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Effect of Rexinoids on Inducing Effector T Cell Chemotaxis

Description

The retinoid-X receptor (RXR) can form heterodimers with both the retinoic-acid
receptor (RAR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR). The RXR/RAR dimer is activated by ligand all
trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which culminates in gut-specific effector T cell migration. Similarly,

The retinoid-X receptor (RXR) can form heterodimers with both the retinoic-acid
receptor (RAR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR). The RXR/RAR dimer is activated by ligand all
trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which culminates in gut-specific effector T cell migration. Similarly,
the VDR/RXR dimer binds 1,25(OH)2D3 to cause skin-specific effector T cell migration.
Targeted migration is a potent addition to current vaccines, as it would induce activated T cell
trafficking to appropriate areas of the immune system and ensure optimal stimulation (40).
ATRA, while in use clinically, is limited by toxicity and chemical instability. Rexinoids
are stable, synthetically developed ligands specific for the RXR. We have previously shown that
select rexinoids can enhance upregulation of gut tropic CCR9 receptors on effector T cells.
However, it is important to establish whether these cells can actually migrate, to show the
potential of rexinoids as vaccine adjuvants that can cause gut specific T cell migration.
Additionally, since the RXR is a major contributor to VDR-mediated transcription and
epidermotropism (15), it is worth investigating whether these compounds can also function as
adjuvants that promote migration by increasing expression of skin tropic CCR10 receptors on T
cells.
Prior experiments have demonstrated that select rexinoids can induce gut tropic migration
of CD8+ T cells in an in vitro assay and are comparable in effectiveness to ATRA (7). The effect
of rexinoids on CD4+ T cells is unknown however, so the aim of this project was to determine if
rexinoids can cause gut tropic migration in CD4+ T cells to a similar extent. A secondary aim
was to investigate whether varying concentrations in 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 can be linked to
increasing CCR10 upregulation on Jurkat CD4+ T cells, with the future aim to combine 1,25
Dihydroxyvitamin D3 with rexinoids.
These hypotheses were tested using murine splenocytes for the migration experiment, and
human Jurkat CD4+ T cells for the vitamin D experiment. Migration was assessed using a
Transwell chemotaxis assay. Our findings support the potential of rexinoids as compounds
capable of causing gut-tropic migration in murine CD4+ T cells in vitro, like ATRA. We did not
observe conclusive evidence that vitamin D3 causes upregulated CCR10 expression, but this
experiment must be repeated with a human primary T cell line.

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2020-05

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The Association Between Sleep Quality and Asthma in Middle-school Aged Children

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Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting children, and investigators have identified a number of risk factors that worsen asthma symptoms. Most prior studies have concluded that there is an association between one risk factor, poor slee

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting children, and investigators have identified a number of risk factors that worsen asthma symptoms. Most prior studies have concluded that there is an association between one risk factor, poor sleep quality, and asthma; however, whether sleep quality predicts future asthma symptoms, asthma symptoms predict future sleep quality, or the relation is reciprocal is still unclear. The methodology of studies examining the asthma-sleep association has consisted of actigraphy and parent report to determine children's sleep duration and sleep efficiency, and lung function assessments with a spirometer on the participants to determine children's overall lung function. The purpose of the proposed study is to determine the strength of the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between indicators of sleep quality and asthma. The proposed study plans to use a combination of actigraphy, sleep diaries, and lung function assessments using a spirometer to determine sleep quality and lung function, respectively. Future directions include determining the directionality of the association between sleep quality and asthma as well as strength of association.

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2018-12

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Evaluating of the Potential for Assessing Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and Cancer at the Population Level Using Analysis of Sewage-borne Biomarker Compounds

Description

Thousands of human lives are lost every day due to chronic diseases, some more preventable than others. For years, the gold standard for diagnosing and monitoring these diseases has been through traditional methods such as individualized doctor-patient clinical evaluations, usually

Thousands of human lives are lost every day due to chronic diseases, some more preventable than others. For years, the gold standard for diagnosing and monitoring these diseases has been through traditional methods such as individualized doctor-patient clinical evaluations, usually involving laboratory tests. These methods, though effective, can be costly, time-consuming, and fail to encompass an overarching perspective of the health profile of the larger population. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has successfully been employed for decades as a population-level data source informing on the consumption of licit and illicit substance use. It also is showing promise for its use as a community-wide diagnostic tool for broader public health measurements. This literature review constitutes a theoretical evaluation of the potential use of WBE for monitoring the top two deadly diseases in the United States; cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Literature-reported metabolites indicative of these diseases were evaluated to determine if they were capable of being identified and monitored in wastewater. Potential analytes include cardiac-specific troponin, α-fenotroin, and inositol. Results obtained within suggest WBE could be used as a viable and economical tool to track and monitor the top deadly diseases in human populations. This methodology could be implemented in tandem with current practices in order to provide a more holistic understanding of prevalence and risk for CVD and cancer.

