Matching Items (18)

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Phantom Forces Haunting Free Body Diagrams: Unveiling a Major Misconception in Statics and Dynamics

Description

A concept found that students struggle with in statics and dynamics is free body diagrams. To capture the difficulties students have with this concept, faculty interviews were conducted to determine common errors seen in a classroom setting. The feedback was

A concept found that students struggle with in statics and dynamics is free body diagrams. To capture the difficulties students have with this concept, faculty interviews were conducted to determine common errors seen in a classroom setting. The feedback was used to pull questions from a statics concept inventory focused on free body diagrams. Students who have passed statics and dynamics courses in their engineering degree were asked to participate in talk alouds to confirm the faculty input. The talk alouds provided first hand observations of the student thought process when they perform common errors in creating free body diagrams. The results highlighted that students commonly add forces that are not there or fail to only depict the external forces acting on the system in question. A professor describes the occurrence when students insist on adding forces that are not there as phantom forces. To remedy the idea of phantom forces, an intervention was proposed to be implemented into the classroom.

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2015-05

Educational Software Based on System Dynamics

Description

This thesis explores the potential for software to act as an educational experience for engineers who are learning system dynamics and controls. The specific focus is a spring-mass-damper system. First, a brief introduction of the spring-mass-damper system is given, followed

This thesis explores the potential for software to act as an educational experience for engineers who are learning system dynamics and controls. The specific focus is a spring-mass-damper system. First, a brief introduction of the spring-mass-damper system is given, followed by a review of the background and prior work concerning this topic. Then, the methodology and main approaches of the system are explained, as well as a more technical overview of the program. Lastly, a conclusion and discussion of potential future work is covered. The project was found to be useful by several engineers who tested it. While there is still plenty of functionality to add, it is a promising first attempt at teaching engineers through software development.

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2021-05

DYNAMICS OF OVERSTEER: MODELLING DRIFT BY SOLVING A SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS

Description

The dynamics of friction as they relate to automobile behavior have been heavily analyzed under conditions that are favorable and predictable in the realm of daily driving. The scope of this project is to investigate behavior of slip in unfavorable

The dynamics of friction as they relate to automobile behavior have been heavily analyzed under conditions that are favorable and predictable in the realm of daily driving. The scope of this project is to investigate behavior of slip in unfavorable conditions and develop a mathematical solution that allows users to predict behavior of oversteer and excessive sideslip. I am fascinated by the topic as I have developed a background in the sport of drifting (controlled oversteer) and would like to contribute to the understanding of this lesser appreciated science. Highly valued components of the project such as velocities, forces, coefficients of friction, steering angles, slip angles, and multi-wheel analysis will all lead to a deeper understanding of relationships between aspects of a vehicle undergoing oversteer.

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2020-12

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The role of mutations in protein structural dynamics and function: a multi-scale computational approach

Description

Proteins are a fundamental unit in biology. Although proteins have been extensively studied, there is still much to investigate. The mechanism by which proteins fold into their native state, how evolution shapes structural dynamics, and the dynamic mechanisms of many

