Matching Items (11)

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Jane Austen’s Afterlife, West Indian Madams, and the Literary Porter Family: Two New Letters from Charles Austen

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Jane Austen’s beloved naval brother, Charles Austen (1779–1852), had a significant impact on her literary career.We find probable traces of him in the male characters appearing in Mansfield Park (1814)

Jane Austen’s beloved naval brother, Charles Austen (1779–1852), had a significant impact on her literary career.We find probable traces of him in the male characters appearing in Mansfield Park (1814) and Persuasion (1818), and he is said to have offered naval vocabulary to help his sister revise the second edition of Mansfield Park (1816). In addition to his impact during Jane’s lifetime (1775–1817), Charles played a role in sustaining her posthumous celebrity, modest as it was at first. Two previously unpublished brief letters by him—and references to him in other correspondence—offer an opportunity to speculate about his role in supporting his late sister’s literary reputation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Benefits of high intelligence: Potential moderating effects of emotion regulation and friendship quality

Description

Depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts or actions are on the rise in adolescents (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015; Bridge, Asti, & Horowitz, 2015). Parents, school administrators, and therapists are

Depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts or actions are on the rise in adolescents (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015; Bridge, Asti, & Horowitz, 2015). Parents, school administrators, and therapists are searching for resiliency factors with in at-risk groups to aid students in need. In previous work, Luthar and Zigler (1992) reported that intelligent youth are more resilient than less intelligent youth under low stress conditions but they lose their advantage under high stress conditions. This study examined whether intelligence (reflected in grade point average; GPA) and maladaptive (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) behaviors are negatively related in adolescents, and tested whether level of stress, reflected in emotion regulation and friendship quality, moderated that association. It also probed whether the relationships differ by gender. Sixth-graders (N=506) were recruited with active parental consent from three middle schools. Adolescents completed self-report questionnaires Regarding demo graphics, maladaptive behaviors, emotion regulation, and friendship quality, and GPA data were collected from the school. Regression analyses found that GPA was negatively related to externalizing symptoms. Girls with poor friendship communication report significantly higher maladaptive behaviors. This relation was more pronounced for girls with high GPAs, as predicted. Results support the theory that intelligent female adolescents are more reactive under adverse circumstances. Future efforts should follow students through middle school into high school to evaluate whether friendships remain important to adjustment, hold for boys as well as girls, and have implications for relationship interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The People Behind the Power: Presidential Advisors

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This honors project was born out of a desire to understand individuals who abandoned political glory in favor of serving other leaders. I wanted to study and know who can

This honors project was born out of a desire to understand individuals who abandoned political glory in favor of serving other leaders. I wanted to study and know who can go head-to-head with \u2014 and command the respect of \u2014 the U.S. President on a daily basis. I limited my search to friends of the presidents who held powerful positions: I identified Harry Hopkins, Robert McNamara, and Condoleezza Rice. This thesis is broken into the following sections. To begin, we follow each official in their rise to prominence and discover how they captured the attention of their respective presidents. Next, we delve into their relationships with the Oval Office -- what is similar or different about each of their connections with the presidents. The bulk of the work focuses on pivotal moments in our country's history \u2014 events that shaped the United States of today. Specifically, we look at the New Deal, World War II, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, the Middle East, and nuclear weapons proliferation. Then, we dissect similarities and differences between their relationships with their presidents, and wrap up with some takeaways about how one could go about becoming a presidential advisor. Their distinctive styles can be grouped into doers or planners. Hopkins and McNamara were proud and self-proclaimed doers. Rice stands alone as a fantastic planner. If one seeks to emulate any of these three, there are three things to commit to. First, skills both matter and don't matter. Second, there are two paths to getting presidential attention and becoming close enough for them to seek one out for advice. The first is to understand which wheels need greasing, and grease them. The other is to have a potential solution to an unsolved problem -- that is powerful. Be great, a maverick, and public, or look to create your own role from scratch and hope that you are an expert when a time of great need comes. Third, once you are friends with and have the political ear of the president, know that loyalty is the only thing that truly matters. This thesis is an attempt to better understand leadership through the lens of powerful followers. This project strives to inform the reader of the context within which these actors played, the actions that they took, and the consequences that were incurred, all while being personally close to the most powerful position on the planet. I have tried to give context and understanding for pivotal moments in American history while shining a spotlight on a few underappreciated historical actors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Befriending Suffering: Re-Imagining the Patient-Doctor Relationship

