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Interactive laboratory for digital signal processing in iOS devices

Description

The demand for handheld portable computing in education, business and research has resulted in advanced mobile devices with powerful processors and large multi-touch screens. Such devices are capable of handling tasks of moderate computational complexity such as word processing, complex

The demand for handheld portable computing in education, business and research has resulted in advanced mobile devices with powerful processors and large multi-touch screens. Such devices are capable of handling tasks of moderate computational complexity such as word processing, complex Internet transactions, and even human motion analysis. Apple's iOS devices, including the iPhone, iPod touch and the latest in the family - the iPad, are among the well-known and widely used mobile devices today. Their advanced multi-touch interface and improved processing power can be exploited for engineering and STEM demonstrations. Moreover, these devices have become a part of everyday student life. Hence, the design of exciting mobile applications and software represents a great opportunity to build student interest and enthusiasm in science and engineering. This thesis presents the design and implementation of a portable interactive signal processing simulation software on the iOS platform. The iOS-based object-oriented application is called i-JDSP and is based on the award winning Java-DSP concept. It is implemented in Objective-C and C as a native Cocoa Touch application that can be run on any iOS device. i-JDSP offers basic signal processing simulation functions such as Fast Fourier Transform, filtering, spectral analysis on a compact and convenient graphical user interface and provides a very compelling multi-touch programming experience. Built-in modules also demonstrate concepts such as the Pole-Zero Placement. i-JDSP also incorporates sound capture and playback options that can be used in near real-time analysis of speech and audio signals. All simulations can be visually established by forming interactive block diagrams through multi-touch and drag-and-drop. Computations are performed on the mobile device when necessary, making the block diagram execution fast. Furthermore, the extensive support for user interactivity provides scope for improved learning. The results of i-JDSP assessment among senior undergraduate and first year graduate students revealed that the software created a significant positive impact and increased the students' interest and motivation and in understanding basic DSP concepts.

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2011

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Incorporating auditory models in speech/audio applications

Description

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception.

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory model output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory model for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory model stages. The performance of the pruned model is compared to that of the original auditory model for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to its equivalent time/frequency representation. This avoids the repeated application of auditory model stages to test different candidate time/frequency vectors in minimizing perceptual objective functions. In this dissertation, a constrained mapping scheme is developed by linearizing certain auditory model stages that ensures obtaining a time/frequency mapping corresponding to the estimated auditory representation. This paradigm was successfully incorporated in a perceptual speech enhancement algorithm and a sinusoidal component selection task.

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2011

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Design of a twelve bit, four hundred mega-samples-per-second, interpolating dual channel digital to analog converter featuring digital modulation

Description

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and feature on chip digital mixing. Digital mixing offers many benefits concerning I and Q matching but has one major drawback; the update rate of the DAC must be higher than the intermediate frequency (IF) which is most commonly a factor of 4. This drawback motivates the need for interpolation so that a low update rate can be used for components preceding the DACs. In this thesis the design of an interpolating DAC integrated circuit (IC) to be used in a transmitter application for generating a 100MHz IF is presented. Many of the transistor level implementations are provided. The tradeoffs in the design are analyzed and various options are discussed. This thesis provides a basic foundation for designing an IC of this nature and will give the reader insight into potential areas of further research. At the time of this writing the chip is in fabrication therefore this document does not contain test results.

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2013

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Energy-efficient distributed estimation by utilizing a nonlinear amplifier

Description

Distributed estimation uses many inexpensive sensors to compose an accurate estimate of a given parameter. It is frequently implemented using wireless sensor networks. There have been several studies on optimizing power allocation in wireless sensor networks used for distributed estimation,