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2020-05

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Does an extended washout period of six weeks following the end of chronic stress continue the benefits on spatial learning and memory?

Description

Chronic stress often leads to cognitive deficits, especially within the spatial memory domain mediated by the hippocampus. When chronic stress ends and a no-stress period ensues (i.e., washout, WO), spatial ability improves, which can be better than non-stressed controls (CON).

Chronic stress often leads to cognitive deficits, especially within the spatial memory domain mediated by the hippocampus. When chronic stress ends and a no-stress period ensues (i.e., washout, WO), spatial ability improves, which can be better than non-stressed controls (CON). The WO period is often the same duration as the chronic stress paradigm. Given the potential benefit of a post-stress WO period on cognition, it is important to investigate whether this potential benefit of a post-stress WO period has long-lasting effects. In this project, chronic restraint (6hr/d/21d) in Sprague-Dawley rats was used, as it is the minimum duration necessary to observe spatial memory deficits. Two durations of post-stress WO were used following the end of chronic restraint, 3 weeks (STR-WO3) and 6 weeks (STR-WO6). Immediately after chronic stress (STR-IMM) or the WO periods, rats were tested on various cognitive tests. We corroborated past studies that chronic stress impaired spatial memory (STR-IMM vs CON). Interestingly, STR-WO3 and STR-WO6 failed to demonstrate improved spatial memory on a radial arm water maze task, performing similarly as STR-IMM. Performance outcomes were unlikely from differences in anxiety or motivation because rats from all conditions performed similarly on an open field task and on a simple object recognition paradigm, respectively. However, performance on object placement was unusual in that very few rats explored, suggesting some degree of anxiety or fear in all groups. One possible interpretation of the unusual results of the 3 week washout group may be attributed to the different spatial memory tasks used across studies or external factors from the study. Further exploration of these other factors led to the conclusion that they did not play a role and the STR-WO3 RAWM data were anomalous to other studies. This suggests that a washout period following chronic stress may not be fully understood.

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2017-05

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How do perceptions of nutrition influence student nutritional health behavior and nutritional health seeking behavior?

Description

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily increasing. Freshmen weight gains have been associated with a decrease

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily increasing. Freshmen weight gains have been associated with a decrease in fruits and vegetables and an increase in unhealthy items such as desserts, alcohol, and late night snacking after dinner. A survey of college students was constructed to gauge students' perceptions of nutrition how these perceptions influenced dietary practices and behaviors. Survey results indicated that awareness of nutrition and health does not translate to dietary practices, aligning with results from previous studies. Several sex differences were noted in regards to dietary choices and perceptions, knowledge seeking behavior, and sources of information. While there were some similarities, it is clear from the results obtained that men and women have different approaches and thoughts with regard to nutrition. The results showed that college students who actively seek our nutritional information are more likely to do so in the form of social media or Internet sources. This study could be useful for those planning on conducting college-based nutritional programs in that the results indicate patterns and trends that should be taken into consideration in order for a successful nutrition intervention

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Date Created
2015-05

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A Collaboration Between Mission of Mercy and the Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) Program T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family Dynamics, Arizona State University

Description

Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) partnered with Mission of Mercy, a faith-based nonprofit organization that provides free medical care services to uninsured and underinsured individuals throughout the Phoenix valley. A needs assessment was conducted on Mission of Mercy's patient population

Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) partnered with Mission of Mercy, a faith-based nonprofit organization that provides free medical care services to uninsured and underinsured individuals throughout the Phoenix valley. A needs assessment was conducted on Mission of Mercy's patient population and data collected over a two month long period, in which 91 completed surveys were collected. Participants were between the ages of 18 to over 65 and were largely Hispanic/Latino, followed by White/Anglo and Black/African American. The results indicate that there is need for increased patient education which could be satisfied by implement an incentive program. A need for a program specific to high blood pressure was also found. Participants were interested in dental services being offered, a service that is currently not offered through the Arizona chapter of Mission of Mercy. The study also showed that respondents were satisfied with the level of care received at Mission of Mercy.

