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In situ SEM Testing for Fatigue Crack Growth: Mechanical Investigation of Titanium

Description

Widespread knowledge of fracture mechanics is mostly based on previous models that generalize crack growth in materials over several loading cycles. The objective of this project is to characterize crack growth that occurs in titanium alloys, specifically Grade 5 Ti-6Al-4V,

Widespread knowledge of fracture mechanics is mostly based on previous models that generalize crack growth in materials over several loading cycles. The objective of this project is to characterize crack growth that occurs in titanium alloys, specifically Grade 5 Ti-6Al-4V, at the sub-cycle scale, or within a single loading cycle. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), imaging analysis is performed to observe crack behavior at ten loading steps throughout the loading and unloading paths. Analysis involves measuring the incremental crack growth and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) of specimens at loading ratios of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5. This report defines the relationship between crack growth and the stress intensity factor, K, of the specimens, as well as the relationship between the R-ratio and stress opening level. The crack closure phenomena and effect of microcracks are discussed as they influence the crack growth behavior. This method has previously been used to characterize crack growth in Al 7075-T6. The results for Ti-6Al-4V are compared to these previous findings in order to strengthen conclusions about crack growth behavior.

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2018-05

A Study of the Mechanical Behavior Of Nanocrystalline Metals Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

Description

The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that make up nanocrystalline metals lead to higher strength but lower

The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that make up nanocrystalline metals lead to higher strength but lower ductility as compared to bulk metals. Effects of strain-rate dependence on the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals are explored. Knowing the strain rate dependence of mechanical properties would enable optimization of material selection for different applications and lead to lighter structural components and enhanced sustainability.

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2014-05

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Numerical simulation of dynamic contact angles and contact lines in multiphase flows using level set method

Description

Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall

Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall boundaries are a couple of such important aspects. In the past few decades, many mathematical models were developed for predicting the contact angles of the inter-face with the wall boundary under various flow conditions. These models are used to incorporate the physics of DCA and contact line motion in numerical simulations using various interface capturing/tracking techniques. In the current thesis, a simple approach to incorporate the static and dynamic contact angle boundary conditions using the level set method is developed and implemented in multiphase CFD codes, LIT (Level set Interface Tracking) (Herrmann (2008)) and NGA (flow solver) (Desjardins et al (2008)). Various DCA models and associated boundary conditions are reviewed. In addition, numerical aspects such as the occurrence of a stress singularity at the contact lines and grid convergence of macroscopic interface shape are dealt with in the context of the level set approach.

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2015

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A novel nonlocal lattice particle framework for modeling of solids

Description

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity resulted from the spatial discontinuity at the crack tip/front. The requirement of guiding criteria for various cracking behaviors, such as initiation, propagation, and branching, also poses some challenges. Comparing to the continuum based formulation, the discrete approaches, such as lattice spring method, discrete element method, and peridynamics, have certain advantages when modeling various fracture problems due to their intrinsic characteristics in modeling discontinuities.

A novel, alternative, and systematic framework based on a nonlocal lattice particle model is proposed in this study. The uniqueness of the proposed model is the inclusion of both pair-wise local and multi-body nonlocal potentials in the formulation. First, the basic ideas of the proposed framework for 2D isotropic solid are presented. Derivations for triangular and square lattice structure are discussed in detail. Both mechanical deformation and fracture process are simulated and model verification and validation are performed with existing analytical solutions and experimental observations. Following this, the extension to general 3D isotropic solids based on the proposed local and nonlocal potentials is given. Three cubic lattice structures are discussed in detail. Failure predictions using the 3D simulation are compared with experimental testing results and very good agreement is observed. Next, a lattice rotation scheme is proposed to account for the material orientation in modeling anisotropic solids. The consistency and difference compared to the classical material tangent stiffness transformation method are discussed in detail. The implicit and explicit solution methods for the proposed lattice particle model are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and discussions based on the current study are drawn at the end.

