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Trying to Keep Up: Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption, Student Involvement, and Sleep Among Diverse College Freshmen

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Background While extensive research has been conducted among college students consuming alcohol with energy drinks, there is limited research exploring how extracurricular activities could have an impact on energy drink

Background While extensive research has been conducted among college students consuming alcohol with energy drinks, there is limited research exploring how extracurricular activities could have an impact on energy drink consumption and sleep. Understanding the association between student involvement and the impact it could have on sleep and energy drink consumption among college freshmen is essential in promoting healthy behaviors while in college. Objectives The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between student involvement, average hours of sleep, and predicted prevalence of energy drink and coffee consumption amongst college freshmen living in residence halls at a large, public university in the Southwest. Student involvement and fewer hours of sleep hypothesized to observe higher energy drink consumption. Methods This study was a secondary data analysis of the second wave of the longitudinal SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study assessing college freshmen (n=599; 70.6% female; 50.9% non-white) living on campus. Students were enrolled in this study during the 2015\u20142016 school year. Mutually adjusted generalized estimating equation (GEE) binomial models examined the relationship between involvement (academic clubs, sport clubs, honors, taking 16 or more credit hours, and having a job) and sleep with energy drink and coffee consumption, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, Pell grant status, ever having tried alcohol, and clustering of students in residence halls. Results On average, students were enrolled in 15 credits, slept an average 8 hours per night, those who had a job worked 14 hours for pay per week, 35% reported consuming energy drinks in the past week, and about 29% of students reported coffee consumption. Males showed a higher predicted prevalence of energy drink consumption compared to females (p<0.001), where females showed a higher predicted prevalence of coffee consumption compared to males (<0.001); energy drink consumption was less prevalent amongst Hispanic students compared to white students (p=0.018), but more prevalent amongst black students compared to white students (p=0.002); no associations between race were found in predicted prevalence of coffee consumption. Average hours of sleep per night was inversely associated with energy drink consumption predicted prevalence (p<0.001). There was a lower predicted prevalence of energy drink and coffee consumption in honors student status (p<0.001) compared to non-honors students. Students taking 16 or more class credit hours showed a higher predicted prevalence in both energy drink (p=0.050) and coffee consumption (p=0.023) compared to students taking less than 16 class credit hours. Students involved in physically active clubs showed a greater predicted prevalence of coffee consumption (p<0.001) compared to students not in physically active clubs. There was no difference in the predicted prevalence in energy drink consumption amongst students involved in physically active clubs (p=0.710), non-physically active clubs (p=0.493), and having a job (p=0.146). Coffee consumption predicted prevalence showed no significant prevalence amongst students of different race and ethnicity [Black (p=0.507), Hispanic (p=103), Other (p=116)] as well as students involved in non-physically active (p=0.839) clubs and who had a paid job (p=0.088). Conclusion Associations observed between average hours of sleep, the different types of involvement of student activities, and energy drink and coffee consumption, were interesting in that a few findings were found to be contrary to the hypotheses. Future research should delve deeper into student involvement within honors programs to understand the contextual factors of why these students showed a significant inverse association in energy drink consumption. Contrary to hypothesis, sleep and energy drink consumption prevalence were indirectly related leading future research to examine and understand why students are consuming energy drinks since on average participants were meeting recommended sleep guidelines. Nutrition interventions are needed for the groups at consuming energy drinks and alcohol in combination due to the study finding increased predicted prevalence amongst these groups as well as the increased risky health behavior associated with the combination found in the literature. Support or Funding Information This study was supported by the NIH Common Fund from the Office of the Director and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, grant number 1DP5OD017910-01 (PI: M. Bruening). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

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  • 2018-05

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Injury Prevention of Young Adult Competitive Athletes

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Injury Prevention of Young Adult Competitive Athletes Abstract: This literature review covers many aspects of health and injury prevention that affects the young adult population. This review will begin to

Injury Prevention of Young Adult Competitive Athletes Abstract: This literature review covers many aspects of health and injury prevention that affects the young adult population. This review will begin to formulate a general guideline for sustaining performance while minimizing the incidence for injury. This population is specifically narrowed down to competitive athletes between the ages of 16-22. Some of the topics covered in this paper are the effects of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients such as iron, calcium, vitamin D and vitamin C, on the body. Along with relating nutrition to lowering the risk of injury, there are also other topics covered such as sleep, stress relief in the form of binaural sounds, training and over-training. Nutrition topics include carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which are then split into their respective roles inside the body. These macro-nutrients are also associated with recovery and the timing and quantity consumed can be at optimal levels for competitive athletes based on gender, age and size. The vitamins and minerals discussed are also important factors in injury prevention related to bone, ligament and muscle strength. These micro-nutrients are also related to hormone regulation and immune system response which are necessary in mitigating the risk of injury in the population being analyzed. Finally, there is a training section of this literary review which covers monitoring external and internal loads experienced by the athletes, movement patterns as well as flexibility, and how to respond to over-training syndrome and overreaching in young adult athletes. Creating a balance between all aspects covered will result in a high likelihood of reducing the risk for injury in the young adult population.