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Techno-scientific thinking, which has become firmly grounded in modern medicine, moves towards reifying medicine as a science, losing all aspects of what it means to heal beyond curing a patient’s

Techno-scientific thinking, which has become firmly grounded in modern medicine, moves towards reifying medicine as a science, losing all aspects of what it means to heal beyond curing a patient’s physical malady. A blueprint has been made on how best to interact with patients, a formulaic way of approaching medicine that seeks to get to the bottom of the patient’s biological disease. But this blueprint is the very reason doctors and patients misrecognize the potential befriending suffering has to heal the psychological dis-ease the patient feels when confronted by suffering. Thus, the process of treating patients is in need of reform. To do this, we must recover the dimension of depth that has been seemingly lost in the medical field. Doctors and patients alike should be critical of this systematic way of thinking about the doctor-patient relationship, a way of thinking that has far more implications than typically recognized. Science itself is not the problem; rather, it is thinking that says science is the only way one ought to approach and understand medicine and the only way to cure patients when there is much more to healing than curing.
In befriending suffering, one has the opportunity to re-understand herself and reorient herself to the world. Through dialogue, one can befriend her suffering and attempt to hear what it might be saying to her. Furthermore, by being a virtuous friend to her suffering, being one who is sincere, reverent, tender, and effortful, one can discover the generative aspects of suffering. By turning toward suffering together, the doctor and patient can connect in a way that better helps them understand themselves and each other. By understanding themselves and their individual suffering, each has the possibility of becoming a more authentic person and living more meaningfully in their daily lives. In understanding each other, the doctor has the potential to heal her patients—and patients, one could say, have the potential to heal their doctors as well. To do this, both must enter into conversation openly and with the virtues of friendship in mind. It may be difficult, but each one’s worldview might expand and new insights gleaned. By coming together, each has the possibility of living better individually.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Examining the Relationship Between Online and In-person Friendship Through Fandom

Description

This research examines the similarities and differences between relationships developed through interpersonal interactions within online fandom communities and those relationships developed through traditional in-person interactions such as those found within

This research examines the similarities and differences between relationships developed through interpersonal interactions within online fandom communities and those relationships developed through traditional in-person interactions such as those found within education or the workplace. Beyond the similarities and differences between the two forms of relationships, I discover phenomenologically what happens in the moment that two online friends meet in-person. To be precise, I analyze how individuals within fandoms categorize their relationships in terms of their willingness to confide in each other, their perceived honesty of themselves, and their mental image of one another and how it may have changed over the course of their relationship. We might expect that individuals maintaining a relationship through interactions within online fandom may maintain idealized images of their respective partners due to the aspect of self-censorship that is derived from asynchronous communication. Additionally, we might expect that while trust may be built upon this exaggerated image of one’s partner, a disruption in this image formed through an in-person interaction could potentially result in said trust crumbling. Using a qualitative analysis of three individuals participating within various fandom communities. Thus, we predict that individuals within online relationships take steps to build an idealized version of oneself that might not fully reflect an individual’s actual physical or mental character.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Friendship Jealousy: An (Overlooked) Emotion for Friendship Maintenance?

