Matching Items (4)

135385-Thumbnail Image.png

Large Scale Direct Shear Testing of Municipal Solid Waste

Description

This thesis describes the conduct and interpretation of large scale direct shear testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) which was recently conducted at Arizona State University under the guidance of

This thesis describes the conduct and interpretation of large scale direct shear testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) which was recently conducted at Arizona State University under the guidance of Dr. Edward Kavazanjian Jr. This research was performed to establish the shear strength parameters for MSW of a particular landfill in the eastern United States. As part of this research, the unit weight of the material of interest was recorded to help establish if the properties of the waste tested in this project were consistent with the properties of MSW reported in the technical literature.
The paper begins with an overview of scholarly articles on shear strength and unit weight of MSW. This overview summarizes trends found in other MSW investigations. The findings described in these articles served as a basis to determine if the direct shear test results in this investigation complied with typical values reported in other MSW investigations.
A majority of this thesis is dedicated to describing testing protocol, nuances of experimental execution, and test results of the direct shear tests. This culminates in an analysis of the shear strength parameters and consolidated unit weight exhibited by the MSW tested herein. Throughout the testing displacement range of 3.5 inches, none of the MSW specimens achieved a peak shear stress. Consequently, the test results were analyzed at displacements of 1.7 inches, 2.1 inches, and 2.4 inches during the tests to develop Mohr-Coulomb envelopes for each specified displacement. All three envelopes indicated that the cohesion of the material was effectively 0 psf). The interpreted angles of internal friction were of 30.6°, 33.7°, and 36.0° for the displacements of 1.7, 2.1, and 2.4 inches, respectively. These values correlate well with values from previous investigations, indicating that from a shear strength basis the waste tested in this project was typical of MSW from other landfills. Analysis of the consolidated unit weight of the MSW specimens also suggests the MSW was similar to in-situ MSW which was placed in a landfill with low levels of compaction and small amounts of cover soil.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

131289-Thumbnail Image.png

Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste for Power Generation

Description

The paper analyzes the growing desire to use waste-to-energy strategies on municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate power. The two waste-to-energy technologies that will be explored are incineration and gasification.

The paper analyzes the growing desire to use waste-to-energy strategies on municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate power. The two waste-to-energy technologies that will be explored are incineration and gasification. The background of these two technologies will be explained because incineration, which has been the pioneering technology for the past century, has come to be rivaled by gasification with its unique purification feature. Following this section, gasification and incineration power generation are studied to conclude which technology is sounder. This study will be conducted via an analysis to find the thermal and exergetic efficiencies and emissions of each. After analyzing the two technologies, both utilizing a vapor cogeneration power system, their efficiencies were found. For the gasification process, the thermal efficiency was 26% and the exergetic efficiency was 59%. The incineration process had a thermal efficiency of 25% and an exergetic efficiency of 55%. Lastly, the emission from the power generation of each method was explored to see which system had a greater impact on the environment. It was found that the primary emissions of these technologies were carbon dioxide and water.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste for Hydrogen Production

Description

A Study of the gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) for hydrogen production was completed through research and statistical design of experiment. The study was done for general syngas production

A Study of the gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) for hydrogen production was completed through research and statistical design of experiment. The study was done for general syngas production with conditions of high temperature and pressure. Waste samples from kitchen waste including rice, avocado, and egg shells were used. Dry orange blossom tree leaves were included and a very minimal fraction of used paper and Styrofoam. One of the components of the syngas predicted was hydrogen, but this study does not discuss techniques for the separation of the hydrogen from the syngas. A few suggestions, however, such as the use of gas chromatography and membranes are made for the study of the syngas and separation of the hydrogen from the syngas. A three level, three factors-half factorial design was used to analyze the impact of pressure, residence time and temperature on the gasification of MSW through a hydrothermal gasification approach. A series 4590 micro stirred reactor of 100mL was used to gasify MSW, but first, it was established through a TGA approach that the waste was about 5% moisture content and 55% organic content (OC). The TGA device used was the TG 209 F1 Libra. Results of the gasification indicated that the most important factor in the gasification of MSW is temperature, followed by residence time and that the syngas yield increases with a decreasing pressure of the system. A thermodynamic model relating the three factors and the syngas yield was developed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

156707-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigating the Relationship between Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, and the Factors Affecting Them in the United States Building Sector: A Macro and Micro View

Description

The United States building sector was the most significant carbon emission contributor (over 40%). The United States government is trying to decrease carbon emissions by enacting policies, but emissions increased

The United States building sector was the most significant carbon emission contributor (over 40%). The United States government is trying to decrease carbon emissions by enacting policies, but emissions increased by approximately 7 percent in the U.S. between 1990 and 2013. To reduce emissions, investigating the factors affecting carbon emissions should be a priority. Therefore, in this dissertation, this research examine the relationship between carbon emissions and the factors affecting them from macro and micro perspectives. From a macroscopic perspective, the relationship between carbon dioxide, energy resource consumption, energy prices, GDP (gross domestic product), waste generation, and recycling waste generation in the building and waste sectors has been verified. From a microscopic perspective, the impact of non-permanent electric appliances and stationary and non-stationary occupancy has been investigated. To verify the relationships, various kinds of statistical and data mining techniques were applied, such as the Granger causality test, linear and logarithmic correlation, and regression method. The results show that natural gas and electricity prices are higher than others, as coal impacts their consumption, and electricity and coal consumption were found to cause significant carbon emissions. Also, waste generation and recycling significantly increase and decrease emissions from the waste sector, respectively. Moreover, non-permanent appliances such as desktop computers and monitors consume a lot of electricity, and significant energy saving potential has been shown. Lastly, a linear relationship exists between buildings’ electricity use and total occupancy, but no significant relationship exists between occupancy and thermal loads, such as cooling and heating loads. These findings will potentially provide policymakers with a better understanding of and insights into carbon emission manipulation in the building sector.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018