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  • 2016-12

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A comparative test of the links between sleep state, brain size, and incubation investment in birds

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There are two electrophysiological states of sleep in birds (rapid-eye-movement sleep [REM] and slow-wave sleep [SWS]), which have different functions and costs. REM improves memory consolidation, while SWS is neuro-restorative but

There are two electrophysiological states of sleep in birds (rapid-eye-movement sleep [REM] and slow-wave sleep [SWS]), which have different functions and costs. REM improves memory consolidation, while SWS is neuro-restorative but also exposes the animal to more risk during this deep-sleep phase. Birds who sleep in more exposed microsites are known to invest proportionally less in SWS (presumably to ensure proper vigilance), but otherwise little else is known about the ecological or behavioral predictors of how much time birds devote to REM v. SWS sleep. In this comparative analysis, we examine how proportional time spent in SWS v. REM is related to brain mass and duration of the incubation period in adults. Brain mass and incubation period were chosen as predictors of sleep state investment because brain mass is positively correlated with body size (and may show a relationship between physical development and sleep) and incubation period can be a link used to show similarities and differences between birds and mammals (using mammalian gestation period). We hypothesized that (1) species with larger brains (relative to body size and also while controlling for phylogeny) would have higher demands for information processing, and possibly proportionally outweigh neuro-repair, and thus devote more time to REM and that (2) species with longer incubation periods would have proportionally more REM due to the extended time required for overnight predator vigilance (and not falling into deep sleep) while on the nest. We found, using neurophysiological data from literature on 27 bird species, that adults from species with longer incubation periods spent proportionally more time in REM sleep, but that relative brain size was not significantly associated with relative time spent in REM or SWS. We therefore provide evidence that mammalian and avian REM in response to incubation/gestation period have convergently evolved. Our results suggest that overnight environmental conditions (e.g. sleep site exposure) might have a greater effect on sleep parameters than gross morphological attributes.

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  • 2017-05

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Impact of Sleep Restriction on Muscle Recovery Following Eccentric Exercise

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This study was designed with the goal of measuring the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function. Participants in this study consisted of 19 individuals, 11 of which were in

This study was designed with the goal of measuring the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function. Participants in this study consisted of 19 individuals, 11 of which were in the restricted group (age 251) and 8 were in the control group (age 231). Measurements of muscle function included isometric strength, isokinetic velocity, and muscle soreness. Isometric strength and isokinetic velocity were taken for knee extension using a dynamometer. Muscle soreness was measured via a 100mm likert visual analogue scale for the step-up and step-down movements with the effected leg. Measurements were taken at baseline, and 48 hours after the damaging bout of eccentric exercise following either 8 hours of sleep per night or 3 hours of sleep per night. Results show that there were no statistical differences between groups for either measurements of isometric strength, isokinetic velocity, or muscle soreness. Due to possible confounding factors, future research needs to be conducted in order to get a better understanding of the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function.

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  • 2016-12

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The Rest Egg Smartphone Connection: Accessibility, Utility, and Ease of Use via Mobile Application Support

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This document introduces the need for the Rest Egg system and defines an accessible method of smartphone integration. Excessive noise can prevent recovering patients and special needs persons from resting

This document introduces the need for the Rest Egg system and defines an accessible method of smartphone integration. Excessive noise can prevent recovering patients and special needs persons from resting correctly. The Rest Egg was designed for these people- people who are in critical need of quality rest but are often unable to eliminate stressors themselves. This system ensures their environment is calm by alerting caretakers' smartphones if noise reaches abrasive levels. Smartphones were the preferred device due to the wide spread of such devices in today's market. After making open sourcing a goal, something ubiquitous and affordable \u2014 yet usable and dependable \u2014 was necessary for the alert system. These requirements lead to the election an online alert service: Pushover, a trademark and product of Superblock, LLC.

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  • 2016-05

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Methods of Relaxation for Promoting Sleep in Patients Diagnosed with Cancer

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For this creative project, an instructional video on relaxation techniques was created. The relaxation techniques demonstrated were intended to help patients with comorbid cancer and sleep disturbance fall asleep with

For this creative project, an instructional video on relaxation techniques was created. The relaxation techniques demonstrated were intended to help patients with comorbid cancer and sleep disturbance fall asleep with greater ease. Based on a literature review, autogenic training and tai chi were chosen as the relaxation techniques to demonstrate in the video project. The literature review informed what components of autogenic training and tai chi should be included in the video. A patient with cancer was asked to participate in the making of the video. The patient was guided through autogenic training and tai chi. The patient provided feedback on her experience after completing each technique. The video also included background information on the two relaxation techniques. The completed video was presented to the director of Natural Medicine and Detox in Phoenix, AZ, a naturopathic physician, and a cancer survivor. These individuals provided feedback on what they liked about the video and what they thought needed improvement. The video was posted on YouTube as a resource for patients with cancer. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=04kYz1kSCaU