Proteins are a fundamental unit in biology. Although proteins have been extensively studied, there is still much to investigate. The mechanism by which proteins fold into their native state, how evolution shapes structural dynamics, and the dynamic mechanisms of many diseases are not well understood. In this thesis, protein folding is explored using a multi-scale modeling method including (i) geometric constraint based simulations that efficiently search for native like topologies and (ii) reservoir replica exchange molecular dynamics, which identify the low free energy structures and refines these structures toward the native conformation. A test set of eight proteins and three ancestral steroid receptor proteins are folded to 2.7Å all-atom RMSD from their experimental crystal structures. Protein evolution and disease associated mutations (DAMs) are most commonly studied by in silico multiple sequence alignment methods. Here, however, the structural dynamics are incorporated to give insight into the evolution of three ancestral proteins and the mechanism of several diseases in human ferritin protein. The differences in conformational dynamics of these evolutionary related, functionally diverged ancestral steroid receptor proteins are investigated by obtaining the most collective motion through essential dynamics. Strikingly, this analysis shows that evolutionary diverged proteins of the same family do not share the same dynamic subspace. Rather, those sharing the same function are simultaneously clustered together and distant from those functionally diverged homologs. This dynamics analysis also identifies 77% of mutations (functional and permissive) necessary to evolve new function. In silico methods for prediction of DAMs rely on differences in evolution rate due to purifying selection and therefore the accuracy of DAM prediction decreases at fast and slow evolvable sites. Here, we investigate structural dynamics through computing the contribution of each residue to the biologically relevant fluctuations and from this define a metric: the dynamic stability index (DSI). Using DSI we study the mechanism for three diseases observed in the human ferritin protein. The T30I and R40G DAMs show a loss of dynamic stability at the C-terminus helix and nearby regulatory loop, agreeing with experimental results implicating the same regulatory loop as a cause in cataracts syndrome.

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2011

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Relative phase dynamics in motor-respiratory coordination

Description

Motor-respiratory coordination is the synchronization of movement and breathing during exercise. The relation between movement and breathing can be described using relative phase, a measure of the location in the movement cycle relative to the location in the breathing cycle.

Motor-respiratory coordination is the synchronization of movement and breathing during exercise. The relation between movement and breathing can be described using relative phase, a measure of the location in the movement cycle relative to the location in the breathing cycle. Stability in that relative phase relation has been identified as important for aerobic efficiency. However, performance can be overly attracted to stable relative phases, preventing the performance or learning of more complex patterns. Little research exists on relative phase dynamics in motor-respiratory coordination, although those observations underscore the importance of learning more. In contrast, there is an extensive literature on relative phase dynamics in interlimb coordination. The accuracy and stability of different relative phases, transitions between patterns, and asymmetries between components are well understood. Theoretically, motor-respiratory and interlimb coordination may share dynamical properties that operate in their different physiological substrates. An existing model of relative phase dynamics in interlimb coordination, the Haken, Kelso, Bunz model, was used to gain an understanding of relative phase dynamics in the less-researched motor-respiratory coordination. Experiments 1 and 2 were designed to examine the interaction of frequency asymmetries between movement and breathing with relative phase and frequency, respectively. In Experiment 3, relative phase stability and transitions in motor-respiratory coordination were explored. Perceptual constraints on differences in stability were investigated in Experiment 4. Across experiments, contributions relevant to questions of coordinative variability were made using a dynamical method called cross recurrence quantification analysis. Results showed much consistency with predictions from an asymmetric extension of the Haken, Kelso, Bunz model and theoretical interpretation in the interlimb coordination literature, including phase wandering, intermittency, and an interdependence of perception and action. There were, however, notable exceptions that indicated stability can decrease with more natural frequency asymmetries and the connection of cross recurrence measures to categories of variability needs further clarification. The complex relative phase dynamics displayed in this study suggest that movement and breathing are softly-assembled by functional constraints and indicate that motor-respiratory coordination is a self-organized system.

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Date Created
2010

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System reconstruction via compressive sensing, complex-network dynamics and electron transport in graphene systems

Description

Complex dynamical systems consisting interacting dynamical units are ubiquitous in nature and society. Predicting and reconstructing nonlinear dynamics of units and the complex interacting networks among them serves the base for the understanding of a variety of collective dynamical phenomena.

