Matching Items (6)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

150086-Thumbnail Image.png

Offline and online adaboost for detecting anatomic structures

Description

Detecting anatomical structures, such as the carina, the pulmonary trunk and the aortic arch, is an important step in designing a CAD system of detection Pulmonary Embolism. The presented CAD system gets rid of the high-level prior defined knowledge to

Detecting anatomical structures, such as the carina, the pulmonary trunk and the aortic arch, is an important step in designing a CAD system of detection Pulmonary Embolism. The presented CAD system gets rid of the high-level prior defined knowledge to become a system which can easily extend to detect other anatomic structures. The system is based on a machine learning algorithm --- AdaBoost and a general feature --- Haar. This study emphasizes on off-line and on-line AdaBoost learning. And in on-line AdaBoost, the thesis further deals with extremely imbalanced condition. The thesis first reviews several knowledge-based detection methods, which are relied on human being's understanding of the relationship between anatomic structures. Then the thesis introduces a classic off-line AdaBoost learning. The thesis applies different cascading scheme, namely multi-exit cascading scheme. The comparison between the two methods will be provided and discussed. Both of the off-line AdaBoost methods have problems in memory usage and time consuming. Off-line AdaBoost methods need to store all the training samples and the dataset need to be set before training. The dataset cannot be enlarged dynamically. Different training dataset requires retraining the whole process. The retraining is very time consuming and even not realistic. To deal with the shortcomings of off-line learning, the study exploited on-line AdaBoost learning approach. The thesis proposed a novel pool based on-line method with Kalman filters and histogram to better represent the distribution of the samples' weight. Analysis of the performance, the stability and the computational complexity will be provided in the thesis. Furthermore, the original on-line AdaBoost performs badly in imbalanced conditions, which occur frequently in medical image processing. In image dataset, positive samples are limited and negative samples are countless. A novel Self-Adaptive Asymmetric On-line Boosting method is presented. The method utilized a new asymmetric loss criterion with self-adaptability according to the ratio of exposed positive and negative samples and it has an advanced rule to update sample's importance weight taking account of both classification result and sample's label. Compared to traditional on-line AdaBoost Learning method, the new method can achieve far more accuracy in imbalanced conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

152165-Thumbnail Image.png

Informatics approach to improving surgical skills training

Description

Surgery as a profession requires significant training to improve both clinical decision making and psychomotor proficiency. In the medical knowledge domain, tools have been developed, validated, and accepted for evaluation of surgeons' competencies. However, assessment of the psychomotor skills still

Surgery as a profession requires significant training to improve both clinical decision making and psychomotor proficiency. In the medical knowledge domain, tools have been developed, validated, and accepted for evaluation of surgeons' competencies. However, assessment of the psychomotor skills still relies on the Halstedian model of apprenticeship, wherein surgeons are observed during residency for judgment of their skills. Although the value of this method of skills assessment cannot be ignored, novel methodologies of objective skills assessment need to be designed, developed, and evaluated that augment the traditional approach. Several sensor-based systems have been developed to measure a user's skill quantitatively, but use of sensors could interfere with skill execution and thus limit the potential for evaluating real-life surgery. However, having a method to judge skills automatically in real-life conditions should be the ultimate goal, since only with such features that a system would be widely adopted. This research proposes a novel video-based approach for observing surgeons' hand and surgical tool movements in minimally invasive surgical training exercises as well as during laparoscopic surgery. Because our system does not require surgeons to wear special sensors, it has the distinct advantage over alternatives of offering skills assessment in both learning and real-life environments. The system automatically detects major skill-measuring features from surgical task videos using a computing system composed of a series of computer vision algorithms and provides on-screen real-time performance feedback for more efficient skill learning. Finally, the machine-learning approach is used to develop an observer-independent composite scoring model through objective and quantitative measurement of surgical skills. To increase effectiveness and usability of the developed system, it is integrated with a cloud-based tool, which automatically assesses surgical videos upload to the cloud.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

154703-Thumbnail Image.png

A unified framework based on convolutional neural networks for interpreting carotid intima-media thickness videos

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality yet largely preventable, but the key to prevention is to identify at-risk individuals before adverse events. For predicting individual CVD risk, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a noninvasive ultrasound method, has proven

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality yet largely preventable, but the key to prevention is to identify at-risk individuals before adverse events. For predicting individual CVD risk, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a noninvasive ultrasound method, has proven to be valuable, offering several advantages over CT coronary artery calcium score. However, each CIMT examination includes several ultrasound videos, and interpreting each of these CIMT videos involves three operations: (1) select three enddiastolic ultrasound frames (EUF) in the video, (2) localize a region of interest (ROI) in each selected frame, and (3) trace the lumen-intima interface and the media-adventitia interface in each ROI to measure CIMT. These operations are tedious, laborious, and time consuming, a serious limitation that hinders the widespread utilization of CIMT in clinical practice. To overcome this limitation, this paper presents a new system to automate CIMT video interpretation. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the suggested system significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. The superior performance is attributable to our unified framework based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) coupled with our informative image representation and effective post-processing of the CNN outputs, which are uniquely designed for each of the above three operations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