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Date Created
2015

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Construction of a thermal conductivity measurement platform for bulk and thin film materials based on the 3-Omega technique

Description

Nanostructured materials show signicant enhancement in the thermoelectric g-

ure of merit (zT) due to quantum connement eects. Improving the eciency of

thermoelectric devices allows for the development of better, more economical waste

heat recovery systems. Such systems may be used as bottoming

Nanostructured materials show signicant enhancement in the thermoelectric g-

ure of merit (zT) due to quantum connement eects. Improving the eciency of

thermoelectric devices allows for the development of better, more economical waste

heat recovery systems. Such systems may be used as bottoming or co-generation

cycles in conjunction with conventional power cycles to recover some of the wasted

heat. Thermal conductivity measurement systems are an important part of the char-

acterization processes of thermoelectric materials. These systems must possess the

capability of accurately measuring the thermal conductivity of both bulk and thin-lm

samples at dierent ambient temperatures.

This paper discusses the construction, validation, and improvement of a thermal

conductivity measurement platform based on the 3-Omega technique. Room temperature

measurements of thermal conductivity done on control samples with known properties

such as undoped bulk silicon (Si), bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon dioxide

(SiO2) thin lms yielded 150 W=m􀀀K, 50 W=m􀀀K, and 1:46 W=m􀀀K respectively.

These quantities were all within 8% of literature values. In addition, the thermal

conductivity of bulk SiO2 was measured as a function of temperature in a Helium-

4 cryostat from 75K to 250K. The results showed good agreement with literature

values that all fell within the error range of each measurement. The uncertainty in

the measurements ranged from 19% at 75K to 30% at 250K. Finally, the system

was used to measure the room temperature thermal conductivity of a nanocomposite

composed of cadmium selenide, CdSe, nanocrystals in an indium selenide, In2Se3,

matrix as a function of the concentration of In2Se3. The observed trend was in

qualitative agreement with the expected behavior.

i

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Date Created
2014

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Gallium-based room temperature liquid metals and its application to single channel two-liquid hyperelastic capacitive strain sensors

Description

Gallium-based liquid metals are of interest for a variety of applications including flexible electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. Still, nano- to microscale device fabrication with these materials is challenging because of their strong adhesion to a majority of substrates.

Gallium-based liquid metals are of interest for a variety of applications including flexible electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. Still, nano- to microscale device fabrication with these materials is challenging because of their strong adhesion to a majority of substrates. This unusual high adhesion is attributed to the formation of a thin oxide shell; however, its role in the adhesion process has not yet been established. In the first part of the thesis, we described a multiscale study aiming at understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing wetting and adhesion of gallium-based liquid metals. In particular, macroscale dynamic contact angle measurements were coupled with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging to relate macroscopic drop adhesion to morphology of the liquid metal-surface interface. In addition, room temperature liquid-metal microfluidic devices are also attractive systems for hyperelastic strain sensing. Currently two types of liquid metal-based strain sensors exist for inplane measurements: single-microchannel resistive and two-microchannel capacitive devices. However, with a winding serpentine channel geometry, these sensors typically have a footprint of about a square centimeter, limiting the number of sensors that can be embedded into. In the second part of the thesis, firstly, simulations and an experimental setup consisting of two GaInSn filled tubes submerged within a dielectric liquid bath are used to quantify the effects of the cylindrical electrode geometry including diameter, spacing, and meniscus shape as well as dielectric constant of the insulating liquid and the presence of tubing on the overall system's capacitance. Furthermore, a procedure for fabricating the two-liquid capacitor within a single straight polydiemethylsiloxane channel is developed. Lastly, capacitance and response of this compact device to strain and operational issues arising from complex hydrodynamics near liquid-liquid and liquid-elastomer interfaces are described.