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2016-05

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The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on Health

Description

Tai Chi Chuan is an internal Chinese martial arts that practitioners believe provide will provide health benefits. This thesis attempts to summarize and analyze scientific studies that test Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise. Systemic reviews and meta-analysis were

Tai Chi Chuan is an internal Chinese martial arts that practitioners believe provide will provide health benefits. This thesis attempts to summarize and analyze scientific studies that test Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise. Systemic reviews and meta-analysis were included were based on the following criteria: studied Tai Chi Chuan in context of a specific disease, must include random control trials, and statistical analysis. Overall, Tai Chi Chuan studies portray the martial art as a low intensity exercise with numerous health benefits in pain management, emotional health, fall prevention, cardiopulmonary and cognitive function.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Social Connectedness and Fast Food Consumption in College Freshmen

Description

Attending college provides young adults with a major shift in environment from high school where many students are used to living at home with their parents or guardians. Students experience a newfound freedom once beginning their freshman year, especially if

Attending college provides young adults with a major shift in environment from high school where many students are used to living at home with their parents or guardians. Students experience a newfound freedom once beginning their freshman year, especially if living in on-campus housing. Freshmen are known to gain weight during this transitory period, and this has been partially attributed to changes in eating behaviors, which makes this a population of concern. College freshmen have significant autonomy over their food choices if not living at home, due to not having parents or guardians present. In the transition to college, freshmen are able to adopt new habits, healthy or unhealthy, which could make a large impact on their health habits for the rest of their lives; this is why the freshman population is an area of concern. RESULTS: None of the relationships between social connectedness and FF consumption were found to be statistically significant. Social connectedness was not significantly related to cross-sectional FF intake at the two different phases, or longitudinally between the two phases, even after adjustments were made. Additionally, there were no gender differences present in FF consumption or social connectedness at either phase. CONCLUSION: The lack of significant findings suggest that social connectedness might not be a reason college freshmen consume FF. Students might eat with others due to the convenience of living closely to them rather than as a means to socialize. Also, factors such as time constraints and cost might have played a larger role in why students consumed FF. Future research could involve similar studies using shorter questionnaires more tailored to eating behaviors, with more detailed measures of FF consumption (e.g. What specific FF meals did you consume?) and for a longer duration of time, to allow students to become more situated in their environment and have a better knowledge of all their food options. This study was an important contribution to the sparsely researched topic of social connectedness with a large and diverse sample studied longitudinally. It was also the only study of its kind to be performed on the college population, and had potential for future health implications in obesity and chronic conditions such as hypertension and type II diabetes. Further research is warranted to evaluate the relationship between social connectedness and other eating behaviors.

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2016-12

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An evaluation of the ecological and human health factors in protein source decisions

Description

Protein is an essential macronutrient in the human diet, but the source of this protein has both human health and environmental impacts. Health complications can result from protein deficiency, but the practices by which protein sources are raised, grown, or

Protein is an essential macronutrient in the human diet, but the source of this protein has both human health and environmental impacts. Health complications can result from protein deficiency, but the practices by which protein sources are raised, grown, or harvested have environmental consequences, potentially reducing biodiversity, essential habitat, and crucial stocks of natural resources. Terrestrial cultivation encroaches on natural habitats and consumes resources inefficiently, while overfishing has greatly depleted wild fishery stocks. These environmental factors, along with concerns about nutrients, contaminants and the ethics of animal protein has led to confusion about weighing the risks and benefits associated with alternative sources of protein. Providing consumers \u2014 and policy makers \u2014 with a comprehensive account of major protein sources and their impacts in an understandable form is crucial to reducing environmental degradation and improving human health. Here I provide a general framework to compare the health and environmental impacts of livestock, seafood, and plant protein, and illustrate the application of this framework with case studies for each of these categories.

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2014-05

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Genetically-Related Health Disparities in Sports: Frequency Analysis of Two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in NCAA Student Athletes with Sickle Cell Trait

Description

The NCAA recently declared sickle cell trait (SCT) to be a risk factor for sudden illness and death among student athletes. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentration in adults is negatively correlated with disease severity in sickle cell anemia, although its effect

The NCAA recently declared sickle cell trait (SCT) to be a risk factor for sudden illness and death among student athletes. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentration in adults is negatively correlated with disease severity in sickle cell anemia, although its effect on SCT is not fully understood and the concentration is found to have high variability across populations. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the human beta globin gene cluster, rs7482144 and rs10128556, contribute to the heritable variation in HbF levels and are associated with increased HbF concentrations in adults. A sample population of NCAA football student athletes was genotyped for these two polymorphisms, and their allele frequencies were compared to those of other populations. The minor allele of both polymorphisms had allele frequencies of 0.091 in the sample population, which compared closely with other populations of recent African heritage but was significantly different from European populations. The results of this study will be included in a larger study to predict whether these among other polymorphisms can be used as markers to predict susceptibility to heat-related emergencies in NCAA student athletes with SCT, although the small sample size will delay this process until participation in the study increases. Since both rs7482144 and rs10128556 exhibit high levels of linkage disequilibrium, and as their contributions to the heritable variability of HbF concentrations tend to differ greatly between populations of different ancestry, further investigations should be aimed at distinguishing between the effects of each SNP in African American, European, and other populations represented in NCAA football before conclusions can be drawn as to their practical use as genetic markers of heat susceptibility in student athletes with SCT.

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2014-05