Distributed estimation uses many inexpensive sensors to compose an accurate estimate of a given parameter. It is frequently implemented using wireless sensor networks. There have been several studies on optimizing power allocation in wireless sensor networks used for distributed estimation, the vast majority of which assume linear radio-frequency amplifiers. Linear amplifiers are inherently inefficient, so in this dissertation nonlinear amplifiers are examined to gain efficiency while operating distributed sensor networks. This research presents a method to boost efficiency by operating the amplifiers in the nonlinear region of operation. Operating amplifiers nonlinearly presents new challenges. First, nonlinear amplifier characteristics change across manufacturing process variation, temperature, operating voltage, and aging. Secondly, the equations conventionally used for estimators and performance expectations in linear amplify-and-forward systems fail. To compensate for the first challenge, predistortion is utilized not to linearize amplifiers but rather to force them to fit a common nonlinear limiting amplifier model close to the inherent amplifier performance. This minimizes the power impact and the training requirements for predistortion. Second, new estimators are required that account for transmitter nonlinearity. This research derives analytically and confirms via simulation new estimators and performance expectation equations for use in nonlinear distributed estimation. An additional complication when operating nonlinear amplifiers in a wireless environment is the influence of varied and potentially unknown channel gains. The impact of these varied gains and both measurement and channel noise sources on estimation performance are analyzed in this paper. Techniques for minimizing the estimate variance are developed. It is shown that optimizing transmitter power allocation to minimize estimate variance for the most-compressed parameter measurement is equivalent to the problem for linear sensors. Finally, a method for operating distributed estimation in a multipath environment is presented that is capable of developing robust estimates for a wide range of Rician K-factors. This dissertation demonstrates that implementing distributed estimation using nonlinear sensors can boost system efficiency and is compatible with existing techniques from the literature for boosting efficiency at the system level via sensor power allocation. Nonlinear transmitters work best when channel gains are known and channel noise and receiver noise levels are low.

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2013

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DSP algorithm and software development on the iPhone/iPad platform

Description

The ease of use of mobile devices and tablets by students has generated a lot of interest in the area of engineering education. By using mobile technologies in signal analysis and applied mathematics, undergraduate-level courses can broaden the scope and

The ease of use of mobile devices and tablets by students has generated a lot of interest in the area of engineering education. By using mobile technologies in signal analysis and applied mathematics, undergraduate-level courses can broaden the scope and effectiveness of technical education in classrooms. The current mobile devices have abundant memory and powerful processors, in addition to providing interactive interfaces. Therefore, these devices can support the implementation of non-trivial signal processing algorithms. Several existing visual programming environments such as Java Digital Signal Processing (J-DSP), are built using the platform-independent infrastructure of Java applets. These enable students to perform signal-processing exercises over the Internet. However, some mobile devices do not support Java applets. Furthermore, mobile simulation environments rely heavily on establishing robust Internet connections with a remote server where the processing is performed. The interactive Java Digital Signal Processing tool (iJDSP) has been developed as graphical mobile app on iOS devices (iPads, iPhones and iPod touches). In contrast to existing mobile applications, iJDSP has the ability to execute simulations directly on the mobile devices, and is a completely stand-alone application. In addition to a substantial set of signal processing algorithms, iJDSP has a highly interactive graphical interface where block diagrams can be constructed using a simple drag-n-drop procedure. Functions such as visualization of the convolution operation, and an interface to wireless sensors have been developed. The convolution module animates the process of the continuous and discrete convolution operations, including time-shift and integration, so that users can observe and learn, intuitively. The current set of DSP functions in the application enables students to perform simulation exercises on continuous and discrete convolution, z-transform, filter design and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The interface to wireless sensors in iJDSP allows users to import data from wireless sensor networks, and use the rich suite of functions in iJDSP for data processing. This allows users to perform operations such as localization, activity detection and data fusion. The exercises and the iJDSP application were evaluated by senior-level students at Arizona State University (ASU), and the results of those assessments are analyzed and reported in this thesis.

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2012

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Designing m-health modules with sensor interfaces for DSP education

Description

Advancements in mobile technologies have significantly enhanced the capabilities of mobile devices to serve as powerful platforms for sensing, processing, and visualization. Surges in the sensing technology and the abundance of data have enabled the use of these portable devices

