Matching Items (9)
- All Subjects: chemical engineering
Of the potential technologies for pre-combustion capture, membranes offer the advantages of being temperature resistant, able to handle large flow rates, and having a relatively small footprint. A significant amount of research has centered on the use of polymeric and microporous inorganic membranes to separate CO2. These membranes, however, have limitations at high temperature resulting in poor permeation performance. To address these limitations, the use of a dense dual-phase membrane has been studied. These membranes are composed of conductive solid and conductive liquid phases that have the ability to selectively permeate CO2 by forming carbonate ions that diffuse through the membrane at high temperature. The driving force for transport through the membrane is a CO2 partial pressure gradient. The membrane provides a theoretically infinite selectivity. To address stability of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane for CO2 capture at high temperature, the ceramic phase of the membrane was studied and replaced with materials previously shown to be stable in harsh conditions. The permeation properties and stability of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (LSCF)-carbonate, La0.85Ce0.1Ga0.3Fe0.65Al0.05O3-δ (LCGFA)-carbonate, and Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC)-carbonate membranes were examined under a wide range of experimental conditions at high temperature. LSCF-carbonate membranes were shown to be unstable without the presence of O2 due to reaction of CO2 with the ceramic phase. In the presence of O2, however, the membranes showed stable permeation behavior for more than one month at 900oC. LCGFA-carbonate membranes showed great chemical and permeation stability in the presence of various conditions including exposure to CH4 and H2, however, the permeation performance was quite low when compared to membranes in the literature. Finally, SDC-carbonate membranes showed great chemical and permeation stability both in a CO2:N2 environment for more than two weeks at 900oC as well as more than one month of exposure to simulated syngas conditions at 700oC. Ceramic phase chemical stability increased in the order of LSCF < LCGFA < SDC while permeation performance increased in the order of LCGFA < LSCF < SDC.
Large-pore metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes offer potential in a number of gas and liquid separations due to their wide and selective adsorption capacities. A key characteristic of a number of MOF and zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes is their highly selective adsorption capacities for CO2. These membranes offer very tangible potential to separate CO2 in a wide array of industrially relevant separation processes, such as the separation from CO2 in flue gas emissions, as well as the sweetening of methane.
By virtue of this, the purpose of this dissertation is to synthesize and characterize two linear large-pore MOF membranes, MOF-5 and ZIF-68, and to study their gas separation properties in binary mixtures of CO¬2/N2 and CO2/CH4. The three main objectives researched are as follows. The first is to study the pervaporation behavior and stability of MOF-5; this is imperative because although MOF-5 exhibits desirable adsorption and separation characteristics, it is very unstable in atmospheric conditions. In determining its stability and behavior in pervaporation, this material can be utilized in conditions wherein atmospheric levels of moisture can be avoided. The second objective is to synthesize, optimize and characterize a linear, more stable MOF membrane, ZIF-68. The final objective is to study in tandem the high-pressure gas separation behavior of MOF-5 and ZIF-68 in binary gas systems of both CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4.
Continuous ZIF-68 membranes were synthesized via the reactive seeding method and the modified reactive seeding method. These membranes, as with the MOF-5 membranes synthesized herein, both showed adherence to Knudsen diffusion, indicating limited defects. Organic solvent experiments indicated that MOF-5 and ZIF-68 were stable in a variety of organic solvents, but both showed reductions in permeation flux of the tested molecules. These reductions were attributed to fouling and found to be cumulative up until a saturation of available bonding sites for molecules was reached and stable pervaporation permeances were reached for both. Gas separation behavior for MOF-5 showed direct dependence on the CO2 partial pressure and the overall feed pressure, while ZIF-68 did not show similar behavior. Differences in separation behavior are attributable to orientation of the ZIF-68 membranes.
Organic optoelectronics include a class of devices synthesized from carbon containing ‘small molecule’ thin films without long range order crystalline or polymer structure. Novel properties such as low modulus and flexibility as well as excellent device performance such as photon emission approaching 100% internal quantum efficiency have accelerated research in this area substantially. While optoelectronic organic light emitting devices have already realized commercial application, challenges to obtain extended lifetime for the high energy visible spectrum and the ability to reproduce natural white light with a simple architecture have limited the value of this technology for some display and lighting applications. In this research, novel materials discovered from a systematic analysis of empirical device data are shown to produce high quality white light through combination of monomer and excimer emission from a single molecule: platinum(II) bis(methyl-imidazolyl)toluene chloride (Pt-17). Illumination quality achieved Commission Internationale de L’Éclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.31, y = 0.38) and color rendering index (CRI) > 75. Further optimization of a device containing Pt-17 resulted in a maximum forward viewing power efficiency of 37.8 lm/W on a plain glass substrate. In addition, accelerated aging tests suggest high energy blue emission from a halogen-free cyclometalated platinum complex could demonstrate degradation rates comparable to known stable emitters. Finally, a buckling based metrology is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of small molecule organic thin films towards understanding the deposition kinetics responsible for an elastic modulus that is both temperature and thickness dependent. These results could contribute to the viability of organic electronic technology in potentially flexible display and lighting applications. The results also provide insight to organic film growth kinetics responsible for optical, mechanical, and water uptake properties relevant to engineering the next generation of optoelectronic devices.