Description

Friendships make us happy, keep us healthy, and can even facilitate our reproductive fitness. But most friendships are not forever—even when we want them to be. How do people maintain

Friendships make us happy, keep us healthy, and can even facilitate our reproductive fitness. But most friendships are not forever—even when we want them to be. How do people maintain valued friendships? I propose that “friendship jealousy” arises when people perceive others as posing threats to valued friendships, and that this response can function to prevent friendship loss and friend defection. In preliminary experiments, I tested predictions derived from this functional view. As predicted, I found, first, that friendship jealousy is calibrated to friend value. Second, friendship jealousy predicts intentions to “friend guard” (i.e., engage in behavior to protect the friendship). Third, friendship jealousy has sex-differentiated features, which are consistent with sex differences in friendship structures and ancestral friendship functions. The present work pits against one another intuitive and functional predictions as to what drives friendship jealousy. Although intuition might lead one to expect greater jealousy when a friend spends more time with a new person, a functional view suggests greater jealousy when that new person threatens to fulfill the same function for one’s friend that one is currently fulfilling (i.e., to “replace” him/her). Preliminary studies revealed that greater friendship jealousy is evoked when friends form new same-sex friendships (which presumably pose greater replacement threat, but lesser time threat) versus new romantic relationships (which presumably pose lesser replacement threat, but greater time threat). The focal experiment explicitly and experimentally manipulates a version of “replacement threat” (whether the best friend “chooses” the new friend over you) and “time threat” (how much time the best friend spends with the new friend). In line with functional predictions, the amount of time the best friend spends with a new friend drives friendship jealousy—but only when direct information about replacement threat is unavailable. Regardless of the time threat posed, participants report high friendship jealousy when replacement threat is high, and low friendship jealousy when replacement threat is low. Results imply that friendship jealousy is calibrated to replacement threat (over time threat). Overall, findings suggest that friendship jealousy might be a functional response aimed at facilitating friendship maintenance.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Investing in Me or You: A Novel Role of the Attachment System in Self and Other Tradeoffs

Description

Research on attachment in adults began by assuming parallels from attachment as a behavioral system for using relationships to balance the tradeoff between safety and exploration in infants, to the

Research on attachment in adults began by assuming parallels from attachment as a behavioral system for using relationships to balance the tradeoff between safety and exploration in infants, to the same tradeoff function in adults. Perhaps more pressing, for adults, are the novel social tradeoffs adults face when deciding how to invest resources between themselves and their close relationship partners. The current study investigated the role of the attachment system in navigating two such tradeoffs, in a sample of ASU undergraduates. In one tradeoff condition, participants had the option of working on puzzles to earn either themselves or their closest friend a monetary reward. In the second tradeoff condition, participants worked to earn monetary rewards for a close or new friend. Analyses showed no evidence of attachment avoidance predicting prioritizing redistributing money to a close friend in either condition. While there was no effect of anxiety on prioritizing one’s close friend over one’s self, there was a marginal effect in both prioritizing one’s close friend over a new friend when redistributing money and starting on the close friend’s word search first. Although attachment style largely did not predict earning or redistributing monetary rewards in these two relationship tradeoffs, implications for how these results fit within the broader theoretical perspective are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Perceptions of healthy and respectful relationships and friend zone phenomena

Description

The term “friend zone” has been used in various areas of social media and pop culture to define a situation where one individual covets a relationship with a close friend

The term “friend zone” has been used in various areas of social media and pop culture to define a situation where one individual covets a relationship with a close friend that never evolves; typically the situation includes a male seeking a potential romantic partner with a female. Although friendship is often viewed in a positive format and sometimes the foundation of a healthy relationship, this term has been stigmatized as an unfortunate situation and counterproductive to obtaining a fulfilling relationship.

To approach the multi-faceted concern of friend zone phenomena and the many areas damaging messages that occur, my thesis starts with the history of friend zone phenomena, establishing a definition of friend zone phenomena for future scholars. Next literature on friendship and love, and Galician’s work used for both the methodology and theoretical framework is introduced leading to the analysis. The methodology and theoretical framework for the analysis uses Mary-Lou Galician’s 7-Step-Reality-Check-Up, twelve Myths social media promoted as the preferred reading and the Twelve Prescriptions (Rxs) for Getting Real About Romance. Resources on the discourses of gender performativity, psychology, and sociology are also included in the theoretical framework.