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  • 2016-12

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The Effects of Sleep Efficiency on Serum Osteocalcin in College-Aged Individuals

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Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is most affected by osteoporosis, adolescents are the most proactive population in terms of prevention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and serum osteocalcin in college-aged individuals as a means of osteoporosis prevention. Thirty participants ages 18-25 years (22 females, 8 males) at Arizona State University were involved in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during one week via self-recorded sleep diaries, quantitative ActiWatch, DEXA imaging, and serum blood draws to measure the bone biomarker osteocalcin. Three participants were excluded from the study as outliers. The median (IQR) for osteocalcin measured by ELISA was 11.6 (9.7, 14.5) ng/mL. The average sleep efficiency measured by actigraphy was 88.3% ± 3.0%. Regression models of sleep efficiency and osteocalcin concentration were not statistically significant. While the addition of covariates helped explain more of the variation in serum osteocalcin concentration, the results remained insignificant. There was a trend between osteocalcin and age, suggesting that as age increases, osteocalcin decreases. This was a limited study, and further investigation regarding the relationship between sleep efficiency and osteocalcin is warranted.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Differences in Traditional and Non-Traditional Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors between Asian and Non-Hispanic White Young Adults

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The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors between Asian and non-Hispanic White young adults. The burden of CVD

The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors between Asian and non-Hispanic White young adults. The burden of CVD varies by racial/ethnic group. Traditional risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing CVD include smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Suboptimal sleep is known to be a non-traditional risk factor for poor overall health, CVD risk factors, and CVD. The present study was an investigation of a cross-sectional, screening survey used for a larger community-based study on sleep and cardiovascular health. The unadjusted results examining differences in traditional CVD risk factors indicated that Asian participants were less likely to report alcohol use compared to non-Hispanic White participants. For non-traditional CVD risk factors, Asians were less likely to report experiencing sleep-related fatigue or malaise, attention impairment, daytime sleepiness, reduced motivation or energy, or concerns about their sleep compared to non-Hispanic White participants. Multivariate-analyses were conducted adjusting for sex and age. The adjusted results indicated that the Asian participants were less likely to report alcohol consumption, regular engagement in exercise, engagement in hard intensity exercise, concerns with sleep quality, and sleep difficulty-related fatigue, attention impairment, daytime sleepiness, reduced motivation, and were more likely to be obese compared to non-Hispanic White participants. The results may help guide cardiovascular prevention education provided to these groups. The data indicate the need for further longitudinal research studies on non-traditional CVD risk factors like sleep by ethnicity/race.

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  • 2017-12

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Exposure to Artificial Light at Night Increases Innate Immunity During Development in a Precocial Bird

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Humans have greatly altered the night-time photic environment via the production of artificial light at night (ALAN; e.g. street lights, car traffic, billboards, lit buildings). ALAN is problematic because it

Humans have greatly altered the night-time photic environment via the production of artificial light at night (ALAN; e.g. street lights, car traffic, billboards, lit buildings). ALAN is problematic because it may significantly alter the seasonal/daily physiological rhythms or behaviors of animals. There has been considerable interest in the impacts of ALAN on health in humans and lab animals, but most such work has centered on adults and we know comparatively little about effects on young animals. We exposed 3-week-old king quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) to a constant overnight blue-light regime for 6 weeks and assessed weekly bactericidal activity of plasma against Escherichia coli - a commonly employed metric of innate immunity in animals. We found that chronic ALAN exposure significantly increased immune function, and that this elevation in immune performance manifested at different developmental time points in males and females. These results counter the pervasive notion that overnight light exposure is universally physiologically harmful to diurnal organisms and indicate that ALAN can provide sex-specific, short-term immunological boosts to developing animals.

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  • 2017-12

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The Trojan Horse of Sleep Technology: How the Introduction of Sleep-oriented Features is Leading the Charge in Improving Sleep Habits

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As science has progressed, sleep deficiency has been discovered to be associated with declines in both mental and physical health, and similarly, sleep deficiency has been noted as a public

As science has progressed, sleep deficiency has been discovered to be associated with declines in both mental and physical health, and similarly, sleep deficiency has been noted as a public safety concern with 20 percent of motor vehicle crashes linked to driving while drowsy. The National Sleep Foundation has identified that 62 percent of Americans do nothing to address their sleep deficiency, and with a society that normalizes coping mechanisms such as napping and caffeine consumption, it is easy to see why nothing has been done to resolve this issue. Nevertheless, with sleep technology falling in the hands of more and more Americans this thesis aims to explore how these technologies are being adopted and how the introduction of sleep-oriented features for established products may lead to more sleep conscious consumers.

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Date Created
  • 2020-12