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Design and Analysis of an Exhaust System for a Four Cylinder Engine

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Formula SAE is a student design competition where students design and fabricate a formula-style racecar to race in a series of events against schools from around the world. It gives students of all majors the ability to use classroom theory

Formula SAE is a student design competition where students design and fabricate a formula-style racecar to race in a series of events against schools from around the world. It gives students of all majors the ability to use classroom theory and knowledge in a real world application. The general guidelines for the prototype racecars is for the students to use four-stroke, Otto cycle piston engines with a displacement of no greater than 610cc. A 20mm air restrictor downstream the throttle limits the power of the engines to under 100 horsepower. A 178-page rulebook outlines the remaining restrictions as they apply to the various vehicle systems: vehicle dynamics, driver interface, aerodynamics, and engine. Vehicle dynamics is simply the study of the forces which affect wheeled vehicles in motion. Its primary components are the chassis and suspension system. Driver interface controls everything that the driver interacts with including steering wheel, seat, pedals, and shifter. Aerodynamics refers to the outside skin of the vehicle which controls the amount of drag and downforce on the vehicle. Finally, the engine consists of the air intake, engine block, cooling system, and the exhaust. The exhaust is one of the most important pieces of an engine that is often overlooked in racecar design. The purpose of the exhaust is to control the removal of the combusted air-fuel mixture from the engine cylinders. The exhaust as well as the intake is important because they govern the flow into and out of the engine's cylinders (Heywood 231). They are especially important in racecar design because they have a great impact on the power produced by an engine. The higher the airflow through the cylinders, the larger amount of fuel that can be burned and consequently, the greater amount of power the engine can produce. In the exhaust system, higher airflow is governed by several factors. A good exhaust design gives and engine a higher volumetric efficiency through the exhaust scavenging effect. Volumetric efficiency is also affected by frictional losses. In addition, the system should ideally be lightweight, and easily manufacturable. Arizona State University's Formula SAE racecar uses a Honda F4i Engine from a CBR 600 motorcycle. It is a four cylinder Otto cycle engine with a 600cc displacement. An ideal or tuned exhaust system for this car would maximize the negative gauge pressure during valve overlap at the ideal operating rpm. Based on the typical track layout for the Formula SAE design series, an ideal exhaust system would be optimized for 7500 rpm and work well in the range

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2016-05

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Exhaust System Design and Testing Methods

Description

The exhaust system is an integral part of any internal combustion engine. A well- designed exhaust system efficiently removes exhaust gasses expelled from the cylinders. If tuned for performance purposes, the exhaust system can also exhibit scavenging and supercharging characteristics.

The exhaust system is an integral part of any internal combustion engine. A well- designed exhaust system efficiently removes exhaust gasses expelled from the cylinders. If tuned for performance purposes, the exhaust system can also exhibit scavenging and supercharging characteristics. This project reviews the major components of an exhaust system and discusses the proper design techniques necessary to utilize the performance boosting potential of a tuned exhaust system for a four-stroke engine. These design considerations are then applied to Arizona State University's Formula SAE vehicle by comparing the existing system to a properly tuned system. An inexpensive testing method, developed specifically for this project, is used to test the effectiveness of the current design. The results of the test determined that the current design is ineffective at scavenging neighboring pipes of exhaust gasses and should be redesigned for better performance.

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Date Created
2014-05

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The Effect of Spoilers on Vehicle Aerodynamics and Performance

Description

An understanding of aerodynamics is crucial for automobile performance and efficiency. There are many types of “add-on” aerodynamic devices for cars including wings, splitters, and vortex generators. While these have been studied extensively, rear spoilers have not, and their effects

An understanding of aerodynamics is crucial for automobile performance and efficiency. There are many types of “add-on” aerodynamic devices for cars including wings, splitters, and vortex generators. While these have been studied extensively, rear spoilers have not, and their effects are not as widely known. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel study was performed to study the effects of spoilers on vehicle aerodynamics and performance. Vehicle aerodynamics is geometry dependent, meaning what applies to one car may or may not apply on another. So, the Scion FRS was chosen as the test vehicle because it is has the “classic” sports car configuration with a long hood, short rear, and 2+2 passenger cabin while also being widely sold with a plethora of aftermarket aerodynamic modifications available. Due to computing and licensing restrictions, only a 2D CFD simulation was performed in ANSYS Fluent 19.1. A surface model of the centerline of the car was created in SolidWorks and imported into ANSYS, where the domain was created. A mesh convergence study was run to determine the optimum mesh size, and Realizable k-epsilon was the chosen physics model. The wind tunnel lacked equipment to record quantifiable data, so the wind tunnel was utilized for flow visualization on a 1/24 scale car model to compare with the CFD.

