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Human subject research is a sensitive ethical topic in today's society, and with good cause. The history of human subject research is full of tragedy and wrongdoing, which is what has led to the firm restrictions we presently have. At the same time, we also acknowledge the value behind human subject research and the information science can obtain from such endeavors. This project analyzes this conundrum through a narrative describing a group of scientists who choose to ignore some of the laws and regulations concerning human subject research in order to pursue neurological based research for a "greater good." In the novella, the scientists end up harming several people while performing their illegal research, but are able to obtain successful results. However, the group is eventually caught, and end up having to face the consequences of their actions. The situations and interactions the story presents are meant to juxtapose both sides of the human subject research ethical argument in a unique way in order to allow the reader to critically think through the argument themselves and form their own opinions on the matter.
In this study, we propose and then assess the efficacy of a new approach to static suspension to correct for facial paralysis. Our method involves placing barbed sutures through the superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) and anchoring them in the temporal fascia parallel to the underlying facial muscles. We first analyzed the ability of this procedure to improve facial symmetry by comparing the degree of asymmetry between the paralyzed and unaffected sides of a patient's face (N=10) prior to and following surgery. Then, to determine if symmetry is improved as a result of placing the sutures parallel to the direction of facial muscle forces, we measured the vectors of levator labii superioris and zygomaticus major in cadaver hemifaces (N=3) and compared them to the angles of the vectors of correction from the patient sample to angles of muscle vectors in three facial hemispheres from cadaver controls. Results indicate that: (1) facial symmetry was significantly improved in these patients and (2) this improvement. We conclude that, compared to existing protocols, our novel surgical method is a better means of static suspension for reconstruction following onset of facial paralysis as it is simple to perform, easy to replicate, able to be post-operatively adjusted in-office, has a good long-term prognosis, and, as we have demonstrated, effectively corrects the appearance of asymmetry by working with the underlying facial anatomy.
Most individuals entering college are taking responsibility for their own health for the first time. Students are used to having a parent or guardian nearby to diagnose and provide remedies for common health issues. Entering college, whether in a different city or just down the road, means they must assume those responsibilities themselves. Navigating that transition can be difficult for college students. A large majority of students turn to internet health resources, such as WebMD, for health information. However, studies show that despite overall internet savvy, college students are not very skilled at finding legitimate health information online. Therefore, a health resource designed specifically for college students would be a valuable resource for many students at ASU. Working with local Phoenix physician Doug Lakin, I and a team of other Barrett students revised Dr. Lakin's healthcare guide, Thrive 101: Health & Wellness for College Students. I was responsible for the guide's second chapter, which provides information on specific illnesses and injuries. I conducted a literature review to discover the best practices for communicating medical information. I found that using short sentences, simple words, bullet point lists, numbered lists, and subheadings improved the effectiveness of a health resource. I also found that health information seekers want resources to be tailored specifically for them. They want personalized resources. Personalization means including health information that the intended reader wants, excluding the health information the reader does not want, as well as featuring personal anecdotes from individuals like the reader dealing with health problems like the reader's. I applied what I discovered to Thrive 101. I reorganized the chapter I was assigned, incorporating subheadings and clear organization of the information. I also eliminated information I judged irrelevant to college students and brainstormed what information was missing that college students would benefit from. At this time, the revision team has not gotten to the point where we are researching and writing new information, but we do have lists of items we want to include. The information already in the guide I reformatted into bulleted and numbered lists where possible. As with the new information, we have not begun to revise the guide on a prose level, shortening the sentences and simplifying the vocabulary, but we intend to work into the summer to finish our revisions.
Cardiovascular disease is one of the most deadly outcomes of end stage renal disease. Bioelectrical impedance is a intriguing, yet unproven method of measuring fluid buildup in the heart, and is marketed as a early diagnostic tool for onset of cardiovascular disease. In this study, selenium supplements were given to a cohort of dialysis patients in the Phoenix metro area and their fluid tolerance was measured with thoracic biolectrical impedance. BNP was used as a correlate to see if bioelectrical impedance was correlated with heart disease. The study found no correlation between BNP and bioelectrical impedance and thus was not an accurate diagnostic tool in a medical setting.
Students Organize for Syria (SOS) is the student led initiative for Syria. With 18 registered chapters across the United States, this student organization is targeting a multidimensional cause by different means. Though it is now a national movement, it started off with one group at Arizona State University, with one student. Zana Alattar, founder and student director of SOS, tells the story of how she took an ASU organization, Save Our Syrian Freedom (SOS Freedom), to the national level as SOS. As a pre-medical student, she also combines her work in human rights with her future in healthcare. After all, health and human rights have long maintained a synergistic relationship.
