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Design of hygrothermal aging experiment for epoxy and composite samples

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Epoxy resins and composite materials are well characterized in their mechanical properties. However these properties change as the materials age under different conditions, as their microstructure undergoes changes from the absorption or desorption of water. Many of these microstructural changes

Epoxy resins and composite materials are well characterized in their mechanical properties. However these properties change as the materials age under different conditions, as their microstructure undergoes changes from the absorption or desorption of water. Many of these microstructural changes occur at the interfacial region between where the matrix of the composite meets the reinforcement fiber, but still result in significant effects in the material properties. These effects have been studied and characterized under a variety of conditions by artificially aging samples. The artificial aging process focuses on exposing samples to environmental conditions such as high temperature, UV light, and humidity. While conditions like this are important to study, in real world applications the materials will not be simply resting in a laboratory created environment. In most circumstances, they are subjected to some kind of stress or impact. This report will focus on designing an experiment to analyze aged samples under tensile loading and creating a fixture that will sustain loading while the samples are aged. . The conditions that will be tested are control conditions at standard temperature and humidity in the laboratory, submerged, thermal heating, submerged and heated, and hygrothermal.

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2018-05

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Design of Monocoque Chassis for Formula SAE

Description

The project consists of steps that a Formula SAE team could take into developing their first carbon fiber monocoque chassis. The project is based on an interview with a successful team that has build carbon monocoques for the last several

The project consists of steps that a Formula SAE team could take into developing their first carbon fiber monocoque chassis. The project is based on an interview with a successful team that has build carbon monocoques for the last several years. The project covers the steps into designing a carbon monocoque, including aspects that need to be highlighted in the design process as well as an outline of the overall rules and regulations regarding carbon fiber monocoques. The project also encompasses simple finite element analysis procedure that would introduce teams into carbon fiber composite sandwich analysis and its applications in racecar monocoques. The project also includes steps in manufacturing a carbon fiber monocoque beginning from methods to acquire necessary materials to the final process of de-molding the monocoque. The method has been used before from several FSAE teams, proving its viability. The goal is that through this report, teams could have an idea of where to start in developing their carbon monocoques and have a clear path to take on going from initial designs up until a final finished product.

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2018-05

Cyclic Initiation and Propagation Fracture Properties of Seamless and Stitch Bonded Composite Pipes

Description

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix composite. Additionally, the effect of notch tip placement relative to

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix composite. Additionally, the effect of notch tip placement relative to longitudinal fiber toes is investigated. The process for observing and characterizing fatigue crack damage propagation is presented. The fatigue fracture behavior is compared with data acquired from compact tension samples subjected to static tension tests in order to develop damage tolerant design guidelines for tube structures under fatigue loading.

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2017-05

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Design of Pneumatically Actuated Torsional Loading for High Strain Rate Testing

Description

In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain

In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain rates but currently little can be done to produce a synchronized combination of these varying impacts. This research focuses on fabricating a flange which will be mounted on the incident bar of a SHPB and struck perpendicularly by a pneumatically driven striker thus allowing for torsion without interfering with the simultaneous compression or tension. Analytical calculations are done to determine size specifications of the flange to protect against yielding or failure. Based on these results and other design considerations, the flange and a complementary incident bar are created. Timing can then be established such that the waves impact the specimen at the same time causing simultaneous loading of a specimen. This thesis allows research at Arizona State University to individually incorporate all uniaxial deformation modes (tension, compression, and torsion) at high strain rates as well as combining either of the first two modes with torsion. Introduction of torsion will expand the testing capabilities of the SHPB at ASU and allow for more in depth analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials under impact loading. Combining torsion with tension or compression will promote analysis of a material's adherence to the Von Mises failure criterion. This greater understanding of material behavior can be implemented into models and simulations thereby improving the accuracy with which engineers can design new structures.

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2016-05

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Damage Tolerant Design Guidelines for Seamless Carbon Fiber Composite Structures for Pressurized Cylinders

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Seamless carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix (CFRP) composites are being investigated in many structural applications with the purpose of withstanding the extreme pressures and maintaining stiffness in mechanical systems. This report focuses on: fabrication of CFRP tubes and end caps,

Seamless carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix (CFRP) composites are being investigated in many structural applications with the purpose of withstanding the extreme pressures and maintaining stiffness in mechanical systems. This report focuses on: fabrication of CFRP tubes and end caps, the production of a pressurization system to test standards set by Fiber Reinforced Composite (FRC) Pipe and Fittings for Underground Fire Protection Service [1], developing a library for different damage types for seamless composite pipes, and evaluating pre-existing flaws with flash thermography, carrying out hydrostatic testing, and performing nondestructive testing (NDT) to characterize damage induced on the pipes such as cracking, crazing, and fiber breakage. The tasks outlined will be used to develop design guidelines for different combinations of loading systems.

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2018-05

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Nanoscale Interphase Characterization of Agglomerated MWCNT in Composites Connected to Mode I Fracture

Description

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) are a promising engineering material because of their multifunctionality and desirable mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The mechanical and fracture properties of CFRPs rely on effective stress transfer from the bulk matrix to individual carbon

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) are a promising engineering material because of their multifunctionality and desirable mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The mechanical and fracture properties of CFRPs rely on effective stress transfer from the bulk matrix to individual carbon fibers. Pristine carbon fibers (CF) are chemically unreactive and smooth, which inhibits stress transfer mechanisms and makes CF susceptible to matrix debonding. Current composite research aims to improve the synergy between the CF and surrounding matrix by engineering the interphase. The composite interphase is characterized by mechanical properties deviating from the fiber and matrix properties. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene nanoplatelets, and other carbon nanofillers have been studied extensively for their interphase-enhancing capabilities.