161756-Thumbnail Image.png

Towards Annotation-Efficient Deep Learning for Computer-Aided Diagnosis

Description

There is intense interest in adopting computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, particularly those developed based on deep learning algorithms, for applications in a number of medical specialties. However, success of these CAD systems relies heavily on large annotated datasets; otherwise, dee

There is intense interest in adopting computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, particularly those developed based on deep learning algorithms, for applications in a number of medical specialties. However, success of these CAD systems relies heavily on large annotated datasets; otherwise, deep learning often results in algorithms that perform poorly and lack generalizability. Therefore, this dissertation seeks to address this critical problem: How to develop efficient and effective deep learning algorithms for medical applications where large annotated datasets are unavailable. In doing so, we have outlined three specific aims: (1) acquiring necessary annotations efficiently from human experts; (2) utilizing existing annotations effectively from advanced architecture; and (3) extracting generic knowledge directly from unannotated images. Our extensive experiments indicate that, with a small part of the dataset annotated, the developed deep learning methods can match, or even outperform those that require annotating the entire dataset. The last part of this dissertation presents the importance and application of imaging in healthcare, elaborating on how the developed techniques can impact several key facets of the CAD system for detecting pulmonary embolism. Further research is necessary to determine the feasibility of applying these advanced deep learning technologies in clinical practice, particularly when annotation is limited. Progress in this area has the potential to enable deep learning algorithms to generalize to real clinical data and eventually allow CAD systems to be employed in clinical medicine at the point of care.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

155019-Thumbnail Image.png

Comparative genomics and novel bioinformatics methodology applied to the green anole reveal unique sex chromosome evolution

Description

In species with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the degradation of one of the sex chromosomes can result in unequal gene expression between the sexes (e.g., between XX females and XY males) and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. Dosage

In species with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the degradation of one of the sex chromosomes can result in unequal gene expression between the sexes (e.g., between XX females and XY males) and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. Dosage compensation is a process whereby genes on the sex chromosomes achieve equal gene expression which prevents deleterious side effects from having too much or too little expression of genes on sex chromsomes. The green anole is part of a group of species that recently underwent an adaptive radiation. The green anole has XX/XY sex determination, but the content of the X chromosome and its evolution have not been described. Given its status as a model species, better understanding the green anole genome could reveal insights into other species. Genomic analyses are crucial for a comprehensive picture of sex chromosome differentiation and dosage compensation, in addition to understanding speciation.

In order to address this, multiple comparative genomics and bioinformatics analyses were conducted to elucidate patterns of evolution in the green anole and across multiple anole species. Comparative genomics analyses were used to infer additional X-linked loci in the green anole, RNAseq data from male and female samples were anayzed to quantify patterns of sex-biased gene expression across the genome, and the extent of dosage compensation on the anole X chromosome was characterized, providing evidence that the sex chromosomes in the green anole are dosage compensated.

In addition, X-linked genes have a lower ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates than the autosomes when compared to other Anolis species, and pairwise rates of evolution in genes across the anole genome were analyzed. To conduct this analysis a new pipeline was created for filtering alignments and performing batch calculations for whole genome coding sequences. This pipeline has been made publicly available.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

158615-Thumbnail Image.png

Self-supervised Representation Learning via Image Out-painting for Medical Image Analysis

Description

In recent years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been widely used in not only the computer vision community but also within the medical imaging community. Specifically, the use of pre-trained CNNs on large-scale datasets (e.g., ImageNet) via transfer learning for

In recent years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been widely used in not only the computer vision community but also within the medical imaging community. Specifically, the use of pre-trained CNNs on large-scale datasets (e.g., ImageNet) via transfer learning for a variety of medical imaging applications, has become the de facto standard within both communities.

However, to fit the current paradigm, 3D imaging tasks have to be reformulated and solved in 2D, losing rich 3D contextual information. Moreover, pre-trained models on natural images never see any biomedical images and do not have knowledge about anatomical structures present in medical images. To overcome the above limitations, this thesis proposes an image out-painting self-supervised proxy task to develop pre-trained models directly from medical images without utilizing systematic annotations. The idea is to randomly mask an image and train the model to predict the missing region. It is demonstrated that by predicting missing anatomical structures when seeing only parts of the image, the model will learn generic representation yielding better performance on various medical imaging applications via transfer learning.

The extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed proxy task outperforms training from scratch in six out of seven medical imaging applications covering 2D and 3D classification and segmentation. Moreover, image out-painting proxy task offers competitive performance to state-of-the-art models pre-trained on ImageNet and other self-supervised baselines such as in-painting. Owing to its outstanding performance, out-painting is utilized as one of the self-supervised proxy tasks to provide generic 3D pre-trained models for medical image analysis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020