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A novel nonlocal lattice particle framework for modeling of solids

Description

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity resulted from the spatial discontinuity at the crack tip/front. The requirement of guiding criteria for various cracking behaviors, such as initiation, propagation, and branching, also poses some challenges. Comparing to the continuum based formulation, the discrete approaches, such as lattice spring method, discrete element method, and peridynamics, have certain advantages when modeling various fracture problems due to their intrinsic characteristics in modeling discontinuities.

A novel, alternative, and systematic framework based on a nonlocal lattice particle model is proposed in this study. The uniqueness of the proposed model is the inclusion of both pair-wise local and multi-body nonlocal potentials in the formulation. First, the basic ideas of the proposed framework for 2D isotropic solid are presented. Derivations for triangular and square lattice structure are discussed in detail. Both mechanical deformation and fracture process are simulated and model verification and validation are performed with existing analytical solutions and experimental observations. Following this, the extension to general 3D isotropic solids based on the proposed local and nonlocal potentials is given. Three cubic lattice structures are discussed in detail. Failure predictions using the 3D simulation are compared with experimental testing results and very good agreement is observed. Next, a lattice rotation scheme is proposed to account for the material orientation in modeling anisotropic solids. The consistency and difference compared to the classical material tangent stiffness transformation method are discussed in detail. The implicit and explicit solution methods for the proposed lattice particle model are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and discussions based on the current study are drawn at the end.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Modeling and control of flapping wing micro aerial vehicles

Description

Interest in Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) research has surged over the past decade. MAVs offer new capabilities for intelligence gathering, reconnaissance, site mapping, communications, search and rescue, etc. This thesis discusses key modeling and control aspects of flapping wing MAVs

Interest in Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) research has surged over the past decade. MAVs offer new capabilities for intelligence gathering, reconnaissance, site mapping, communications, search and rescue, etc. This thesis discusses key modeling and control aspects of flapping wing MAVs in hover. A three degree of freedom nonlinear model is used to describe the flapping wing vehicle. Averaging theory is used to obtain a nonlinear average model. The equilibrium of this model is then analyzed. A linear model is then obtained to describe the vehicle near hover. LQR is used to as the main control system design methodology. It is used, together with a nonlinear parameter optimization algorithm, to design a family multivariable control system for the MAV. Critical performance trade-offs are illuminated. Properties at both the plant output and input are examined. Very specific rules of thumb are given for control system design. The conservatism of the rules are also discussed. Issues addressed include

What should the control system bandwidth be vis--vis the flapping frequency (so that averaging the nonlinear system is valid)?

When is first order averaging sufficient? When is higher order averaging necessary?

When can wing mass be neglected and when does wing mass become critical to model?

This includes how and when the rules given can be tightened; i.e. made less conservative.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Experimental study of the flow field in a model 1.5-stage gas turbine rotor-stator disk cavity

Description

A major concern in the operation of present-day gas turbine engines is the ingestion of hot mainstream gas into rotor-stator disk cavities of the high-pressure turbine stages. Although the engines require high gas temperature at turbine entry for good performance

A major concern in the operation of present-day gas turbine engines is the ingestion of hot mainstream gas into rotor-stator disk cavities of the high-pressure turbine stages. Although the engines require high gas temperature at turbine entry for good performance efficiency, the ingested gas shortens the lives of the cavity internals, particularly that of the rotor disks. Steps such as installing seals at the disk rims and injecting purge (secondary) air bled from the compressor discharge into the cavities are implemented to reduce the gas ingestion. Although there are advantages to the above-mentioned steps, the performance of a gas turbine engine is diminished by the purge air bleed-off. This then requires that the cavity sealing function be achieved with as low a purge air supply rate as possible. This, in turn, renders imperative an in-depth understanding of the pressure and velocity fields in the main gas path and within the disk cavities. In this work, experiments were carried out in a model 1.5-stage (stator-rotor-stator) axial air turbine to study the ingestion of main air into the aft, rotor-stator, disk cavity. The cavity featured rotor and stator rim seals with radial clearance and axial overlap and an inner labyrinth seal. First, time-average static pressure distribution was measured in the main gas path upstream and downstream of the rotor as well as in the cavity to ensure that a nominally steady run condition had been achieved. Main gas ingestion was determined by measuring the concentration distribution of tracer gas (CO2) in the cavity. To map the cavity fluid velocity field, particle image velocimetry was employed. Results are reported for two main air flow rates, two rotor speeds, and four purge air flow rates.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

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Accelerated life testing of electronic circuit boards with applications in lead-free design

Description

This dissertation presents methods for addressing research problems that currently can only adequately be solved using Quality Reliability Engineering (QRE) approaches especially accelerated life testing (ALT) of electronic printed wiring boards with applications to avionics circuit boards. The methods presented

