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Design of Pneumatically Actuated Torsional Loading for High Strain Rate Testing

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In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain

In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain rates but currently little can be done to produce a synchronized combination of these varying impacts. This research focuses on fabricating a flange which will be mounted on the incident bar of a SHPB and struck perpendicularly by a pneumatically driven striker thus allowing for torsion without interfering with the simultaneous compression or tension. Analytical calculations are done to determine size specifications of the flange to protect against yielding or failure. Based on these results and other design considerations, the flange and a complementary incident bar are created. Timing can then be established such that the waves impact the specimen at the same time causing simultaneous loading of a specimen. This thesis allows research at Arizona State University to individually incorporate all uniaxial deformation modes (tension, compression, and torsion) at high strain rates as well as combining either of the first two modes with torsion. Introduction of torsion will expand the testing capabilities of the SHPB at ASU and allow for more in depth analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials under impact loading. Combining torsion with tension or compression will promote analysis of a material's adherence to the Von Mises failure criterion. This greater understanding of material behavior can be implemented into models and simulations thereby improving the accuracy with which engineers can design new structures.

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2016-05

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Understanding plasticity and fracture in aluminum alloys and their composites by 3D X-ray synchrotron tomography and microdiffraction

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Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue loading. An understanding of the microstructural damage that occurs in

Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue loading. An understanding of the microstructural damage that occurs in these materials is critical in assessing their fatigue resistance. Two distinct experimental studies were performed to further the understanding of fatigue damage mechanisms in aluminum alloys and their composites, specifically fracture and plasticity. Fatigue resistance of metal matrix composites (MMCs) depends on many aspects of composite microstructure. Fatigue crack growth behavior is particularly dependent on the reinforcement characteristics and matrix microstructure. The goal of this work was to obtain a fundamental understanding of fatigue crack growth behavior in SiC particle-reinforced 2080 Al alloy composites. In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was performed on two samples at low (R=0.1) and at high (R=0.6) R-ratios. The resulting reconstructed images were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) rendering of the particles and fatigue crack. Behaviors of the particles and crack, as well as their interaction, were analyzed and quantified. Four-dimensional (4D) visual representations were constructed to aid in the overall understanding of damage evolution. During fatigue crack growth in ductile materials, a plastic zone is created in the region surrounding the crack tip. Knowledge of the plastic zone is important for the understanding of fatigue crack formation as well as subsequent growth behavior. The goal of this work was to quantify the 3D size and shape of the plastic zone in 7075 Al alloys. X-ray synchrotron tomography and Laue microdiffraction were used to non-destructively characterize the volume surrounding a fatigue crack tip. The precise 3D crack profile was segmented from the reconstructed tomography data. Depth-resolved Laue patterns were obtained using differential-aperture X-ray structural microscopy (DAXM), from which peak-broadening characteristics were quantified. Plasticity, as determined by the broadening of diffracted peaks, was mapped in 3D. Two-dimensional (2D) maps of plasticity were directly compared to the corresponding tomography slices. A 3D representation of the plastic zone surrounding the fatigue crack was generated by superimposing the mapped plasticity on the 3D crack profile.

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Date Created
2014

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Microstructural Evolution and Corrosion Behavior of Chromium Coated Aluminum 7075

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Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) is a process used to coat metallic alloy surfaces with a nanocrystallized layer via mechanical abrasion. SMAT has garnered a significant amount of interest from the scientific community as a surface treatment technique due to

Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) is a process used to coat metallic alloy surfaces with a nanocrystallized layer via mechanical abrasion. SMAT has garnered a significant amount of interest from the scientific community as a surface treatment technique due to the ability of this fine grain top layer to provide several benefits to its constituent alloy, namely significantly higher hardness, fatigue strength, and most pertinently, greatly improved corrosion resistance. Emerging research suggests that SMAT can also be used to apply powder coatings onto target substrates. A given substrate can be installed in a ball mill, where stainless steel balls coated with pure elemental powder deliver sustained impact onto the substrate, embedding the powders onto its surface. This paper will explore the process of coating aluminum 7075 coating with chromium powder via SMAT, and the effects doing so will have on the corrosion resistance properties of the aluminum 7075. Traditionally, high-strength alloys have been treated with chromium via the process of electroplating, where the alloys are subjected to a hexavalent chromium plating procedure that is known to risk releasing toxic carcinogens into the environment. Coating these alloys with SMAT could minimize such negative externalities, while yielding benefits unique to the SMAT coating process itself. Baseline corrosion testing reveals that the corrosion resistance properties of the aluminum 7075 improved marginally when exposed to SMAT without the addition of any chromium powder. A literature review conducted in this paper of select studies on SMAT coating also demonstrates that material properties intrinsic to aluminum 7075 and pure chromium powder, as well as interaction effects occurring between aluminum and chromium when subjected to mechanical alloying, could enable the SMAT coating of aluminum 7075 with chromium to result in greatly enhanced corrosion resistance properties. While this was not accomplished within the duration of the Honors Project due to logistical difficulties brought forth by the COVID-19 epidemic, the baseline corrosion testing performed, as well as the literature review of studies directly relevant to the matter, should hopefully provide some information of value in any future exploration of the topic.

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2020-05

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Characterization of the Dynamic Strength of Aluminium at Extreme Strain Rates and Pressures

Description

The study of response of various materials to intense dynamic loading events,

such as shock loading due to high-velocity impacts, is extremely important in a wide

variety of military and industrial applications. Shock loading triggers extreme states,

leading to high pressures and strain

The study of response of various materials to intense dynamic loading events,

such as shock loading due to high-velocity impacts, is extremely important in a wide

variety of military and industrial applications. Shock loading triggers extreme states,

leading to high pressures and strain rates, and neglecting strength is a typical

approximation under such conditions. However, recent results have shown that strength

effects are larger than expected, so they must be taken into account. Recently,

hydrodynamic instabilities, the most common being the Rayleigh-Taylor (RTI) and

Richtmyer-Meshkov (RMI) instabilities, have been used to infer the dynamic strength of

materials at high pressure conditions. In our experiments and simulations, a novel RMI

approach is used, in which periodic surface perturbations are made on high purity

aluminium target, which was laser ablated to create a rippled shock front. Due to the

slow linear growth rate of RMI, the evolution of the perturbations on the back surface of

the sample as a result of the rippled shock can be measured via Transient Imaging

Displacement Interferometry (TIDI). The velocity history at the free surface was

recorded by spatially resolved laser velocimetry. These measurements were compared

with the results from the simulations, which were implemented using rate independent

and rate dependent material models, to characterize the dynamic strength of the

material. Simulations using the elastic-perfectly plastic model, which is rate

independent, failed to provide a value of dynamic yield strength that would match

experimental measurements of perturbation amplitudes. The Preston-Tonks-Wallace

(PTW) model, which is rate dependent model, worked well for aluminium. This model

was, in turn, used as a reference for calibrating the rate dependent Steinberg-Lund

model and the results from simulations using the calibration models were also compared

to experimental measurements.

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Date Created
2017