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2020-05

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Lighter Concrete: An In-Depth Analysis of the Effects of Recycled Plastic Aggregate in Composite Concrete

Description

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight concrete that maintains its original strength profile. Initial research has shown that a

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight concrete that maintains its original strength profile. Initial research has shown that a plastic-concrete composite could create a more lightweight concrete than that made using the typical gravel aggregate for concrete, while still maintaining the physical strength that concrete is known for. This will be accomplished by varying the amount of plastic in the aggregate. If successful, this project would allow concrete to be used in applications it would typically not be suitable for.<br/>After testing the strength of the concrete specimens with varying fills of plastic aggregate it was determined that the control group experienced an average peak stress of 2089 psi, the 16.67% plastic group experienced an average peak stress of 2649 psi, the 33.3% plastic group experienced an average peak stress of 1852 psi, and the 50% plastic group experienced an average stress of 924.5 psi. The average time to reach the peak stress was found to be 12 minutes and 24 seconds in the control group, 15 minutes and 34 seconds in the 16.7% plastic group, 9 minutes and 45 seconds in the 33.3% plastic group, and 10 minutes and 58 seconds in the 50% plastic group. Taking the average of the normalized weights of the cylindrical samples it was determined that the control group weighed 14.773 oz/in, the 16.7% plastic group weighed 15 oz/in, the 33.3% plastic group weighed 14.573 oz/in, and the 50% plastic group weighed 12.959 oz/in. Based on these results it can be concluded that a small addition of plastic aggregate can be beneficial in creating a lighter, stronger concrete. The results show that a 16.7% fill ratio of plastic to rock aggregate can increase the failure time and the peak strength of a composite concrete. Overall, the experiment was successful in analyzing the effects of recycled plastic aggregate in composite concrete. <br/>Some possible future studies related to this subject material are adding aluminum to the concrete, having better molds, looking for the right consistency in each mixture, mixing for each mold individually, and performing other tests on the samples.

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2021-05

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Lighter Concrete: An In-Depth Analysis of the Effects of Recycled Plastic Aggregate in Composite Concrete

Description

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and<br/>mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight<br/>concrete that maintains its original strength profile. Initial research has shown that a<br/>plastic-concrete composite could

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and<br/>mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight<br/>concrete that maintains its original strength profile. Initial research has shown that a<br/>plastic-concrete composite could create a more lightweight concrete than that made using the<br/>typical gravel aggregate for concrete, while still maintaining the physical strength that concrete is<br/>known for. This will be accomplished by varying the amount of plastic in the aggregate. If<br/>successful, this project would allow concrete to be used in applications it would typically not be<br/>suitable for.<br/>After testing the strength of the concrete specimens with varying fills of plastic aggregate<br/>it was determined that the control group experienced an average peak stress of 2089 psi, the<br/>16.67% plastic group experienced an average peak stress of 2649 psi, the 33.3% plastic group<br/>experienced an average peak stress of 1852 psi, and the 50% plastic group experienced an<br/>average stress of 924.5 psi. The average time to reach the peak stress was found to be 12 minutes<br/>and 24 seconds in the control group, 15 minutes and 34 seconds in the 16.7% plastic group, 9<br/>minutes and 45 seconds in the 33.3% plastic group, and 10 minutes and 58 seconds in the 50%<br/>plastic group. Taking the average of the normalized weights of the cylindrical samples it was<br/>determined that the control group weighed 14.773 oz/in, the 16.7% plastic group weighed 15<br/>oz/in, the 33.3% plastic group weighed 14.573 oz/in, and the 50% plastic group weighed 12.959<br/>oz/in. Based on these results it can be concluded that a small addition of plastic aggregate can be<br/>beneficial in creating a lighter, stronger concrete. The results show that a 16.7% fill ratio of<br/>plastic to rock aggregate can increase the failure time and the peak strength of a composite<br/>concrete. Overall, the experiment was successful in analyzing the effects of recycled plastic<br/>aggregate in composite concrete.<br/>Some possible future studies related to this subject material are adding aluminum to the<br/>concrete, having better molds, looking for the right consistency in each mixture, mixing for each<br/>mold individually, and performing other tests on the samples.

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2021-05

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DCB and ENF Testing to Determine Interlaminar Fracture Properties of Honeywell Spectra Shield® 5231 Composite

Description

Laminated composites are increasingly being used in various industries including <br/>automotive and aerospace. Under a variety of extreme loading conditions such as low and <br/>high-velocity impacts and crash, laminated composites delaminate. To understand how and<br/>when delamination occurs, two types of

Laminated composites are increasingly being used in various industries including <br/>automotive and aerospace. Under a variety of extreme loading conditions such as low and <br/>high-velocity impacts and crash, laminated composites delaminate. To understand how and<br/>when delamination occurs, two types of laboratory tests are conducted - End-notched <br/>Flexure (ENF) test and Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) test. The ENF test is designed to <br/>find the mode II interlaminar fracture toughness, and the DCB test, the mode I interlaminar <br/>fracture toughness. In this thesis, thermopressed Honeywell Spectra Shield® 5231 <br/>composite specimens made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), <br/>manufactured under two different pressures (3000 psi and 6000 psi), are tested in the <br/>laboratory to find its delamination properties. The test specimen preparation, experimental <br/>procedures, and data reduction to determine the mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture <br/>properties are discussed. The ENF test results show a 15.8% increase in strain energy <br/>release rate for the 6000 psi specimens when compared to the 3000 psi specimens. <br/>Conducting the DCB tests proved to be challenging due to the low compressive strength <br/>of the material and hence required modifications to the test specimens. An estimate of the <br/>mode I interlaminar fracture toughness was found for only two of the 6000 psi specimens.

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2021-05