0° spoilers reduced the wake area behind the car, decreasing pressure drag but also decreasing underbody flow, causing a reduction in drag and downforce. Angled spoilers increased the wake area behind the car, increasing pressure drag but also increasing underbody flow, causing an increase in drag and downforce. Longer spoilers increased these effects compared to shorter spoilers, and short spoilers at different angles did not create significantly different effects. 0° spoilers would be best suited for cases that prioritize fuel economy or straight-line acceleration and speed due to the drag reduction, while angled spoilers would be best suited for cars requiring downforce. The angle and length of spoiler would depend on the downforce needed, which is dependent on the track.

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2019-12

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Optimization of complex thermal-fluid processes

Description

First, in a large-scale structure, a 3-D CFD model was built to simulate flow and temperature distributions. The flow patterns and temperature distributions are characterized and validated through spot measurements. The detailed understanding of them then allows for optimization of

First, in a large-scale structure, a 3-D CFD model was built to simulate flow and temperature distributions. The flow patterns and temperature distributions are characterized and validated through spot measurements. The detailed understanding of them then allows for optimization of the HVAC configuration because identification of the problematic flow patterns and temperature mis-distributions leads to some corrective measures. Second, an appropriate form of the viscous dissipation term in the integral form of the conservation equation was considered, and the effects of momentum terms on the computed drop size in pressure-atomized sprays were examined. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) calculated in this manner agrees well with experimental data of the drop velocities and sizes. Using the suggested equation with the revised treatment of liquid momentum setup, injection parameters can be directly input to the system of equations. Thus, this approach is capable of incorporating the effects of injection parameters for further considerations of the drop and velocity distributions under a wide range of spray geometry and injection conditions. Lastly, groundwater level estimation was investigated using compressed sensing (CS). To satisfy a general property of CS, a random measurement matrix was used, the groundwater network was constructed, and finally the l-1 optimization was run. Through several validation tests, correct estimation of groundwater level by CS was shown. Using this setup, decreasing trends in groundwater level in the southwestern US was shown. The suggested method is effective in that the total measurements of registered wells can be reduced down by approximately 42 %, sparse data can be visualized and a possible approach for groundwater management during extreme weather changes, e.g. in California, was demonstrated.

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Date Created
2015

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Role of interactions of boundary conditions and baroclinic vorticity in the instability of thermally stratified spinup in a cylinder

Description

A numerical study of incremental spin-up and spin-up from rest of a thermally- stratified fluid enclosed within a right circular cylinder with rigid bottom and side walls and stress-free upper surface is presented. Thermally stratified spin-up is a typical example

A numerical study of incremental spin-up and spin-up from rest of a thermally- stratified fluid enclosed within a right circular cylinder with rigid bottom and side walls and stress-free upper surface is presented. Thermally stratified spin-up is a typical example of baroclinity, which is initiated by a sudden increase in rotation rate and the tilting of isotherms gives rise to baroclinic source of vorticity. Research by (Smirnov et al. [2010a]) showed the differences in evolution of instabilities when Dirichlet and Neumann thermal boundary conditions were applied at top and bottom walls. Study of parametric variations carried out in this dissertation confirmed the instability patterns observed by them for given aspect ratio and Rossby number values greater than 0.5. Also results reveal that flow maintained axisymmetry and stability for short aspect ratio containers independent of amount of rotational increment imparted. Investigation on vorticity components provides framework for baroclinic vorticity feedback mechanism which plays important role in delayed rise of instabilities when Dirichlet thermal Boundary Conditions are applied.

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Date Created
2011

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Numerical simulations of the impact of large wind farms on local climate

Description

Due to decrease in fossil fuel levels, the world is shifting focus towards renewable sources of energy. With an annual average growth rate of 25%, wind is one of the foremost source of harnessing cleaner energy for production of electricity.

Due to decrease in fossil fuel levels, the world is shifting focus towards renewable sources of energy. With an annual average growth rate of 25%, wind is one of the foremost source of harnessing cleaner energy for production of electricity. Wind turbines have been developed to tap power from wind. As a single wind turbine is insufficient, multiple turbines are installed forming a wind farm. Generally, wind farms can have hundreds to thousands of turbines concentrated in a small region. There have been multiple studies centering the influence of weather on such wind farms, but no substantial research focused on how wind farms effect local climate. Technological advances have allowed development of commercial wind turbines with a power output greater than 7.58 MW. This has led to a reduction in required number of turbines and has optimized land usage. Hence, current research considers higher power density compared to previous works that relied on wind farm density of 2 to 4 W/m 2 . Simulations were performed using Weather Research and Forecasting software provided by NCAR. The region of simulation is Southern Oregon, with domains including both onshore and offshore wind farms. Unlike most previous works, where wind farms were considered to be on a flat ground, effects of topography have also been considered here. Study of seasonal effects over wind farms has provided better insight into changes in local wind direction. Analysis of mean velocity difference across wind farms at a height of 10m and 150m gives an understanding of wind velocity profiles. Results presented in this research tends to contradict earlier belief that velocity reduces throughout the farm. Large scale simulations have shown that sometimes, more than 50% of the farm can have an increased wind velocity of up to 1m/s

at an altitude of 10m.