This dissertation presents methods for addressing research problems that currently can only adequately be solved using Quality Reliability Engineering (QRE) approaches especially accelerated life testing (ALT) of electronic printed wiring boards with applications to avionics circuit boards. The methods presented in this research are generally applicable to circuit boards, but the data generated and their analysis is for high performance avionics. Avionics equipment typically requires 20 years expected life by aircraft equipment manufacturers and therefore ALT is the only practical way of performing life test estimates. Both thermal and vibration ALT induced failure are performed and analyzed to resolve industry questions relating to the introduction of lead-free solder product and processes into high reliability avionics. In chapter 2, thermal ALT using an industry standard failure machine implementing Interconnect Stress Test (IST) that simulates circuit board life data is compared to real production failure data by likelihood ratio tests to arrive at a mechanical theory. This mechanical theory results in a statistically equivalent energy bound such that failure distributions below a specific energy level are considered to be from the same distribution thus allowing testers to quantify parameter setting in IST prior to life testing. In chapter 3, vibration ALT comparing tin-lead and lead-free circuit board solder designs involves the use of the likelihood ratio (LR) test to assess both complete failure data and S-N curves to present methods for analyzing data. Failure data is analyzed using Regression and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and reconciled with the LR test results that indicating that a costly aging pre-process may be eliminated in certain cases. In chapter 4, vibration ALT for side-by-side tin-lead and lead-free solder black box designs are life tested. Commercial models from strain data do not exist at the low levels associated with life testing and need to be developed because testing performed and presented here indicate that both tin-lead and lead-free solders are similar. In addition, earlier failures due to vibration like connector failure modes will occur before solder interconnect failures.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Phase oscillator

Description

A control method based on the phase angle is used to control oscillating systems. The phase oscillator uses the sine and cosine of the phase angle to change key properties of a mass-spring-damper system, including amplitude, frequency, and equilibrium. An

A control method based on the phase angle is used to control oscillating systems. The phase oscillator uses the sine and cosine of the phase angle to change key properties of a mass-spring-damper system, including amplitude, frequency, and equilibrium. An inverted pendulum is used to show a further application of the phase oscillator. Two methods of control based on the phase oscillator are used for swing-up and balancing of the pendulum. The first control method involves two separate stages. The scenarios where this control works are discussed. The second control method uses variable coefficients to result in a smooth transition between swing-up and balancing.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Multiscale reduced order models for the geometrically nonlinear response of complex structures

Description

The focus of this investigation includes three aspects. First, the development of nonlinear reduced order modeling techniques for the prediction of the response of complex structures exhibiting "large" deformations, i.e. a geometrically nonlinear behavior, and modeled within a commercial finite

The focus of this investigation includes three aspects. First, the development of nonlinear reduced order modeling techniques for the prediction of the response of complex structures exhibiting "large" deformations, i.e. a geometrically nonlinear behavior, and modeled within a commercial finite element code. The present investigation builds on a general methodology, successfully validated in recent years on simpler panel structures, by developing a novel identification strategy of the reduced order model parameters, that enables the consideration of the large number of modes needed for complex structures, and by extending an automatic strategy for the selection of the basis functions used to represent accurately the displacement field. These novel developments are successfully validated on the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of a 9-bay panel structure modeled within Nastran. In addition, a multi-scale approach based on Component Mode Synthesis methods is explored. Second, an assessment of the predictive capabilities of nonlinear reduced order models for the prediction of the large displacement and stress fields of panels that have a geometric discontinuity; a flat panel with a notch was used for this assessment. It is demonstrated that the reduced order models of both virgin and notched panels provide a close match of the displacement field obtained from full finite element analyses of the notched panel for moderately large static and dynamic responses. In regards to stresses, it is found that the notched panel reduced order model leads to a close prediction of the stress distribution obtained on the notched panel as computed by the finite element model. Two enrichment techniques, based on superposition of the notch effects on the virgin panel stress field, are proposed to permit a close prediction of the stress distribution of the notched panel from the reduced order model of the virgin one. A very good prediction of the full finite element results is achieved with both enrichments for static and dynamic responses. Finally, computational challenges associated with the solution of the reduced order model equations are discussed. Two alternatives to reduce the computational time for the solution of these problems are explored.

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Date Created
2012

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Thermal-structural analysis of high pressure superheater 1 of a heat recovery steam generator

Description

High Pressure Superheater 1 (HPSH1) is the first heat exchange tube bank inside the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) to encounter exhaust flue gas from the gas turbine of a Combined Cycle Power Plant. Steam flowing through the HPSH1 gains