Advancements in mobile technologies have significantly enhanced the capabilities of mobile devices to serve as powerful platforms for sensing, processing, and visualization. Surges in the sensing technology and the abundance of data have enabled the use of these portable devices for real-time data analysis and decision-making in digital signal processing (DSP) applications. Most of the current efforts in DSP education focus on building tools to facilitate understanding of the mathematical principles. However, there is a disconnect between real-world data processing problems and the material presented in a DSP course. Sophisticated mobile interfaces and apps can potentially play a crucial role in providing a hands-on-experience with modern DSP applications to students. In this work, a new paradigm of DSP learning is explored by building an interactive easy-to-use health monitoring application for use in DSP courses. This is motivated by the increasing commercial interest in employing mobile phones for real-time health monitoring tasks. The idea is to exploit the computational abilities of the Android platform to build m-Health modules with sensor interfaces. In particular, appropriate sensing modalities have been identified, and a suite of software functionalities have been developed. Within the existing framework of the AJDSP app, a graphical programming environment, interfaces to on-board and external sensor hardware have also been developed to acquire and process physiological data. The set of sensor signals that can be monitored include electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), accelerometer signal, and galvanic skin response (GSR). The proposed m-Health modules can be used to estimate parameters such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, step count, and heart rate variability. A set of laboratory exercises have been designed to demonstrate the use of these modules in DSP courses. The app was evaluated through several workshops involving graduate and undergraduate students in signal processing majors at Arizona State University. The usefulness of the software modules in enhancing student understanding of signals, sensors and DSP systems were analyzed. Student opinions about the app and the proposed m-health modules evidenced the merits of integrating tools for mobile sensing and processing in a DSP curriculum, and familiarizing students with challenges in modern data-driven applications.

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2013

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Multipath mitigating correlation kernels

Description

Autonomous vehicle control systems utilize real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to provide a position within two-centimeter of truth. GNSS receivers utilize the satellite signal time of arrival estimates to solve for position; and multipath corrupts the time

Autonomous vehicle control systems utilize real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to provide a position within two-centimeter of truth. GNSS receivers utilize the satellite signal time of arrival estimates to solve for position; and multipath corrupts the time of arrival estimates with a time-varying bias. Time of arrival estimates are based upon accurate direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) code and carrier phase tracking. Current multipath mitigating GNSS solutions include fixed radiation pattern antennas and windowed delay-lock loop code phase discriminators. A new multipath mitigating code tracking algorithm is introduced that utilizes a non-symmetric correlation kernel to reject multipath. Independent parameters provide a means to trade-off code tracking discriminant gain against multipath mitigation performance. The algorithm performance is characterized in terms of multipath phase error bias, phase error estimation variance, tracking range, tracking ambiguity and implementation complexity. The algorithm is suitable for modernized GNSS signals including Binary Phase Shift Keyed (BPSK) and a variety of Binary Offset Keyed (BOC) signals. The algorithm compensates for unbalanced code sequences to ensure a code tracking bias does not result from the use of asymmetric correlation kernels. The algorithm does not require explicit knowledge of the propagation channel model. Design recommendations for selecting the algorithm parameters to mitigate precorrelation filter distortion are also provided.

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2013

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Localization in wireless sensor networks

Description

In many applications, measured sensor data is meaningful only when the location of sensors is accurately known. Therefore, the localization accuracy is crucial. In this dissertation, both location estimation and location detection problems are considered.

In location estimation problems, sensor

In many applications, measured sensor data is meaningful only when the location of sensors is accurately known. Therefore, the localization accuracy is crucial. In this dissertation, both location estimation and location detection problems are considered.

In location estimation problems, sensor nodes at known locations, called anchors, transmit signals to sensor nodes at unknown locations, called nodes, and use these transmissions to estimate the location of the nodes. Specifically, the location estimation in the presence of fading channels using time of arrival (TOA) measurements with narrowband communication signals is considered. Meanwhile, the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for localization error under different assumptions is derived. Also, maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) under these assumptions are derived.

In large WSNs, distributed location estimation algorithms are more efficient than centralized algorithms. A sequential localization scheme, which is one of distributed location estimation algorithms, is considered. Also, different localization methods, such as TOA, received signal strength (RSS), time difference of arrival (TDOA), direction of arrival (DOA), and large aperture array (LAA) are compared under different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. Simulation results show that DOA is the preferred scheme at the low SNR regime and the LAA localization algorithm provides better performance for network discovery at high SNRs. Meanwhile, the CRLB for the localization error using the TOA method is also derived.