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Date Created
2015

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Effects of Wildlife Deterrent Devices Affixed to Wind Turbines on Power Output

Description

Energy production is driven by economic needs, which sometimes results in the environment and wildlife being an afterthought. Unfortunately, many animals are killed as a result of flying too close to wind turbines, and the addition of animal deterrent devices

Energy production is driven by economic needs, which sometimes results in the environment and wildlife being an afterthought. Unfortunately, many animals are killed as a result of flying too close to wind turbines, and the addition of animal deterrent devices are a promising alternative. This thesis seeks to provide a solution as a part of post- construction considerations regarding wildlife and wind turbine interactions through the introduction of a blade mounted ecological device. After testing the hypothesis, the data revealed the device is effective for increasing power output when placed at the root, middle, and tip of the blade. The middle position yielded the lowest increase at all speeds tested. The device was designed and attached to blades along the estimated line of separation. The blades were then mounted on a tower and tested with wind speed as an input and power as an output. The data was analyzed by fixing speed as a parameter and then looking at the distribution of the power output data. A comparison of blades with and without the device demonstrates a potential for increasing power output by 144% when the device is attached at the blade’s root, 7.5% in the middle, and 21% near the tip. The analysis for this study was descoped due to the constraints of the system to be scaled up. As such, this analysis will hold for turbines with a blade length of no more than approximately eight feet. Blades of this type would be used in single building energy grid supplement turbines or turbines in areas with power requirements of equal or less than 1kW per turbine installed. Single building energy grid supplement turbines are most often mounted to the tops of buildings and take advantage of higher speeds of wind at those heights. As the ecological devices are designed to be similar to vortex generators, which have been tested on large blades, their addition to large blades could prove to have a similar effect.

Keywords: Wind turbine ecosystem, post-construction turbine considerations, wildlife deterrents

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Date Created
2018

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Direct Detection Time of Flight Lidar Sensor System Design and A Vortex Tracking Algorithm for a Doppler Lidar

Description

Laser radars or lidar’s have been used extensively to remotely study winds within the atmospheric boundary layer and atmospheric transport. Lidar sensors have become an important tool within the meteorology and the wind energy community. For example, Doppler lidars are

Laser radars or lidar’s have been used extensively to remotely study winds within the atmospheric boundary layer and atmospheric transport. Lidar sensors have become an important tool within the meteorology and the wind energy community. For example, Doppler lidars are used frequently in wind resource assessment, wind turbine control as well as in atmospheric science research. A Time of Flight based (ToF) direct detection lidar sensor is used in vehicles to navigate through complex and dynamic environments autonomously. These optical sensors are used to map the environment around the car accurately for perception and localization tasks that help achieve complete autonomy.

This thesis begins with a detailed discussion on the fundamentals of a Doppler lidar system. The laser signal flow path to and from the target, the optics of the system and the core signal processing algorithms used to extract velocity information, were studied to get closer to the hardware of a Doppler lidar sensor. A Doppler lidar simulator was built to study the existing signal processing algorithms to detect and estimate doppler frequency, and radial velocity information. Understanding the sensor and its processing at the hardware level is necessary to develop new algorithms to detect and track specific flow structures in the atmosphere. For example, the aircraft vortices have been a topic of extensive research and doppler lidars have proved to be a valuable sensor to detect and track these coherent flow structures. Using the lidar simulator a physics based doppler lidar vortex algorithm is tested on simulated data to track a pair of counter rotating aircraft vortices.

At a system level the major components of a time of flight lidar is very similar to a Doppler lidar. The fundamental physics of operation is however different. While doppler lidars are used for radial velocity measurement, ToF sensors as the name suggests provides precise depth measurements by measuring time of flight between the transmitted and the received pulses. The second part of this dissertation begins to explore the details of ToF lidar system. A system level design, to build a ToF direct detection lidar system is presented. Different lidar sensor modalities that are currently used with sensors in the market today for automotive applications were evaluated and a 2D MEMS based scanning lidar system was designed using off-the shelf components.

