Matching Items (25)

The Effect of Screen Time on Child Development

Description

The overall purpose of this study is to address how graphic design can begin to solve the particular social issue of the effect of screen time on child development. In

The overall purpose of this study is to address how graphic design can begin to solve the particular social issue of the effect of screen time on child development. In order to reach that particular conclusion, the research begins with an exploration of theories of child development themselves, both physical and cognitive. After establishing their relevance and importance, the issue of the predominance of screens in this current culture is discussed. When it comes to the main point, that screen time affects how children develop, there are two polarized sides to the argument: pro-screens and anti-screens. After reviewing the valid points from each position, the discussion moves to the solution: graphic design. The specific solutions of the pixelPLAY campaign website, the Start Them Young promotional video, and the exhibit, Playing With Pixels: How Screens Can Affect Your Infant's Development, are described in detail as to how they can effectively communicate this social issue and spread awareness. Overall, the argument stands that screens are not going anywhere. It benefits this current generation of new parents to properly educate their child on the correct way to use this omnipresent digital medium in order for them to grow up as healthy, independent, socially responsible and capable individuals. The best chance for success emerges if the parents themselves become aware of the right and wrong ways to use screens, lead by example, and halt unhealthy habits before they even begin. Graphic design can be the match to the flame and set fire to getting this extremely relevant and important issue into the public eye.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Ethnic Diversity in Middle Childhood: The Relationship between Academic Performance and Ethnic Diversity of Schools

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School racial/ethnic diversity has been linked to positive developmental outcomes for youth in early adolescence (Graham, 2018). The purpose of this study was to examine whether school diversity and co-ethnic

School racial/ethnic diversity has been linked to positive developmental outcomes for youth in early adolescence (Graham, 2018). The purpose of this study was to examine whether school diversity and co-ethnic representation was associated with academic outcomes of children in middle childhood. Given mixed findings in previous research, this study explored whether the effects of school diversity and co-ethnic representation on academic achievement were moderated by the ethnicity of the individual in a sample of twins in middle childhood (N=485; Mage= 8 8.36 years, SD = .62). Parent-report, teacher-report, and objective ratings of academic outcomes were used. Results indicated that school diversity was positively and significantly associated with teacher reported achievement (b = .80, p < .05) across the full sample. Moderation analyses suggest that greater school diversity was associated with lower parent-reported and objective academic scores for European American youth, but higher teacher-reported and objective academic outcomes for ethnic minority youth. Results indicated that, across the full sample, co-ethnic representation was significantly and negatively associated with one measure of objective academic outcomes (b = -7.99, p < .05). Contrary to hypotheses, greater co-ethnic representation was associated with better teacher-reported and objective academic outcomes for European American youth, but lower objective academic outcomes for ethnic minority children. Findings demonstrate that the ethnic composition of schools are associated with academic outcomes of children in middle childhood, but findings vary by measurement of diversity (i.e., diversity index vs. co-ethnic representation and by the child’s own race/ethnicity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Bidirectional Relationship Between Parenting and Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Genetically Informed Design

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While previous research has investigated the influence parenting styles have on child behavior, there has not been consistent findings on how child behavior in return influences parenting. This study goes

While previous research has investigated the influence parenting styles have on child behavior, there has not been consistent findings on how child behavior in return influences parenting. This study goes beyond the literature by examining bidirectional influences of combined dyad for emotional availability and early problem behaviors (composited across 12 and 30 months) predicting parental warmth, authoritarian parenting, internalizing, externalizing and ADHD symptoms at age eight. This study also examined whether genetic or environmental factors were driving these behaviors. Participants were from the ongoing Arizona Twin Project (N=340 twin children). 25% of the twins were monozygotic, 35% were same-sex dizygotic, and 35% were opposite-sex dizygotic twins. Preliminary correlations showed bidirectional effects between early emotional availability, problem behaviors and parental warmth, authoritarian parenting, internalizing, externalizing and ADHD symptoms at age eight; however, once twin dependence and covariates were controlled for, the bidirectional effects were no longer significant. One important finding emerged: early problem behaviors were predictive of later problem behaviors at eight years. The study also found that externalizing and ADHD symptoms were more heritable than emotional availability, early problem behaviors, and internalizing symptoms. Therefore, interventions should be developed addressing the environmental influences that contribute to early problem behaviors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Role of Interruption on Infant's Fast Mapping Abilities

Description

Fast mapping is the initial link infants make between a word and its referent, and it is crucial to later processes of learning the meanings of words. Despite the importance