This work demonstrates a capable reverse pulse deposition methodology to influence gap fill behavior inside microvia along with a uniform deposit in the fine line patterned regions for substrate packaging applications. Interconnect circuitry in IC substrate packages comprises of stacked microvia that varies in depth from 20µm to 100µm with an aspect ratio of 0.5 to 1.5 and fine line patterns defined by photolithography. Photolithography defined pattern regions incorporate a wide variety of feature sizes including large circular pad structures with diameter of 20µm - 200µm, fine traces with varying widths of 3µm - 30µm and additional planar regions to define a IC substrate package. Electrodeposition of copper is performed to establish the desired circuit. Electrodeposition of copper in IC substrate applications holds certain unique challenges in that they require a low cost manufacturing process that enables a void-free gap fill inside the microvia along with uniform deposition of copper on exposed patterned regions. Deposition time scales to establish the desired metal thickness for such packages could range from several minutes to few hours. This work showcases a reverse pulse electrodeposition methodology that achieves void-free gap fill inside the microvia and uniform plating in FLS (Fine Lines and Spaces) regions with significantly higher deposition rates than traditional approaches. In order to achieve this capability, systematic experimental and simulation studies were performed. A strong correlation of independent parameters that govern the electrodeposition process such as bath temperature, reverse pulse plating parameters and the ratio of electrolyte concentrations is shown to the deposition kinetics and deposition uniformity in fine patterned regions and gap fill rate inside the microvia. Additionally, insight into the physics of via fill process is presented with secondary and tertiary current simulation efforts. Such efforts lead to show “smart” control of deposition rate at the top and bottom of via to avoid void formation. Finally, a parametric effect on grain size and the ensuing copper metallurgical characteristics of bulk copper is also shown to enable high reliability substrate packages for the IC packaging industry.
Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation with low energy consumption and minimum environment impact. Two microporous inorganic membrane candidates, MFI-type zeolite membrane and carbon molecular sieve membrane (CMS) have demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability. Application of these membranes into C3H6/C3H8 separation has not been well investigated. This dissertation presents fundamental studies on membrane synthesis, characterization and C3H6/C3H8 separation properties of MFI zeolite membrane and CMS membrane.
MFI zeolite membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by secondary growth method. Novel positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) techniques were used to non-destructively characterize the pore structure of these membranes. PAS reveals a bimodal pore structure consisting of intracrystalline zeolitic micropores of ~0.6 nm in diameter and irregular intercrystalline micropores of 1.4 to 1.8 nm in size for the membranes. The template-free synthesized membrane exhibited a high permeance but a low selectivity in C3H6/C3H8 mixture separation.
CMS membranes were synthesized by coating/pyrolysis method on mesoporous γ-alumina support. Such supports allow coating of thin, high-quality polymer films and subsequent CMS membranes with no infiltration into support pores. The CMS membranes show strong molecular sieving effect, offering a high C3H6/C3H8 mixture selectivity of ~30. Reduction in membrane thickness from 500 nm to 300 nm causes an increase in C3H8 permeance and He/N2 selectivity, but a decrease in the permeance of He, N2 and C3H6 and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity. This can be explained by the thickness dependent chain mobility of the polymer film resulting in final carbon membrane of reduced pore size with different effects on transport of gas of different sizes, including possible closure of C3H6-accessible micropores.
CMS membranes demonstrate excellent C3H6/C3H8 separation performance over a wide range of feed pressure, composition and operation temperature. No plasticization was observed at a feed pressure up to 100 psi. The permeation and separation is mainly controlled by diffusion instead of adsorption. CMS membrane experienced a decline in permeance, and an increase in selectivity over time under on-stream C3H6/C3H8 separation. This aging behavior is due to the reduction in effective pore size and porosity caused by oxygen chemisorption and physical aging of the membrane structure.
Emission of CO2 into the atmosphere has become an increasingly concerning issue as we progress into the 21st century Flue gas from coal-burning power plants accounts for 40% of all carbon dioxide emissions. The key to successful separation and sequestration is to separate CO2 directly from flue gas (10-15% CO2, 70% N2), which can range from a few hundred to as high as 1000°C. Conventional microporous membranes (carbons/silicas/zeolites) are capable of separating CO2 from N2 at low temperatures, but cannot achieve separation above 200°C. To overcome the limitations of microporous membranes, a novel ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane for high temperature CO2 separation was proposed. The membrane was synthesized from porous La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-d (LSCF) supports and infiltrated with molten carbonate (Li2CO3/Na2CO3/K2CO3). The CO2 permeation mechanism involves a reaction between CO2 (gas phase) and O= (solid phase) to form CO3=, which is then transported through the molten carbonate (liquid phase) to achieve separation. The effects of membrane thickness, temperature and CO2 partial pressure were studied. Decreasing thickness from 3.0 to 0.375 mm led to higher fluxes at 900°C, ranging from 0.186 to 0.322 mL.min-1.cm-2 respectively. CO2 flux increased with temperature from 700 to 900°C. Activation energy for permeation was similar to that for oxygen ion conduction in LSCF. For partial pressures above 0.05 atm, the membrane exhibited a nearly constant flux. From these observations, it was determined that oxygen ion conductivity limits CO2 permeation and that the equilibrium oxygen vacancy concentration in LSCF is dependent on the partial pressure of CO2 in the gas phase. Finally, the dual-phase membrane was used as a membrane reactor. Separation at high temperatures can produce warm, highly concentrated streams of CO2 that could be used as a chemical feedstock for the synthesis of syngas (H2 + CO). Towards this, three different membrane reactor configurations were examined: 1) blank system, 2) LSCF catalyst and 3) 10% Ni/y-alumina catalyst. Performance increased in the order of blank system < LSCF catalyst < Ni/y-alumina catalyst. Favorable conditions for syngas production were high temperature (850°C), low sweep gas flow rate (10 mL.min-1) and high methane concentration (50%) using the Ni/y-alumina catalyst.