Objective: To explore the dimensions of the human animal bond and provide a community needs assessment to inform the community stake holders such as the Arizona Humane Society and Nina Mason Pulliam Charitable Trust Foundation how many animals are in need of veterinary services within the homeless population of Phoenix, Arizona. In addition to this, pets of the homeless individuals will be able to gain access to veterinary services for eight consecutive weeks. Background: Pets have an important impact on human mental, physical, social, and emotional health. It has been reported that about one third of the homeless population in Arizona has pets that are not able to gain access to veterinary care (Wang, 2015). Most homeless shelters will not allow people to access services with pets. As a consequence people will sleep out in the streets. Animals as Lifechangers and Lifesavers: Pets in the Redemption Narratives of Homeless People (Irvine, 2013) contains interviews of homeless people based on their life stories. A common theme among interviewees was that they felt they had a responsibility to their pets that served as a motivating purpose for giving up horrible personal habits because they had a sense of responsibility. Methods/Materials: Wandering Paws was launched in February 2015, but did not officially start as an eight-week study until March 2016. This pilot program serves the homeless populations' dogs and cats with veterinary care. The Arizona Humane Society was approached to acquire their services for this project including a veterinarian, a technician, and usage of their seventy-one foot mobile unit. Homeless individuals who wanted veterinary services were recruited and asked to fill out a twenty-three-question survey. Secondary data was procured from the Arizona Humane Society about the animal and services rendered for that pet. Results: Over the course of the first four weeks 22 surveys have been completed. 86% of the surveys completed indicate a strong bond between the owner and animal. The remaining 14% of the surveys completed indicate a weaker bond between the animal and owner. Conclusion/Implications: The research indicates a strong connection between most people and their animals. The veterinary services provided for the homeless population should be continued on a monthly basis as a wellness clinic in the future, as these services are in great demand.
The debate around genetic engineering has permeated society for decades. A crucial aspect of this debate is the containment of genetically engineered organisms. This project outlines the three types of biocontainment and the conclusions drawn about each in the form of policy briefs. These briefs utilize case studies to sketch an overview of the current biocontainment paradigm in the United States. In addition, there is a brief discussing the major conclusions drawn from the case studies, as well as a brief containing useful definitions.
Salud Empoderada is a bilingual English-Spanish blog with the goals of providing pre-medical advice, exposure to careers in medicine through interviews with leaders in medicine and science, and resources to support and encourage Latino pre-medical college students at Arizona State University. This information is provided in the forms of blog posts and infographics. Salud Empoderada was created as a way to address the lack of representation of Latino medical students enrolled in U.S. medical schools and Latino physicians in the U.S. Therefore, Salud Empoderada targets Latino students in the first stage of their journeys to becoming a doctor, pre-medical students, to help inspire and guide them to pursue their dreams despite the challenges they may face, including struggles with mental health, socioeconomic status, access to Latino mentors in medicine and science, health disparities, gender, DACA status, attacks on affirmative action, and the MCAT exam. Furthermore, Salud Empoderada encompasses my trip with Barrett, The Honors College to Costa Rica to share insight on life in Costa Rica and the Indigenous tribes residing there. Sharing this experience with Latino pre-medical students may provide them further exposure to other cultures, the heterogeneity within Latin America, the importance of cultural competence in medicine and the possibilities that global health and Spanish studies offer to become well-rounded and holistic future physicians.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, pre-health individuals around the world encountered a range of challenges. Research and internship opportunities were cancelled, clinical experience was unreachable, and prerequisites became more demanding in a remote setting. I myself was working in a research lab in Switzerland when the pandemic was declared, resulting in my career-altering internship to be cut short six months. My life-long friend, Alejandra, had the same experience and reached out to me with an extraordinary idea to unite and empower pre-health individuals on a national level. With my skills in event planning combined with her vision, we built the National Pre-Health Conference (NPHC): a 3-day virtual event for pre-health individuals to explore medical careers and learn how to pursue their professional goals, particularly during these uncertain times. We held our inaugural conference with the theme A Future in Medicine in 2020 with over 1000 attendees from around the country. In 2021, we held our second-annual conference with the theme Unity in Healthcare with over 1000 attendees as well. In addition to planning the second-annual NPHC, I employed pre-event and post-event surveys to assess the confidence level of attendees before and after the conference in healthcare experience, research experience, standardized testing, community service, academics, essay writing, and completing graduate/professionals school applications. We found that NPHC improved the confidence level of attendees in all categories. Overall, understanding how NPHC benefits pre-health students will help our team improve for future conferences.
Multiple sclerosis is currently deemed the most common autoimmune disease. By definition, multiple sclerosis, known more commonly as MS, involves an immune-mediated process in which an abnormal response of the body’s immune system is directed against the central nervous system (“Definition of MS,” n.d.). Common treatment protocols call for daily, monthly, or yearly disease-modifying medications. These drugs are taken indefinitely to stop the spread and appearance of new lesions, improve symptoms, and offer relief to the afflicted individuals. The necessity for patients to take these basic medical treatments is paramount, however, it should not be overlooked to make lifestyle changes as well. The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed understanding of multiple sclerosis, its etiology evolution, and medical advancements, while emphasizing the necessary transitions which must be made from a nutritional and lifestyle management standpoint. A brief focus will be placed on sleep, exercise, and stress management, with an emphasis on nutrition.