High Pressure Superheater 1 (HPSH1) is the first heat exchange tube bank inside the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) to encounter exhaust flue gas from the gas turbine of a Combined Cycle Power Plant. Steam flowing through the HPSH1 gains heat from the flue gas prior to entering the steam turbine. During cold start-ups, rapid temperature changes in operating condition give rise to significant temperature gradients in the thick-walled components of HPSH1 (manifolds, links, and headers). These temperature gradients produce thermal-structural stresses in the components. The resulting high cycle fatigue is a major concern as this can lead to premature failure of the components. The main objective of this project was to address the thermal-structural stress field induced in HPSH1 during a typical cold start-up transient. To this end, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to carry out the thermal-fluid analysis of HPSH1. The calculated temperature distributions in the component walls were the primary inputs for the finite element (FEA) model that performed structural analysis. Thermal-structural analysis was initially carried out at full-load steady state condition in order to gain confidence in the CFD and FEA methodologies. Results of the full-load steady state thermal-fluid analysis were found in agreement with the temperature values measured at specific locations on the outer surfaces of the inlet links and outlet manifold. It was found from the subsequent structural analysis that peak effective stresses were located at the connecting regions of the components and were well below the allowed stress values. Higher temperature differences were observed between the thick-walled HPSH1 components during the cold start-up transient as compared to the full-load steady state operating condition. This was because of the rapid temperature changes that occurred, especially in the steam temperature at the HPSH1 entry, and the different rates of heating or cooling for components with different wall thicknesses. Results of the transient thermal-fluid analysis will be used in future to perform structural analysis of the HPSH1. The developed CFD and FEA models are capable of analyzing various other transients (e.g., hot start-up and shut-down) and determine their influence on the durability of plant components.

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Date Created
2012

A study of heating and degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate polymer due to ultraviolet lasers illumination during localized pre-deposition heating for fused filament fabrication 3D printing

Description

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured in this method. The goal is to produce parts that mimic the strength characteristics of a comparable part of the same design and materials created using injection molding. In achieving this goal the production cost can be reduced by eliminating the initial investment needed for the creation of expensive tooling. This initial investment reduction will allow for a wider variant of products in smaller batch runs to be made available. This thesis implements the use of ultraviolet (UV) illumination for an in-process laser local pre-deposition heating (LLPH). By comparing samples with and without the LLPH process it is determined that applied energy that is absorbed by the polymer is converted to an increase in the interlayer temperature, and resulting in an observed increase in tensile strength over the baseline test samples. The increase in interlayer bonding thus can be considered the dominating factor over polymer degradation.

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Date Created
2017

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Early Wing Structural Design for Stiffness and Frequency Response

Description

This paper describes an effort to bring wing structural stiffness and aeroelastic considerations early in the conceptual design process with an automated tool. Stiffness and aeroelasticity can be well represented with a stochastic model during conceptual design because of the

This paper describes an effort to bring wing structural stiffness and aeroelastic considerations early in the conceptual design process with an automated tool. Stiffness and aeroelasticity can be well represented with a stochastic model during conceptual design because of the high level of uncertainty and variability in wing non-structural mass such as fuel loading and control surfaces. To accomplish this, an improvement is made to existing design tools utilizing rule based automated design to generate wing torque box geometry from a specific wing outer mold-line. Simple analysis on deflection and inferred stiffness shows how early conceptual design choices can strongly impact the stiffness of the structure. The impacts of design choices and how the buckling constraints drive structural weight in particular examples are discussed. The model is then carried further to include a finite element model (FEM) to analyze resulting mode shapes and frequencies for use in aeroelastic analysis. The natural frequencies of several selected wing torque boxes across a range of loading cases are compared.

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2018

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Exploration, Mapping and Scalar Field Estimation using a Swarm of Resource-Constrained Robots

Description

Robotic swarms can potentially perform complicated tasks such as exploration and mapping at large space and time scales in a parallel and robust fashion. This thesis presents strategies for mapping environmental features of interest – specifically obstacles, collision-free paths, generating

Robotic swarms can potentially perform complicated tasks such as exploration and mapping at large space and time scales in a parallel and robust fashion. This thesis presents strategies for mapping environmental features of interest – specifically obstacles, collision-free paths, generating a metric map and estimating scalar density fields– in an unknown domain using data obtained by a swarm of resource-constrained robots. First, an approach was developed for mapping a single obstacle using a swarm of point-mass robots with both directed and random motion. The swarm population dynamics are modeled by a set of advection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations (PDEs) in which a spatially-dependent indicator function marks the presence or absence of the obstacle in the domain. The indicator function is estimated by solving an optimization problem with PDEs as constraints. Second, a methodology for constructing a topological map of an unknown environment was proposed, which indicates collision-free paths for navigation, from data collected by a swarm of finite-sized robots. As an initial step, the number of topological features in the domain was quantified by applying tools from algebraic topology, to a probability function over the explored region that indicates the presence of obstacles. A topological map of the domain is then generated using a graph-based wave propagation algorithm. This approach is further extended, enabling the technique to construct a metric map of an unknown domain with obstacles using uncertain position data collected by a swarm of resource-constrained robots, filtered using intensity measurements of an external signal. Next, a distributed method was developed to construct the occupancy grid map of an unknown environment using a swarm of inexpensive robots or mobile sensors with limited communication. In addition to this, an exploration strategy which combines information theoretic ideas with Levy walks was also proposed. Finally, the problem of reconstructing a two-dimensional scalar field using observations from a subset of a sensor network in which each node communicates its local measurements to its neighboring nodes was addressed. This problem reduces to estimating the initial condition of a large interconnected system with first-order linear dynamics, which can be solved as an optimization problem.

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Date Created
2018