Matching Items (39)

HIV Stigma: A Research and Art Investigation

Description

In the years following the HIV epidemic, much has changed in the way of public health, the social epidemic of stigma has remained. It is the assertion of the authors that stigma can be combatted through the propagation of accurate

In the years following the HIV epidemic, much has changed in the way of public health, the social epidemic of stigma has remained. It is the assertion of the authors that stigma can be combatted through the propagation of accurate education and exposure to the lasting negative impacts of social stigma on persons living with HIV in the United States at present. Although individuals who are not apart of this community cannot truly understand the impacts of HIV-related stigma on those directly impacted by it, a sense of understanding and compassion may be elicited through the breakdown of social stigma into comprehensible components and the provision of stigma-inspired artwork. In addition to providing a background on the scientific basis of Human immunodeficiency virus and its spread, the authors have elected to utilize public engagement by means of an anonymous survey as well as personal interactions with HIV advocates to synthesize paintings. Responses were collected from approximately 300 survey participants via social media with no demographic information collected. It was the hope of the authors that the lack of identifying questions may prompt participants to answer freely and honestly to improve overall understanding of social perceptions of HIV and its related stigma. These paintings and resources deemed appropriate based on the results of the aforementioned survey are to be displayed on a webpage for easier access and engagement with a broader audience.Moreover, this webpage is intended to be maintained and utilized beyond the timeframe of this Undergraduate Honors Thesis for the intended purpose of promoting stigma-free HIV advocacy and education.

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2018-05

Demonstrating Need for Evidence-Based Sexual Promotion Programs Among LGBT+ Community

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This research study was performed to demonstrate the need for more evidence-based, sexual promotion programs for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT+) youth. A qualitative study was conducted due to the lack of evidence among the younger LGBT+ demographic regarding

This research study was performed to demonstrate the need for more evidence-based, sexual promotion programs for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT+) youth. A qualitative study was conducted due to the lack of evidence among the younger LGBT+ demographic regarding contributing factors that lead to engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Data was collected through a formal focus group with adolescent members of the one.n.ten program in Phoenix, Arizona. An inductive coding technique was used to analyze the data, and significant statements from participants regarding experiences in the context of family, religion, school, and previous sexual health programs were included in the results. This paper will provide a review of literature about the growing LGBT+ community, increasing HIV incidence rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), strategies to reduce HIV rate, and the role of parents as sexual educators during and after their child's coming out process. It will also discuss the importance of positive parent-child relationships and the need for family-based sexual education programs.

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2018-05

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Analysis of HIV Risk Groups Using Bayesian Analysis

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Phylogenetic analyses that were conducted in the past didn't have the ability or functionality to inform and implement useful public health decisions while using clustering. Models can be constructed to conduct any further analyses for the result of meaningful data

Phylogenetic analyses that were conducted in the past didn't have the ability or functionality to inform and implement useful public health decisions while using clustering. Models can be constructed to conduct any further analyses for the result of meaningful data to be used in the future of public health informatics. A phylogenetic tree is considered one of the best ways for researchers to visualize and analyze the evolutionary history of a certain virus. The focus of this study was to research HIV phylodynamic and phylogenetic methods. This involved identifying the fast growing HIV transmission clusters and rates for certain risk groups in the US. In order to achieve these results an HIV database was required to retrieve real-time data for implementation, alignment software for multiple sequence alignment, Bayesian analysis software for the development and manipulation of models, and graphical tools for visualizing the output from the models created. This study began by conducting a literature review on HIV phylogeographies and phylodynamics. Sequence data was then obtained from a sequence database to be run in a multiple alignment software. The sequence that was obtained was unaligned which is why the alignment was required. Once the alignment was performed, the same file was loaded into a Bayesian analysis software for model creation of a phylogenetic tree. When the model was created, the tree was edited in a tree visualization software for the user to easily interpret. From this study the output of the tree resulted the way it did, due to a distant homology or the mixing of certain parameters. For a further continuation of this study, it would be interesting to use the same aligned sequence and use different model parameter selections for the initial creation of the model to see how the output changes. This is because one small change for the model parameter could greatly affect the output of the phylogenetic tree.