I start with an introduction to retrograde misogyny, The Manosphere (including The Red Pill [TRP]), the Elliot Rodger case and rape culture. This initial segment is analyzed differently from the other texts to describe the crux of social justice issues within friend zone phenomena. I then analyze 10 online memes related to friend zone phenomena. Lastly, I analyze Jet and Star’s new book, How to Get out of the Friend Zone –their book is a textual version of the advice they give on their YouTube channel.

Throughout all the texts Myths 5 (Physical Attraction), 6 (Man = Stronger), and 13 (No Cross-Sexual Friends) were all proposed as the preferred reading. Myth 14 (Men Want Sex/Women Want Money) was prevalent across the memes and TRP/Rational Male. All four myths are laden with gender performativity with damaging perceptions of healthy and respectful relationships. Additional research on friend zone phenomena in the form of interviews and surveys is recommended as research is still sparse.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The magic of Room 24: searching for the source of magic that occurs when first graders share experiences with children who have severe disabilities

Description

This visually rich qualitative teacher-action research focuses on the personal learning experience a classroom of first grade students had as they grew in understanding of difference through daily interactions with

This visually rich qualitative teacher-action research focuses on the personal learning experience a classroom of first grade students had as they grew in understanding of difference through daily interactions with young friends who have severe disabilities. Each first grader spent 30 minutes, one day a week, visiting the special education classroom down the hall, which was home to their friends who needed total care and spent a majority of their day in a wheelchair.

During these visits, the first graders enjoyed interacting with their friends using a variety of manipulatives, music, movement, games, books, and art. This experience was loosely supervised by the special education teacher after students were given instructions on stations and activities available that day. Upon returning to their classroom, the students reflected on the experience. Reflection for the first few weeks was through oral discussion to build a community feel and common language. Written reflections were later kept in student-created journals.

Though this experience began in the fall, data for this exploration was collected during the Spring semester of the 2013-2014 school year. The following questions guided the design and implementation of this study: 1) How do children make sense of their interactions with children who have severe disabilities, and what do their words reveal regarding their understandings about and across difference?

2) What do interactions between students “look like,” and what can “doing” reveal about human interactions?

Data collection and analysis were informed through a critical, ethnographic-like lens with a participant perspective from the teacher-researcher. Photos and video documentation focused on the hands and feet of the participants to ensure privacy rights. Interviews, journal entries, photo elicitation, and a focus group discussion provided the remainder of the data set after parental permission and participant assent.

Findings are shared visually with an invitation to enter a child’s lifeworld via their voice, both written and verbal. Readers are asked to ponder the evidence through the shared voice and visions and consider the impact of the affective realm on learning and understanding and its significance in all of human interactions—all the selves and all the others.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Spinoza on the spirit of friendship

Description

Baruch de Spinoza (1632-1677) is most often treated as a secular philosopher in the literature. But the critical-historical and textual analyses explored in this study suggest that Spinoza wrote the

Baruch de Spinoza (1632-1677) is most often treated as a secular philosopher in the literature. But the critical-historical and textual analyses explored in this study suggest that Spinoza wrote the Ethics not as a secular project intended to supersede monotheism for those stoic enough to plumb its icy depths, but rather, and as is much less often assumed, as a genuinely Judeo-Christian theological discourse accounting for the changing scientific worldviews and political realities of his time. This paper draws upon scholarship documenting Spinoza's involvement with Christian sects such as the Collegiants and Quakers. After establishing the largely unappreciated importance of Spinoza's religious or theological thought, a close reading of the Ethics demonstrates that friendship is the theme that ties together Spinoza's ethical, theological, political, and scientific doctrines.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014