Finally, a range of experiments and tests were completed to evaluate the performance of each sub-component of the lidar sensor prototype. A major portion of the testing was done to align the optics of the system and to ensure maximum field of view overlap for the bi-static laser sensor. As a laser range finder, the system demonstrated capabilities to detect hard targets as far as 32 meters. Time to digital converter (TDC) and an analog to digital converter (ADC) was used for providing accurate timing solutions for the lidar prototype. A Matlab lidar model was built and used to perform trade-off studies that helped choosing components to suit the sensor design specifications.

The size, weight and cost of these lidar sensors are still very high and thus making it harder for automotive manufacturers to integrate these sensors into their vehicles. Ongoing research in this field is determined to find a solution that guarantees very high performance in real time and lower its cost over the next decade as components get cheaper and can be seamlessly integrated with cars to improve on-road safety.

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Date Created
2018

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Viscous Compressible Flow Through a Micro-Conduit: Slip-Like Flow Rate with No-Slip Boundary Condition

Description

This dissertation studies two outstanding microscale fluid mechanics problems: 1) mechanisms of gas production from the nanopores of shale; 2) enhanced mass flow rate in steady compressible gas flow through a micro-conduit.

The dissertation starts with a study of a volumetric

This dissertation studies two outstanding microscale fluid mechanics problems: 1) mechanisms of gas production from the nanopores of shale; 2) enhanced mass flow rate in steady compressible gas flow through a micro-conduit.

The dissertation starts with a study of a volumetric expansion driven drainage flow of a viscous compressible fluid from a small capillary and channel in the low Mach number limit. An analysis based on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with no-slip condition shows that fluid drainage is controlled by the slow decay of the acoustic wave inside the capillary and the no-slip flow exhibits a slip-like mass flow rate. Numerical simulations are also carried out for drainage from a small capillary to a reservoir or a contraction of finite size. By allowing the density wave to escape the capillary, two wave leakage mechanisms are identified, which are dependent on the capillary length to radius ratio, reservoir size and acoustic Reynolds number. Empirical functions are generated for an effective diffusive coefficient which allows simple calculations of the drainage rate using a diffusion model without the presence of the reservoir or contraction.

In the second part of the dissertation, steady viscous compressible flow through a micro-conduit is studied using compressible Navier-Stokes equations with no-slip condition. The mathematical theory of Klainerman and Majda for low Mach number flow is employed to derive asymptotic equations in the limit of small Mach number. The overall flow, a combination of the Hagen-Poiseuille flow and a diffusive velocity shows a slip-like mass flow rate even through the overall velocity satisfies the no-slip condition. The result indicates that the classical formulation includes self-diffusion effect and it embeds the Extended Navier-Stokes equation theory (ENSE) without the need of introducing additional constitutive hypothesis or assuming slip on the boundary. Contrary to most ENSE publications, the predicted mass flow rate is still significantly below the measured data based on an extensive comparison with thirty-five experiments.

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Date Created
2019

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CFD analysis of wind power potential across rooftop gaps of tall buildings

Description

This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling to analyze the

dependence of wind power potential and turbulence intensity on aerodynamic design of a

special type of building with a nuzzle-like gap at its rooftop. Numerical simulations using

ANSYS Fluent are carried out

This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling to analyze the

dependence of wind power potential and turbulence intensity on aerodynamic design of a

special type of building with a nuzzle-like gap at its rooftop. Numerical simulations using

ANSYS Fluent are carried out to quantify the above-mentioned dependency due to three

major geometric parameters of the building: (i) the height of the building, (ii) the depth of

the roof-top gap, and (iii) the width of the roof-top gap. The height of the building is varied

from 8 m to 24 m. Likewise, the gap depth is varied from 3 m to 5 m and the gap width

from 2 m to 4 m. The aim of this entire research is to relate these geometric parameters of

the building to the maximum value and the spatial pattern of wind power potential across

the roof-top gap. These outcomes help guide the design of the roof-top geometry for wind

power applications and determine the ideal position for mounting a micro wind turbine.

From these outcomes, it is suggested that the wind power potential is greatly affected by

the increasing gap width or gap depth. It, however, remains insensitive to the increasing

building height, unlike turbulence intensity which increases with increasing building

height. After performing a set of simulations with varying building geometry to quantify

the wind power potential before the installation of a turbine, another set of simulations is

conducted by installing a static turbine within the roof-top gap. The results from the latter

are used to further adjust the estimate of wind power potential. Recommendations are made

for future applications based on the findings from the numerical simulations.

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Date Created
2017