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Date Created
2015

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Nano-engineering metamaterials and metafilms for high-efficiency solar energy harvesting and conversion

Description

The energy crisis in the past decades has greatly boosted the search for alternatives to traditional fossil foils, and solar energy stands out as an important candidate due to its cleanness and abundance. However, the relatively low conversion efficiency and

The energy crisis in the past decades has greatly boosted the search for alternatives to traditional fossil foils, and solar energy stands out as an important candidate due to its cleanness and abundance. However, the relatively low conversion efficiency and energy density strongly hinder the utilization of solar energy in wider applications. This thesis focuses on employing metamaterials and metafilms to enhance the conversion efficiency of solar thermal, solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) and photovoltaic systems.

A selective metamaterial solar absorber is designed in this thesis to maximize the absorbed solar energy and minimize heat dissipation through thermal radiation. The theoretically designed metamaterial solar absorber exhibits absorptance higher than 95% in the solar spectrum but shows emittance less than 4% in the IR regime. This metamaterial solar absorber is further experimentally fabricated and optically characterized. Moreover, a metafilm selective absorber with stability up to 600oC is introduced, which exhibits solar absorptance higher than 90% and IR emittance less than 10%.

Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion enhanced by metamaterial absorbers and emitters is theoretically investigated in this thesis. The STPV system employing selective metamaterial absorber and emitter is investigated in this work, showing its conversion efficiency between 8% and 10% with concentration factor varying between 20 and 200. This conversion efficiency is remarkably enhanced compared with the conversion efficiency for STPV system employing black surfaces (<2.5%).

Moreover, plasmonic light trapping in ultra-thin solar cells employing concave grating nanostructures is discussed in this thesis. The plasmonic light trapping inside an ultrathin GaAs layer in the film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically demonstrated. By exciting plasmonic resonances inside this structure, the short-circuit current density for the film-coupled metamaterial solar cell is three times the short-circuit current for a free-standing GaAs layer.

The dissertation is concluded by discussing about the future work on selective solar thermal absorbers, STPV/TPV systems and light trapping structures. Possibilities to design and fabricate solar thermal absorber with better thermal stability will be discussed, the experimental work of TPV system will be conducted, and the light trapping in organic and perovskite solar cells will be looked into.

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Date Created
2016

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A friction and adhesion characterization setup for extreme temperatures

Description

It is well known that the geckos can cling to almost any surface using highly dense micro
ano fibrils found on the feet that rely on Van Der Waals forces to adhere. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been

It is well known that the geckos can cling to almost any surface using highly dense micro
ano fibrils found on the feet that rely on Van Der Waals forces to adhere. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the adhesion mechanism of gecko feet. This work explains the building procedure of custom experimental setup to test the adhesion force over a temperature range and extends its application in space environment, potentially unsafe working condition.

This study demonstrates that these adhesive capable of switching adhesive properties not only at room environment but also over a temperature range of -160 degC to 120 degC in vacuum conditions. These conditions are similar to the condition experienced by a satellite in a space orbiting around the earth. Also, this study demonstrated various detachment and specimen patch preparation methods. The custom-made experimental setup for adhesion test can measure adhesion force in temperature and pressure controlled environment over specimen size of 1 sq. inch. A cryogenic cooling system with liquid nitrogen is used to achieve -160 degC and an electric resistive heating system are used to achieve 120 degC in controlled volume. Thermal electrodes, infrared thermopile detectors are used to record temperature at sample and pressure indicator to record vacuum condition in controlled volume. Reversibility of the switching behaviour of the specimen in controlled environment confirms its application in space and very high or very low-temperature conditions.

The experimental setup was developed using SolidWorks as a design tool, Ansys as simulation tool and the data acquisition utilizes LabVIEW available in the market today.

