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Wireless Machine-learning Enabled Reconfigurable ""Button-type"" Pressure Sensors for Gait Analysis

Description

This paper introduces a wireless reconfigurable “button-type” pressure sensor system, via machine learning, for gait analysis application. The pressure sensor system consists of an array of independent button-type pressure sensing units interfaced with a remote computer. The pressure sensing unit

This paper introduces a wireless reconfigurable “button-type” pressure sensor system, via machine learning, for gait analysis application. The pressure sensor system consists of an array of independent button-type pressure sensing units interfaced with a remote computer. The pressure sensing unit contains pressure-sensitive resistors, readout electronics, and a wireless Bluetooth module, which are assembled within footprint of 40 × 25 × 6mm3. The small-footprint, low-profile sensors are populated onto a shoe insole, like buttons, to collect temporal pressure data. The pressure sensing unit measures pressures up to 2,000 kPa while maintaining an error under 10%. The reconfigurable pressure sensor array reduces the total power consumption of the system by 50%, allowing extended period of operation, up to 82.5 hrs. A robust machine learning program identifies the optimal pressure sensing units in any given configuration at an accuracy of up to 98%.

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2018-12

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Improved Finite Sample Estimate of A Nonparametric Divergence Measure

Description

This work details the bootstrap estimation of a nonparametric information divergence measure, the Dp divergence measure, using a power law model. To address the challenge posed by computing accurate divergence estimates given finite size data, the bootstrap approach is used

This work details the bootstrap estimation of a nonparametric information divergence measure, the Dp divergence measure, using a power law model. To address the challenge posed by computing accurate divergence estimates given finite size data, the bootstrap approach is used in conjunction with a power law curve to calculate an asymptotic value of the divergence estimator. Monte Carlo estimates of Dp are found for increasing values of sample size, and a power law fit is used to relate the divergence estimates as a function of sample size. The fit is also used to generate a confidence interval for the estimate to characterize the quality of the estimate. We compare the performance of this method with the other estimation methods. The calculated divergence is applied to the binary classification problem. Using the inherent relation between divergence measures and classification error rate, an analysis of the Bayes error rate of several data sets is conducted using the asymptotic divergence estimate.

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2016-05

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Sensitivity Analysis of a Spatiotemporal Correlation Based Seizure Prediction Algorithm

Description

Epilepsy affects numerous people around the world and is characterized by recurring seizures, prompting the ability to predict them so precautionary measures may be employed. One promising algorithm extracts spatiotemporal correlation based features from intracranial electroencephalography signals for use with

Epilepsy affects numerous people around the world and is characterized by recurring seizures, prompting the ability to predict them so precautionary measures may be employed. One promising algorithm extracts spatiotemporal correlation based features from intracranial electroencephalography signals for use with support vector machines. The robustness of this methodology is tested through a sensitivity analysis. Doing so also provides insight about how to construct more effective feature vectors.

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2015-05

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A Non-Parametric Semi-Supervised f-Divergence

Description

Divergence functions are both highly useful and fundamental to many areas in information theory and machine learning, but require either parametric approaches or prior knowledge of labels on the full data set. This paper presents a method to estimate the

Divergence functions are both highly useful and fundamental to many areas in information theory and machine learning, but require either parametric approaches or prior knowledge of labels on the full data set. This paper presents a method to estimate the divergence between two data sets in the absence of fully labeled data. This semi-labeled case is common in many domains where labeling data by hand is expensive or time-consuming, or wherever large data sets are present. The theory derived in this paper is demonstrated on a simulated example, and then applied to a feature selection and classification problem from pathological speech analysis.

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2016-05

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Audio Waveform Sample SVD Compression and Impact on Performance

Description

Lossy compression is a form of compression that slightly degrades a signal in ways that are ideally not detectable to the human ear. This is opposite to lossless compression, in which the sample is not degraded at all. While lossless

Lossy compression is a form of compression that slightly degrades a signal in ways that are ideally not detectable to the human ear. This is opposite to lossless compression, in which the sample is not degraded at all. While lossless compression may seem like the best option, lossy compression, which is used in most audio and video, reduces transmission time and results in much smaller file sizes. However, this compression can affect quality if it goes too far. The more compression there is on a waveform, the more degradation there is, and once a file is lossy compressed, this process is not reversible. This project will observe the degradation of an audio signal after the application of Singular Value Decomposition compression, a lossy compression that eliminates singular values from a signal’s matrix.

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2021-05

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Leveraging Machine Learning and Wireless Sensing for Robot Localization - Location Variance Analysis

Description

Object localization is used to determine the location of a device, an important aspect of applications ranging from autonomous driving to augmented reality. Commonly-used localization techniques include global positioning systems (GPS), simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and positional tracking, but

Object localization is used to determine the location of a device, an important aspect of applications ranging from autonomous driving to augmented reality. Commonly-used localization techniques include global positioning systems (GPS), simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and positional tracking, but all of these methodologies have drawbacks, especially in high traffic indoor or urban environments. Using recent improvements in the field of machine learning, this project proposes a new method of localization using networks with several wireless transceivers and implemented without heavy computational loads or high costs. This project aims to build a proof-of-concept prototype and demonstrate that the proposed technique is feasible and accurate.

