indicators of gender opportunity, ethnic-level indicators of privilege and household-level measures of wealth are associated with well-being. Our findings indicate a significant relationship between ethnic privilege, gender opportunity and income on life satisfaction. The results from this study provide valuable data and implications for lower income countries to identify and reduce modifiable risk factors that affect a population’s well-being.

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2020-05