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2018-05

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Portrayal of HIV+ Characters in Entertainment: Effects on Stigma and Implications for Future Representation

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Since the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis began in the early 1980s, there has been a significant amount of stigma attached to the disease and the virus that causes it, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). At the time, HIV/AIDS was

Since the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis began in the early 1980s, there has been a significant amount of stigma attached to the disease and the virus that causes it, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). At the time, HIV/AIDS was viewed as a death sentence. A large part of the stigma came from the fact that in the early days of the crisis, AIDS patients were predominantly part of the LGBTQ+ community. With the discovery of effective antiretroviral therapies, today HIV can be thought of as a preventable, yet manageable, chronic illness, although it remains a huge public health concern (About HIV/AIDS, 2018). While the virus is now rarely viewed as a death sentence, there is still considerable stigma that surrounds people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Research shows that the shows and movies people watch can affect their attitudes on a variety of issues, and HIV is no exception. Because HIV is such a big threat to public health, and because people often adopt views they see in media, analyzing the ways shows and movies portray PLWHA is an important aspect in understanding where stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS comes from. The writers behind today's HIV+ characters on television and in movies all seemingly made an effort to decrease stigma, but they went about it in different ways, and with varying amounts of success. A common method to dispel stigma was to use the entertainment-education method (Singhal & Rogers, 1999), which in these cases means characters had discussions about topics like safe sex, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), and the importance of getting tested. A few shows showed serodiscordant couples, which was also effective at fighting stigma. In contrast, by trying to be representative of PLWHA, some shows actually contributed to the stereotypes behind the stigma, or had characters be openly stigmatizing towards PLWHA. After analyzing what I found the shows and movies did well and what they did poorly, I'll analyze why it is important that shows maintained historical accuracy, and how doing so appeared to fight the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. I will also evaluate what's missing \u2014 such as which high-risk groups are not represented. Ultimately, this thesis will argue that shows and movies made in the last 12 years all aimed to decrease stigma, through a variety of techniques.

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2018-12

STUDY OF INACTIVATION OF MS2 BACTERIOPHAGE BY ULTRA SHORT PULSES OF TI-SAPPHIRE LASER

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Studies have demonstrated that viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], M13 bacteriophage, and murine cytomegalovirus [MCMV] have been effectively inactivated by exposure to ultra short-pulsed lasers (6,7,10,11,14,15,17). Ultra short pulse laser shows promise as a new method for non-invasive

Studies have demonstrated that viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], M13 bacteriophage, and murine cytomegalovirus [MCMV] have been effectively inactivated by exposure to ultra short-pulsed lasers (6,7,10,11,14,15,17). Ultra short pulse laser shows promise as a new method for non-invasive antiviral treatments (17). This method can be used to prevent problems such as drug resistance that is currently rising in numbers. According to the Center for Disease Control [CDC], there are more than two million people in the United States of America that are infected with antimicrobial-resistant infections and at least 23,000 deaths per year occur as a result (19). In this study, ultra-short pulses, specifically Ti-Sapphire Laser [USP Ti-Sapphire Laser] will be evaluated for viral inactivation. The virus chosen for this study was MS2 bacteriophage, which is a non- enveloped, icosahedral, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] bacteriophages that infects F+ pilus Escherichia coli (16). It was hypothesized that ultrashort pulses from a Ti-Sapphire laser will inactivate MS2 bacteriophage. Inactivation was measured using plaque-forming units [PFU/mL] as an indicator. It was expected that there would be an increase in inactivation of MS2 bacteriophage with an increase in irradiation duration. The results indicated that MS2 bacteriophage was highly sensitive to irradiation treatments of the USP Ti-Sapphire Laser. The concentration of MS2 bacteriophage decreased by 107 PFU/mL after being treated for various time periods ranging from 5 minutes to 150 minutes. Longer duration of USP Ti- Sapphire Laser treatment inactivated more MS2 Bacteriophage.

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2014-05

Modulating the Binding Affinity of Cyanovirin-N

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Over the past two decades, a significant amount of research has been conducted investigating cyanovirin-N (CVN), which has been shown to be an effective antiviral agent by inhibiting entry of HIV into the cell. The virucidal activity of CVN is

Over the past two decades, a significant amount of research has been conducted investigating cyanovirin-N (CVN), which has been shown to be an effective antiviral agent by inhibiting entry of HIV into the cell. The virucidal activity of CVN is attributed to the tight binding interactions with the glycosylated surfaces of the envelope protein gp120. In this study we investigated how the incorporation of various single point mutations in the glycan binding site would ultimately affect the overall binding affinity of the protein with the glycan. These mutations were predicted through computational methods. Using a BP-docking program and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, the free energy change upon the ligand binding to the each protein was determined. Experimental work and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was used to determine the Kd values for each protein mutant. A total of three different CVN mutants, T57S, S52T, and a double mutant T57S-S52T, or simply TS, were investigated on the background of P51G-m4-CVN. After conducting the experimental work, it was concluded that the overall fold and stability of the protein was conserved for each mutant. ITC data showed that T57S displayed the lowest dissociation constant valued in the micromolar range. In fact, T57S had a much lower Kd value in comparison to P51G-m4. In contrast, the double mutant TS, showed poor binding affinity for the glycan. When comparing experimental data with the data provided by MD simulation and BP-docking, the results were fairly correlated for all mutants, except for that of the double mutant, TS. According to information provided by MD simulation and BP docking, the binding of the sugar to TS is a very exergonic reaction, which is indicative of very negative free energy change (ΔG). However, the experimental Kd, which was very high, contradicts this data and is thus indicative of lower binding affinity for the glycan. This contradiction is currently being investigated.