Complex dynamical systems consisting interacting dynamical units are ubiquitous in nature and society. Predicting and reconstructing nonlinear dynamics of units and the complex interacting networks among them serves the base for the understanding of a variety of collective dynamical phenomena. I present a general method to address the two outstanding problems as a whole based solely on time-series measurements. The method is implemented by incorporating compressive sensing approach that enables an accurate reconstruction of complex dynamical systems in terms of both nodal equations that determines the self-dynamics of units and detailed coupling patterns among units. The representative advantages of the approach are (i) the sparse data requirement which allows for a successful reconstruction from limited measurements, and (ii) general applicability to identical and nonidentical nodal dynamics, and to networks with arbitrary interacting structure, strength and sizes. Another two challenging problem of significant interest in nonlinear dynamics: (i) predicting catastrophes in nonlinear dynamical systems in advance of their occurrences and (ii) predicting the future state for time-varying nonlinear dynamical systems, can be formulated and solved in the framework of compressive sensing using only limited measurements. Once the network structure can be inferred, the dynamics behavior on them can be investigated, for example optimize information spreading dynamics, suppress cascading dynamics and traffic congestion, enhance synchronization, game dynamics, etc. The results can yield insights to control strategies design in the real-world social and natural systems. Since 2004, there has been a tremendous amount of interest in graphene. The most amazing feature of graphene is that there exists linear energy-momentum relationship when energy is low. The quasi-particles inside the system can be treated as chiral, massless Dirac fermions obeying relativistic quantum mechanics. Therefore, the graphene provides one perfect test bed to investigate relativistic quantum phenomena, such as relativistic quantum chaotic scattering and abnormal electron paths induced by klein tunneling. This phenomenon has profound implications to the development of graphene based devices that require stable electronic properties.

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2012

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Dynamics, modeling, simulation and control of mid-flight coupling of quadrotors

Description

Unmanned aerial vehicles have received increased attention in the last decade due to their versatility, as well as the availability of inexpensive sensors (e.g. GPS, IMU) for their navigation and control. Multirotor vehicles, specifically quadrotors, have formed a fast growing

Unmanned aerial vehicles have received increased attention in the last decade due to their versatility, as well as the availability of inexpensive sensors (e.g. GPS, IMU) for their navigation and control. Multirotor vehicles, specifically quadrotors, have formed a fast growing field in robotics, with the range of applications spanning from surveil- lance and reconnaissance to agriculture and large area mapping. Although in most applications single quadrotors are used, there is an increasing interest in architectures controlling multiple quadrotors executing a collaborative task. This thesis introduces a new concept of control involving more than one quadrotors, according to which two quadrotors can be physically coupled in mid-flight. This concept equips the quadro- tors with new capabilities, e.g. increased payload or pursuit and capturing of other quadrotors. A comprehensive simulation of the approach is built to simulate coupled quadrotors. The dynamics and modeling of the coupled system is presented together with a discussion regarding the coupling mechanism, impact modeling and additional considerations that have been investigated. Simulation results are presented for cases of static coupling as well as enemy quadrotor pursuit and capture, together with an analysis of control methodology and gain tuning. Practical implementations are introduced as results show the feasibility of this design.

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Date Created
2016

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Basins of attraction in human balance

Description

According to the CDC in 2010, there were 2.8 million emergency room visits costing $7.9 billion dollars for treatment of nonfatal falling injuries in emergency departments across the country. Falls are a recognized risk factor for unintentional injuries among older

According to the CDC in 2010, there were 2.8 million emergency room visits costing $7.9 billion dollars for treatment of nonfatal falling injuries in emergency departments across the country. Falls are a recognized risk factor for unintentional injuries among older adults, accounting for a large proportion of fractures, emergency department visits, and urgent hospitalizations. The objective of this research was to identify and learn more about what factors affect balance using analysis techniques from nonlinear dynamics. Human balance and gait research traditionally uses linear or qualitative tests to assess and describe human motion; however, it is growing more apparent that human motion is neither a simple nor a linear task. In the 1990s Collins, first started applying stochastic processes to analyze human postural control system. Recently, Zakynthinaki et al. modeled human balance using the idea that humans will remain erect when perturbed until some boundary, or physical limit, is passed. This boundary is similar to the notion of basins of attraction in nonlinear dynamics and is referred to as the basin of stability. Human balance data was collected using dual force plates and Vicon marker position data for leans using only ankle movements and leans that were unrestricted. With this dataset, Zakynthinaki’s work was extended by comparing different algorithms used to create the critical curve (basin of stability boundary) that encloses the experimental data points as well as comparing the differences between the two leaning conditions.