In our modern world the source of for many chemicals is to acquire and refine oil. This process is becoming an expensive to the environment and to human health. Alternative processes for acquiring the final product have been developed but still need work. One product that is valuable is butanol. The normal process for butanol production is very intensive but there is a method to produce butanol from bacteria. This process is better because it is more environmentally safe than using oil. One problem however is that when the bacteria produce too much butanol it reaches the toxicity limit and stops the production of butanol. In order to keep butanol from reaching the toxicity limit an adsorbent is used to remove the butanol without harming the bacteria. The adsorbent is a mesoporous carbon powder that allows the butanol to be adsorbed on it. This thesis explores different designs for a magnetic separation process to extract the carbon powder from the culture.
Global industrialization and urbanization have led to increased levels of air pollution. The costs to society have come in the form of environmental damage, healthcare expenses, lost productivity, and premature mortality. Measuring pollutants is an important task for identifying its sources, warning individuals about dangerous exposure levels, and providing epidemiologists with data to link pollutants with diseases. Current methods for monitoring air pollution are inadequate though. They rely on expensive, complex instrumentation at limited fixed monitoring sites that do not capture the true spatial and temporal variation. Furthermore, the fixed outdoor monitoring sites cannot warn individuals about indoor air quality or exposure to chemicals at worksites. Recent advances in manufacturing and computing technology have allowed new classes of low-cost miniature gas sensor to emerge as possible alternatives. For these to be successful however, there must be innovations in the sensors themselves that improve reliability, operation, and their stability and selectivity in real environments. Three novel gas sensor solutions are presented. The first is the development of a wearable personal exposure monitor using all commercially available components, including two metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors. The device monitors known asthma triggers: ozone, total volatile organic compounds, temperature, humidity, and activity level. Primary focus is placed on the ozone sensor, which requires special circuits, heating algorithm, and calibration to remove temperature and humidity interferences. Eight devices are tested in multiple field tests. The second is the creation of a new compact optoelectronic gas sensing platform using colorimetric microdroplets printed on the surface of a complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) imager. The nonvolatile liquid microdroplets provide a homogeneous, uniform environment that is ideal for colorimetric reactions and lensless optical measurements. To demonstrate one type of possible indicating system gaseous ammonia is detected by complexation with Cu(II). The third project continues work on the CMOS imager optoelectronic platform and develops a more robust sensing system utilizing hydrophobic aerogel particles. Ammonia is detected colorimetrically by its reaction with a molecular dye, with additives and surface treatments enhancing uniformity of the printed films. Future work presented at the end describes a new biological particle sensing system using the CMOS imager.
Nanoholes on the basal plane of graphene can provide abundant mass transport channels and chemically active sites for enhancing the electrochemical performance, making this material highly promising in applications such as supercapacitors, batteries, desalination, molecule or ion detection, and biosensing. However, the current solution-based chemical etching processes to manufacture these nanoholes commonly suffer from low process efficiency, scalability, and controllability, because conventional bulk heating cannot promote the etching reactions. Herein, a novel manufacturing method is developed to address this issue using microwave irradiation to facilitate and control the chemical etching of graphene. In this process, microwave irradiation induces selective heating of graphene in the aqueous solution due to an energy dissipation mechanism coupled with the dielectric and conduction losses. This strategy brings a remarkable reduction of processing time from hour-scale to minute-scale compared to the conventional approaches. By further incorporating microwave pretreatment, it is possible to control the population and area percentage of the in-plane nanoholes on graphene. Theoretical calculations reveal that the nanoholes emerge and grow by a repeating reduction–oxidation process occurring at the edge-sites atoms around vacancy defects on the graphene basal plane. The reduced holey graphene oxide sheets obtained via the microwave-assisted chemical etching method exhibit great potentials in supercapacitors and electrocatalysis. Excellent capacitive performance and electrocatalytic activity are observed in electrochemical measurements. The improvements against the non-holey counterpart are attributed to the enhanced kinetics involving ion diffusion and heterogeneous charge transfer.