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TARGETING ADIPOSE TISSUE INFLAMMATION IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES

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Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with excess body fat in the past. Type II diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance which is an impaired response of the body to insulin that leads to high blood glucose levels. Adipose tissue, previously thought of as an inert tissue, is now recognized as a major endocrine organ with an important role in the body's immune response and the development of chronic inflammation. It is speculated that adipose tissue inflammation is a major contributor to insulin resistance particular to Type II diabetes. This literature review explores the popular therapeutic targets and marketed drugs for the treatment of Type II diabetes and their role in decreasing adipose tissue inflammation. rAGE is currently in pre-clinical studies as a possible target to combat adipose tissue inflammation due to its relation to insulin resistance. Metformin and Pioglitazone are two drugs already being marketed that use unique chemical pathways to increase the production of insulin and/or decrease blood glucose levels. Sulfonylureas is one of the first FDA approved drugs used in the treatment of Type II diabetes, however, it has been discredited due to its life-threatening side effects. Bariatric surgery is a form of invasive surgery to rid the body of excess fat and has shown to normalize blood glucose levels. These treatments are all secondary to lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise which can help halt the progression of Type II diabetes patients.

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2019-05

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Low-Income Mexican-American Mothers and Infants and the Effects of Breastfeeding on Obesity Rates

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This research addresses the importance of factors such as gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight of mothers, as well as obesity rates in infants born to these mothers who are included in the population of low-income Mexican-American mothers and

This research addresses the importance of factors such as gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight of mothers, as well as obesity rates in infants born to these mothers who are included in the population of low-income Mexican-American mothers and infants enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Evaluating these factors will contribute to finding recommendations to help solve the obesity epidemic in this specific population. Breastfeeding duration, mother BMI, infant birth weight, and infant weight z-scores were statistically analyzed from a WIC population in Houston. The study participants are involved in a five year intervention study where the home environment and education on feeding practices, breastfeeding duration and obesity are evaluated. The results found that: (1) breastfeeding initially indicates a further continuation of breastfeeding; (2) mothers who breastfed for six months were likely to have a lower BMI at twelve to eighteen months than those who did not; (3) the birth weight of the infant is associated with the weight pattern of the child later; (4) the weight/height percentiles of a newborn are somewhat likely to stay the same until age three; (5) the prenatal weight of the mother impacts the weight of the newborn infant; and (6) the mother's postpartum BMI at one week is associated with a similar BMI at 12 months postpartum. In conclusion, women in this population tend to not breastfeed for 6 months and are not losing gestational weight postpartum, leading to increased wright retention after pregnancy, as well as heavier babies that will maintain this weight in early childhood. Further breastfeeding, nutrition, exercise, obesity, and proper infant feeding education are needed to reduce the rate of obesity in low-income Mexican-American WIC populations.

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2016-12

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The Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain Through the Induction of Mild-Hyperthermia in Rodents: A Pilot Study

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Preliminary studies indicate that the use of dietary menthol may prevent excessive weight gain through the activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) ion channel. It has also been expressed that elevation of the core temperature

Preliminary studies indicate that the use of dietary menthol may prevent excessive weight gain through the activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) ion channel. It has also been expressed that elevation of the core temperature (Tc) inducing mild hyperthermia via an increase in ambient temperature aids in a marked reduction of the drive to eat and weight gain. While caloric restriction (CR) aims to treat obesity and secondary sicknesses, weight regain is a common result during long term weight maintenance. The goal of these studies was to evaluate and identify if the menthol and mild hyperthermia mechanisms could couple synergistically to reduce or abrogate weight gain. Ambient temperature (Ta) was increased incrementally to identify the threshold in which rodents display mild hyperthermia. Our initial attempts at hyperthermia induction failed because of limitations in the environmental chamber. These trials fail to note a threshold at which elevated Tc is sustained for any period of time. The data suggests an ambient temperature of 36-38 °C would be appropriate to induce a mild hyperthermia. A mild hyperthermia is described as the elevation of Tc 2-3 ° above the hypothalamic set point. To facilitate future hyperthermia studies, an environmental chamber was designed. A wine cooler was converted to withstand the desired temperatures, through the use of heat tape, a proportional controller, and a translucent Plexiglas custom fit door. Beyond leveraging temperature to regulate weight gain, dietary changes including a comparison between standard chow food, high fat diet, and menthol supplemented chow food treatment illustrate a strong likelihood of weight gain variability. In this pilot study, weight gain expression when given a diet supplemented with menthol (1%) showed no statistical significance relative to a high fat diet nor chow food, however, it revealed a trend of reduced weight gain. It is assumed the combination of supplemental menthol and mild hyperthermia induction will exacerbate their effects.

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2020-05

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Diet-Induced Thermogenesis as Measured by Exogenous Norepinephrine Injections in High Fat Diet - Fed Rats: A Pilot Study

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It is presently believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important tissue in the control of obesity because it has the propensity to increase energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to attempt to quantify the thermogenesis of

It is presently believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important tissue in the control of obesity because it has the propensity to increase energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to attempt to quantify the thermogenesis of BAT when four rats were exposed to a progression of low-fat to high-fat diet. Exogenous norepinephrine (NE) injections (dose of 0.25 mg/kg i.p.) were administered in order to elicit a temperature response, where increases in temperature indicate increased activity. Temperatures were measured via temperature sensing transponders that had been inserted at the following three sites: interscapular BAT (iBAT), the abdomen (core), and lower back (reference). Data showed increased BAT activity during acute (2-3 weeks) high fat diet (HFD) in comparison to low fat diet (LFD), but a moderate to marked decrease in BAT activity during chronic HFD (6-8 weeks) when compared to acute HFD. This suggests that while a HFD may initially stimulate BAT in the short-term, a long-term HFD diet may have negative effects on BAT activation.

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2016-12