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2015-05

The Experience of International Service Learning: Project Vietnam

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Abstract: International Service Devils (ISD) is a non-profit volunteer program established and run by students at Arizona State University, Polytechnic Campus. Since 2013, International Service Devils has volunteered in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and India. This blog, written by Kali Richmond

Abstract: International Service Devils (ISD) is a non-profit volunteer program established and run by students at Arizona State University, Polytechnic Campus. Since 2013, International Service Devils has volunteered in Costa Rica, Guatemala, and India. This blog, written by Kali Richmond and myself, shares the experience of how we as students have established a new volunteer program in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. We have described in an entertaining fashion, our entire learning process from the brainstorming and organizing, to the results of the trip itself. This includes the struggles that we had to overcome with planning and finances, as well as crediting the people and organizations who helped us along the way to overcome those obstacles. We established 2 volunteer projects as well as completed multiple community analyses for the possibility of starting a school and providing scholarships to deserving children through the Young Dreamer Network. This blog is accompanied by an approximately 15 minute video of footage and photos taken during our time in Vietnam. The video shows both the volunteer aspect as well as some of the cultural experiences that we experienced. The purpose of this documentation is to encourage international service learning as a source of experience and education for University students, and to show plausibility of setting goals similar to ours and being able to achieve them. We hope that our writing can help students get an idea of what it takes to be a leader in international service learning programs, and that our experience can help prove the worth of volunteering abroad. We want to inspire fellow students to travel with the mission to learn from wherever they go and be able to give back to those communities, as this has provided us with immense personal growth and new perspectives on education and culture.

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2017-05

HIV: An Evolutionary Perspective

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Abstract HIV: An Evolutionary Perspective Arthur J. Stepp; April 2001 Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) poses a significant threat to global health. Despite the fact that the number of cases of HIV is growing exponentially, there is no known cure for

Abstract HIV: An Evolutionary Perspective Arthur J. Stepp; April 2001 Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) poses a significant threat to global health. Despite the fact that the number of cases of HIV is growing exponentially, there is no known cure for the disease and little understanding of its mechanism of pathogenesis. An application of an evolutionary perspective understanding may provide new insight into how natural selection acts upon HIV to increase its level of virulence, and also HIV's pathogenesis. By applying the replication rate hypothesis theory developed by Paul Eward in 1994 to epidemiological evidence from Africa, it becomes clear that as the replication rate of the virus increases, the mutation rate increases simultaneously. People who have been infected for the longest amounts of time tend to have more virulent, powerful strains of HIV as the virus has gone through more replications and has thus developed more powerful mutations that tend to advance to AIDS more quickly. This has important implications for the best approach to combatting the spread of the virus, because it means that preventing unprotected contact with people with highly mutated strains of the virus will greatly reduce the virus's virulence. Thus, the reduction of unprotected sexual contact and needle-borne transmission will pay extra dividends, as highly virulent strains of HIV will be better contained.

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2001-05

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Traditional Healing and Pubilc Health Integration: Utilizing Cultural Strengths to Provide Targeted HIV Interventions

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Curanderos are Hispanic traditional healers who attend to their clients through spiritual, natural, and physical techniques. Recent studies have shown that a subset of the Hispanic population refer to these healers for HIV and STD treatment and believe they are

Curanderos are Hispanic traditional healers who attend to their clients through spiritual, natural, and physical techniques. Recent studies have shown that a subset of the Hispanic population refer to these healers for HIV and STD treatment and believe they are important in a collaborative targeted HIV intervention. Thus, curanderos were interviewed and the lay population of Phoenix was sampled in order to get a better idea of the utility of these healers in an HIV prevention effort targeted at the Hispanic community. Due to the limitations of this study there was not sufficient enough data to make significant conclusions; however the interviews with the curanderos were surprising in the they had significant roles as healers in the Phoenix area, patients have referred to them for HIV and STD treatment, and a couple of the healers have integrated western medical knowledge into their practice.

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2013-05

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HIV/AIDS in Ghana and Western Africa: a Thematic Analysis of Governmental Responses to the Epidemic within ECOWAS

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This research evaluates the national HIV/AIDS policy of Ghana and compares it to the policies of other countries in the Economic Community of West African States.

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2013-05