Fast mapping is the initial link infants make between a word and its referent, and it is crucial to later processes of learning the meanings of words. Despite the importance of fast mapping, previous research has suggested that fast mapping is fragile, with infants being unable to retain words learned through fast mapping longer than five minutes. The current study tested the robustness of fast mapping by imposing task irrelevant interruptions on a fast mapping task. Forty-seven infants (14.7 \u2014 17.4 months old) were assigned to a No Interruption condition, a Posture Interruption condition, or a Visual Interruption condition, and they performed a fast mapping task in which a novel object was named in one trial. Videos of the infants were coded for accuracy of fast mapping and for attentional behaviors (looking behavior) during the task. We found that infants did not learn novel word-object pairings when interrupted, demonstrating that infants' fast mapping abilities are easily disrupted. Overall, there was no evidence that looking behaviors were affected by interruptions, or that they were correlated with accuracy. These findings suggest that fast mapping is fragile in young infants, and further research is required to determine the mechanisms for infant learning, and how infants transition from fast to slow mapping processes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

A Comprehensive Review of the Effects of Immigration on Development in Early and Middle Childhood

Description

Immigration becomes relevant in policies and U.S. culture as globalization spreads. The physical relocation affects children’s development because they are growing up during uncertain times and they could potentially miss

Immigration becomes relevant in policies and U.S. culture as globalization spreads. The physical relocation affects children’s development because they are growing up during uncertain times and they could potentially miss important milestones during childhood if the effects of immigration are not understood and explored. This paper aims to assess children’s physical, psychosocial, and academic trends and how they compare to native citizens of the United States. Law, research, medicine, and education are all relevant realms that could work on understanding the immigrant children’s problems, as well as help bolster any advantages and skills they might have.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Immigrant Youth Resiliency: A Holistic Approach to Family Separation

Description

Between October 2016 and February 2018, DHS reported separating 1,768 children from their parents in what they called “a long-standing policy”. From July 2017 to October 2017, the Trump administration

Between October 2016 and February 2018, DHS reported separating 1,768 children from their parents in what they called “a long-standing policy”. From July 2017 to October 2017, the Trump administration implemented a pilot program in El Paso. Federal prosecutors criminally charged adults who crossed the border from New Mexico to West Texas. Forced family separation has long-lasting consequences on the health of immigrant youth and their families even as they become integrated into US society. In addition, policies like the zero-tolerance policy on illegal criminal entry and practices such as the exclusion and criminalization of immigrants perpetuate the image of an immigrant's subordinate position in the States. <br/>The zero tolerance policy has significant impacts on immigrants’ mental health, educational attainment, legal vulnerability, and physical health. While research typically focuses on the impacts of family separation on the child, the separation affects the entire family unit leading to feelings of helplessness and cultural disruption. Additionally, the topic of family separation during migration is well-studied, there is a lack of literature on forced family separation and long-lasting impacts post-reunification especially through a lens of resiliency.This paper seeks to examine how the zero-tolerance policy impacts Central American immigrant youth and their families and the limited support systems available. The family separation policy ignited protests across the country. Across the nation there was outrage of “kids in cages,” Central American children being taken from their families and placed into overcrowded facilities, left to sleep under tinfoil-like sheets in fenced areas. <br/>I argue that the zero tolerance policy is one of a long line of racist immigration policies that negatively impacts immigrant youth and their families. The effects of family separation seep into various dimensions of immigrants' lives, further complicating their adjustment to life in the US. Continued support for families who have been separated is critical to combat the adverse effects of harmful and racist immigration policies. Because the effects of family separation are multidimensional, I advocate for a holistic approach that addresses the various ways the effects spillover into daily life. This paper relies on the concept of resiliency versus a victim narrative, situating agency with the immigrant, and viewing immigration as an autonomous action. A resiliency framework acknowledges and appreciates immigrant youth's resourcefulness, strategic agency, and ability to subvert dominant norms and overcome barriers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Heritability of Different Indices of the Diurnal Cortisol Rhythm in Middle Childhood and Phenotypic Associations with the Home Environment

Description

Research has shown that environmental stressors that occur during childhood and early adolescence are associated with multiple deficits in physiological and psychological functioning later in life. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

Research has shown that environmental stressors that occur during childhood and early adolescence are associated with multiple deficits in physiological and psychological functioning later in life. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism through which these phenotypic alterations occur as studies have shown a link between early life adversity and altered diurnal cortisol patterns (Goldman-Mellor, Hamer, & Steptoe, 2012; Gunnar & Quevedo, 2008). Given research has shown that diurnal cortisol levels are influenced by genetic factors (Veen et al., 2011), but that a majority of differences across subjects can be attributed to the environment (Schreiber et al., 2006), phenotypic associations were explored between the quality of the home environment and children's diurnal cortisol patterns. The first aim of this study was to determine the level of genetic and environmental contributions to different parameters of diurnal cortisol rhythm. The second aim of this study was to examine whether the quality of the home environment, particularly indicators involving parenting and the physical environment, was associated with these same diurnal cortisol measures. A diverse sample of 320 twin children were assessed at 8 years using gold standard home environment interviews and a measure of diurnal cortisol rhythm across three days with three samples taken from each twin every day. Twin intraclass correlations indicated high levels of heritability for the morning to afternoon diurnal cortisol slope as well as the afternoon to evening slope, while measures of cortisol in the afternoon, evening, and across the day showed low levels of heritability, which suggested that differences in the environment were a more influential factor. Multilevel regression analyses showed that the overall quality of the home environment was found to be significantly negatively associated with cortisol levels at bedtime and negatively associated across the morning to afternoon slope at a trend level. The physical environment and emotional climate of the home were not significantly associated with any indicators of the diurnal cortisol pattern. A unique seasonality effect was noted as cortisol measurements taken from participants during the summer were significantly increased when compared to participants throughout the rest of the year. Overall, these findings showed a unique association between the quality of the home environment and diurnal cortisol levels at bedtime and perhaps the change in cortisol levels across the morning to afternoon, as well as a possible seasonal covariate which may affect diurnal cortisol measurements and one which often goes overlooked in cortisol research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