A distributed location detection scheme, which allows each anchor to make a decision as to whether a node is active or not is proposed. Once an anchor makes a decision, a bit is transmitted to a fusion center (FC). The fusion center combines all the decisions and uses a design parameter $K$ to make the final decision. Three scenarios are considered in this dissertation. Firstly, location detection at a known location is considered. Secondly, detecting a node in a known region is considered. Thirdly, location detection in the presence of fading is considered. The optimal thresholds are derived and the total probability of false alarm and detection under different scenarios are derived.

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2016

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Feature extraction from compressive cameras with application to activity recognition

Description

Recent advances in camera architectures and associated mathematical representations now enable compressive acquisition of images and videos at low data-rates. While most computer vision applications of today are composed of conventional cameras, which collect a large amount redundant data and

Recent advances in camera architectures and associated mathematical representations now enable compressive acquisition of images and videos at low data-rates. While most computer vision applications of today are composed of conventional cameras, which collect a large amount redundant data and power hungry embedded systems, which compress the collected data for further processing, compressive cameras offer the advantage of direct acquisition of data in compressed domain and hence readily promise to find applicability in computer vision, particularly in environments hampered by limited communication bandwidths. However, despite the significant progress in theory and methods of compressive sensing, little headway has been made in developing systems for such applications by exploiting the merits of compressive sensing. In such a setting, we consider the problem of activity recognition, which is an important inference problem in many security and surveillance applications. Since all successful activity recognition systems involve detection of human, followed by recognition, a potential fully functioning system motivated by compressive camera would involve the tracking of human, which requires the reconstruction of atleast the initial few frames to detect the human. Once the human is tracked, the recognition part of the system requires only the features to be extracted from the tracked sequences, which can be the reconstructed images or the compressed measurements of such sequences. However, it is desirable in resource constrained environments that these features be extracted from the compressive measurements without reconstruction. Motivated by this, in this thesis, we propose a framework for understanding activities as a non-linear dynamical system, and propose a robust, generalizable feature that can be extracted directly from the compressed measurements without reconstructing the original video frames. The proposed feature is termed recurrence texture and is motivated from recurrence analysis of non-linear dynamical systems. We show that it is possible to obtain discriminative features directly from the compressed stream and show its utility in recognition of activities at very low data rates.

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2012

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Invariant human pose feature extraction for movement recognition and pose estimation

Description

Reliable extraction of human pose features that are invariant to view angle and body shape changes is critical for advancing human movement analysis. In this dissertation, the multifactor analysis techniques, including the multilinear analysis and the multifactor Gaussian process methods,

Reliable extraction of human pose features that are invariant to view angle and body shape changes is critical for advancing human movement analysis. In this dissertation, the multifactor analysis techniques, including the multilinear analysis and the multifactor Gaussian process methods, have been exploited to extract such invariant pose features from video data by decomposing various key contributing factors, such as pose, view angle, and body shape, in the generation of the image observations. Experimental results have shown that the resulting pose features extracted using the proposed methods exhibit excellent invariance properties to changes in view angles and body shapes. Furthermore, using the proposed invariant multifactor pose features, a suite of simple while effective algorithms have been developed to solve the movement recognition and pose estimation problems. Using these proposed algorithms, excellent human movement analysis results have been obtained, and most of them are superior to those obtained from state-of-the-art algorithms on the same testing datasets. Moreover, a number of key movement analysis challenges, including robust online gesture spotting and multi-camera gesture recognition, have also been addressed in this research. To this end, an online gesture spotting framework has been developed to automatically detect and learn non-gesture movement patterns to improve gesture localization and recognition from continuous data streams using a hidden Markov network. In addition, the optimal data fusion scheme has been investigated for multicamera gesture recognition, and the decision-level camera fusion scheme using the product rule has been found to be optimal for gesture recognition using multiple uncalibrated cameras. Furthermore, the challenge of optimal camera selection in multi-camera gesture recognition has also been tackled. A measure to quantify the complementary strength across cameras has been proposed. Experimental results obtained from a real-life gesture recognition dataset have shown that the optimal camera combinations identified according to the proposed complementary measure always lead to the best gesture recognition results.

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Date Created
2011