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2016

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Reduced order modeling with variable spatial fidelity for the linear and nonlinear dynamics of multi-bay structures

Description

This investigation develops small-size reduced order models (ROMs) that provide an accurate prediction of the response of only part of a structure, referred to as component-centric ROMs. Four strategies to construct such ROMs are presented, the first two of which

This investigation develops small-size reduced order models (ROMs) that provide an accurate prediction of the response of only part of a structure, referred to as component-centric ROMs. Four strategies to construct such ROMs are presented, the first two of which are based on the Craig-Bampton Method and start with a set of modes for the component of interest (the β component). The response in the rest of the structure (the α component) induced by these modes is then determined and optimally represented by applying a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition strategy using Singular Value Decomposition. These first two methods are effectively basis reductions techniques of the CB basis. An approach based on the “Global - Local” Method generates the “global” modes by “averaging” the mass property over α and β comp., respectively (to extract a “coarse” model of α and β) and the “local” modes orthogonal to the “global” modes to add back necessary “information” for β. The last approach adopts as basis for the entire structure its linear modes which are dominant in the β component response. Then, the contributions of other modes in this part of the structure are approximated in terms of those of the dominant modes with close natural frequencies and similar mode shapes in the β component. In this manner, the non-dominant modal contributions are “lumped” onto the dominant ones, to reduce the number of modes for a prescribed accuracy. The four approaches are critically assessed on the structural finite element model of a 9-bay panel with the modal lumping-based method leading to the smallest sized ROMs. Therefore, it is extended to the nonlinear geometric situation and first recast as a rotation of the modal basis to achieve unobservable modes. In the linear case, these modes completely disappear from the formulation owing to orthogonality. In the nonlinear case, however, the generalized coordinates of these modes are still present in the nonlinear terms of the observable modes. A closure-type algorithm is then proposed to eliminate the unobserved generalized coordinates. This approach, its accuracy and computational savings, was demonstrated on a simple beam model and the 9-bay panel model.

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2017

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Hybrid AC-High Voltage DC Grid Stability and Controls

Description

The growth of energy demands in recent years has been increasing faster than the expansion of transmission facility construction. This tendency cooperating with the continuous investing on the renewable energy resources drives the research, development, and construction of HVDC projects

The growth of energy demands in recent years has been increasing faster than the expansion of transmission facility construction. This tendency cooperating with the continuous investing on the renewable energy resources drives the research, development, and construction of HVDC projects to create a more reliable, affordable, and environmentally friendly power grid.

Constructing the hybrid AC-HVDC grid is a significant move in the development of the HVDC techniques; the form of dc system is evolving from the point-to-point stand-alone dc links to the embedded HVDC system and the multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system. The MTDC is a solution for the renewable energy interconnections, and the MTDC grids can improve the power system reliability, flexibility in economic dispatches, and converter/cable utilizing efficiencies.

The dissertation reviews the HVDC technologies, discusses the stability issues regarding the ac and HVDC connections, proposes a novel power oscillation control strategy to improve system stability, and develops a nonlinear voltage droop control strategy for the MTDC grid.

To verify the effectiveness the proposed power oscillation control strategy, a long distance paralleled AC-HVDC transmission test system is employed. Based on the PSCAD/EMTDC platform simulation results, the proposed power oscillation control strategy can improve the system dynamic performance and attenuate the power oscillations effectively.

To validate the nonlinear voltage droop control strategy, three droop controls schemes are designed according to the proposed nonlinear voltage droop control design procedures. These control schemes are tested in a hybrid AC-MTDC system. The hybrid AC-MTDC system, which is first proposed in this dissertation, consists of two ac grids, two wind farms and a five-terminal HVDC grid connecting them. Simulation studies are performed in the PSCAD/EMTDC platform. According to the simulation results, all the three design schemes have their unique salient features.

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Date Created
2017