Sammie's Self: A Response to Transgender Issues in Contemporary Society

Description

This honors thesis is a combination of analytical and creative endeavors. The research portion of the project examines contemporary transgender issues, including social, emotional, and cultural concerns. Most notably, the

This honors thesis is a combination of analytical and creative endeavors. The research portion of the project examines contemporary transgender issues, including social, emotional, and cultural concerns. Most notably, the research focuses on the relationship between social support and mental health. These findings suggest that children who fail to receive adequate support are liable to face severe developmental and emotional consequences. The accumulation of this research ultimately serves as the foundation and justification for the creative work, which is presented as a children's book directed at transgender and gender non-confirming youths.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Child Cortisol as a Mediator between Early Maternal Stress and Childhood Pain Response

Description

Early childhood environment is critical to subsequent physical health in children and is influenced by children's primary caregivers \u2014 typically mothers. Maternal stress, one aspect of a child's environment, may

Early childhood environment is critical to subsequent physical health in children and is influenced by children's primary caregivers \u2014 typically mothers. Maternal stress, one aspect of a child's environment, may shape the functioning of the child's physiological stress response system, which has been linked to later health outcomes, including pain. The current study evaluated whether: 1) early maternal stress, defined as maternal depressive symptoms and low socio-economic status, predicts later child pain; 2) early maternal stress relates to later child daily cortisol output; and 3) child's cortisol output across the day mediates the relation between early maternal stress and child pain. Maternal stress was assessed via questionnaires at twin age 12-months. At twin age seven years, twins' salivary cortisol was collected three times per day for three days. At twin age nine years, twins rated how often they experienced stomach, headache, and back pain weekly or more frequently. Results of multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses showed that early maternal stress did not predict later children's daily cortisol output or extent of child pain. Therefore, findings were inconsistent with the proposed mediation model. However, there was a marginally significant negative relation between child daily cortisol output and later extent of child pain. Current findings suggest that functioning of the stress response system, reflected in cortisol output, may have implications for the development of child pain. Future work evaluating intensely stressful early environments may provide clues about the links between a child's early environment and the development of his/her stress response system.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Developmental changes in anxiety and social competence in early childhood: exploring growth and the roles of child temperament and gender

Description

This dissertation examined how anxiety levels and social competence change across the course of early elementary school, as well as how individual differences at the transition to kindergarten may influence

This dissertation examined how anxiety levels and social competence change across the course of early elementary school, as well as how individual differences at the transition to kindergarten may influence these trajectories. Previous research has supported unidirectional relations among anxiety and social competence, but few studies explore how inter- and intra-individual changes in social competence and anxiety may be related across time. From a developmental perspective, studying these trajectories following the transition to kindergarten is important, as cognitive and emotion regulation capacities increase markedly across kindergarten, and the relative success with which children navigate this transition can have a bearing on future social and emotional functioning across elementary school. In addition, given gender differences in anxiety manifestation and social competence development broadly, gender differences were also examined in an exploratory manner. Data from parent and teacher reports of a community sample of 291 children across kindergarten, 1st, and 2nd grades were analyzed. Results from bivariate growth models revealed steeper increases in anxiety, relative to peers in the sample, were associated with steeper decreases in social competence across time. This finding held after controlling for externalizing behavior problems at each time point, which suggests that relations among anxiety and social competence may be independent of other behavior problems commonly associated with poor social adjustment. Temperament variables were associated with changes in social competence, such that purportedly "risky" temperament traits of higher negative emotionality and lower attention control were associated with concurrently lower social competence in kindergarten, but with relatively steeper increases in social competence across time. Temperament variables in kindergarten were unrelated with changes in anxiety across time. Gender differences in relations among anxiety in kindergarten and growth in social competence also were revealed. Findings for teacher and parent reports of child behavior varied. Results are discussed with respect to contexts that may drive differences between parent and teacher reports of child behavior, as well as key developmental considerations that may help to explain why kindergarten temperament variables examined herein appear to predict changes in social competence but not changes in anxiety levels.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016