Modern communication networks heavily depend upon an estimate of the communication channel, which represents the distortions that a transmitted signal takes as it moves towards a receiver. A channel can become quite complicated due to signal reflections, delays, and other undesirable effects and, as a result, varies significantly with each different location. This localization system seeks to take advantage of this distinctness by feeding channel information into a machine learning algorithm, which will be trained to associate channels with their respective locations. A device in need of localization would then only need to calculate a channel estimate and pose it to this algorithm to obtain its location.

As an additional step, the effect of location noise is investigated in this report. Once the localization system described above demonstrates promising results, the team demonstrates that the system is robust to noise on its location labels. In doing so, the team demonstrates that this system could be implemented in a continued learning environment, in which some user agents report their estimated (noisy) location over a wireless communication network, such that the model can be implemented in an environment without extensive data collection prior to release.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Topological Descriptors for Parkinson's Disease Classification and Regression Analysis

Description

At present, the vast majority of human subjects with neurological disease are still diagnosed through in-person assessments and qualitative analysis of patient data. In this paper, we propose to use Topological Data Analysis (TDA) together with machine learning tools to

At present, the vast majority of human subjects with neurological disease are still diagnosed through in-person assessments and qualitative analysis of patient data. In this paper, we propose to use Topological Data Analysis (TDA) together with machine learning tools to automate the process of Parkinson’s disease classification and severity assessment. An automated, stable, and accurate method to evaluate Parkinson’s would be significant in streamlining diagnoses of patients and providing families more time for corrective measures. We propose a methodology which incorporates TDA into analyzing Parkinson’s disease postural shifts data through the representation of persistence images. Studying the topology of a system has proven to be invariant to small changes in data and has been shown to perform well in discrimination tasks. The contributions of the paper are twofold. We propose a method to 1) classify healthy patients from those afflicted by disease and 2) diagnose the severity of disease. We explore the use of the proposed method in an application involving a Parkinson’s disease dataset comprised of healthy-elderly, healthy-young and Parkinson’s disease patients.

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Date Created
2020-05

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FPGA Machine Learning: MLP and CNN Feedforward with Minimal Hardware Resources

Description

Machine learning is a powerful tool for processing and understanding the vast amounts of data produced by sensors every day. Machine learning has found use in a wide variety of fields, from making medical predictions through correlations invisible to the

Machine learning is a powerful tool for processing and understanding the vast amounts of data produced by sensors every day. Machine learning has found use in a wide variety of fields, from making medical predictions through correlations invisible to the human eye to classifying images in computer vision applications. A wide range of machine learning algorithms have been developed to attempt to solve these problems, each with different metrics in accuracy, throughput, and energy efficiency. However, even after they are trained, these algorithms require substantial computations to make a prediction. General-purpose CPUs are not well-optimized to this task, so other hardware solutions have developed over time, including the use of a GPU, FPGA, or ASIC.

This project considers the FPGA implementations of MLP and CNN feedforward. While FPGAs provide significant performance improvements, they come at a substantial financial cost. We explore the options of implementing these algorithms on a smaller budget. We successfully implement a multilayer perceptron that identifies handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset on a student-level DE10-Lite FPGA with a test accuracy of 91.99%. We also apply our trained network to external image data loaded through a webcam and a Raspberry Pi, but we observe lower test accuracy in these images. Later, we consider the requirements necessary to implement a more elaborate convolutional neural network on the same FPGA. The study deems the CNN implementation feasible in the criteria of memory requirements and basic architecture. We suggest the CNN implementation on the same FPGA to be worthy of further exploration.

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Date Created
2019-12

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Data Representation for Predicting Harmonic Clusters with LSTM

Description

The purpose of this project is to create a useful tool for musicians that utilizes the harmonic content of their playing to recommend new, relevant chords to play. This is done by training various Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural

The purpose of this project is to create a useful tool for musicians that utilizes the harmonic content of their playing to recommend new, relevant chords to play. This is done by training various Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) on the lead sheets of 100 different jazz standards. A total of 200 unique datasets were produced and tested, resulting in the prediction of nearly 51 million chords. A note-prediction accuracy of 82.1% and a chord-prediction accuracy of 34.5% were achieved across all datasets. Methods of data representation that were rooted in valid music theory frameworks were found to increase the efficacy of harmonic prediction by up to 6%. Optimal LSTM input sizes were also determined for each method of data representation.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Photovoltaic Array Fault Detection and Optimization Using Machine Learning

Description

The increasing demand for clean energy solutions requires more than just expansion, but also improvements in the efficiency of renewable sources, such as solar. This requires analytics for each panel regarding voltage, current, temperature, and irradiance. This project involves the

The increasing demand for clean energy solutions requires more than just expansion, but also improvements in the efficiency of renewable sources, such as solar. This requires analytics for each panel regarding voltage, current, temperature, and irradiance. This project involves the development of machine learning algorithms along with a data logger for the purpose of photovoltaic (PV) monitoring and control. Machine learning is used for fault classification. Once a fault is detected, the system can change its reconfiguration to minimize the power losses. Accuracy in the fault detection was demonstrated to be at a level over 90% and topology reconfiguration showed to increase power output by as much as 5%.

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2021-05