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Date Created
2016

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Printed passive microfluidic devices using TEOS reactive inks

Description

This paper details ink chemistries and processes to fabricate passive microfluidic devices using drop-on-demand printing of tetraethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS) inks. Parameters space investigation of the relationship between printed morphology and ink chemistries and printing parameters was conducted to demonstrate that

This paper details ink chemistries and processes to fabricate passive microfluidic devices using drop-on-demand printing of tetraethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS) inks. Parameters space investigation of the relationship between printed morphology and ink chemistries and printing parameters was conducted to demonstrate that morphology can be controlled by adjusting solvents selection, TEOS concentration, substrate temperature, and hydrolysis time. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope images were gathered to observe printed morphology and optical videos were taken to quantify the impact of morphology on fluid flow rates. The microscopy images show that by controlling the hydrolysis time of TEOS, dilution solvents and the printing temperature, dense or fracture structure can be obtained. Fracture structures are used as passive fluidic device due to strong capillary action in cracks. At last, flow rate of passive fluidic devices with different thickness printed at different temperatures are measured and compared. The result shows the flow rate increases with the increase of device width and thickness. By controlling the morphology and dimensions of printed structure, passive microfluidic devices with designed flow rate and low fluorescence background are able to be printed.

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Date Created
2016

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A new atomistic simulation framework for mechanochemical reaction analysis of mechanophore embedded nanocomposites

Description

A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation framework is developed to emulate mechanochemical reaction of mechanophores in epoxy-based nanocomposites. Two different force fields, a classical force field and a bond order based force field are hybridized to mimic the experimental processes

A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation framework is developed to emulate mechanochemical reaction of mechanophores in epoxy-based nanocomposites. Two different force fields, a classical force field and a bond order based force field are hybridized to mimic the experimental processes from specimen preparation to mechanical loading test. Ultra-violet photodimerization for mechanophore synthesis and epoxy curing for thermoset polymer generation are successfully simulated by developing a numerical covalent bond generation method using the classical force field within the framework. Mechanical loading tests to activate mechanophores are also virtually conducted by deforming the volume of a simulation unit cell. The unit cell deformation leads to covalent bond elongation and subsequent bond breakage, which is captured using the bond order based force field. The outcome of the virtual loading test is used for local work analysis, which enables a quantitative study of mechanophore activation. Through the local work analysis, the onset and evolution of mechanophore activation indicating damage initiation and propagation are estimated; ultimately, the mechanophore sensitivity to external stress is evaluated. The virtual loading tests also provide accurate estimations of mechanical properties such as elastic, shear, bulk modulus, yield strain/strength, and Poisson’s ratio of the system. Experimental studies are performed in conjunction with the simulation work to validate the hybrid MD simulation framework. Less than 2% error in estimations of glass transition temperature (Tg) is observed with experimentally measured Tgs by use of differential scanning calorimetry. Virtual loading tests successfully reproduce the stress-strain curve capturing the effect of mechanophore inclusion on mechanical properties of epoxy polymer; comparable changes in Young’s modulus and yield strength are observed in experiments and simulations. Early damage signal detection, which is identified in experiments by observing increased intensity before the yield strain, is captured in simulations by showing that the critical strain representing the onset of the mechanophore activation occurs before the estimated yield strain. It is anticipated that the experimentally validated hybrid MD framework presented in this dissertation will provide a low-cost alternative to additional experiments that are required for optimizing material design parameters to improve damage sensing capability and mechanical properties.

In addition to the study of mechanochemical reaction analysis, an atomistic model of interphase in carbon fiber reinforced composites is developed. Physical entanglement between semi-crystalline carbon fiber surface and polymer matrix is captured by introducing voids in multiple graphene layers, which allow polymer matrix to intertwine with graphene layers. The hybrid MD framework is used with some modifications to estimate interphase properties that include the effect of the physical entanglement. The results are compared with existing carbon fiber surface models that assume that carbon fiber has a crystalline structure and hence are unable to capture the physical entanglement. Results indicate that the current model shows larger stress gradients across the material interphase. These large stress gradients increase the viscoplasticity and damage effects at the interphase. The results are important for improved prediction of the nonlinear response and damage evolution in composite materials.

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Date Created
2017