Matching Items (30)

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Clinical Implications of Stigma in HIV/AIDS and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

Description

This study sought to identify stigma differences between HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Interviewees from Alabama, USA (n=537) rated two types of stigma (damage to social reputation and

This study sought to identify stigma differences between HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Interviewees from Alabama, USA (n=537) rated two types of stigma (damage to social reputation and “moral weakness”) for seven infections ranging from “nuisance” conditions (e.g., pubic lice) to life-threatening disease (e.g., HIV/AIDS). When asked which of the seven STIs would be most damaging to reputation, 74.8% of respondents chose HIV/AIDS. However, when asked to choose which STI represented moral weakness in infected persons, HIV/AIDS was rated as significantly lower than the other STIs, which suggests that HIV/AIDS is perceived differently than non-HIV STIs. This study addresses the possibility that advances in public awareness of HIV/AIDS have not necessarily been extrapolated into awareness of other STIs. Clinicians should be aware of these high levels of stigma as potential barriers to treatment for all STIs. Public health officials should consider the impact of undifferentiated stigma on STI prevention messages.

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Date Created
  • 2010

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MTC Transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: Barriers and Solutions to Implementation of the WHO's Treatment Plans

Description

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, is a global epidemic, costing over 9.51 million individuals their lives since 2000. There are different modes of transmission of HIV, one such mode being

Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, is a global epidemic, costing over 9.51 million individuals their lives since 2000. There are different modes of transmission of HIV, one such mode being from an HIV positive woman to her child before, during, or after delivery (SIC Curriculum, 2006). Though a global epidemic, not all countries have the same prevalence of mother to child, or MTC, transmission of HIV. In 2016, over 160,000 children under the age of five were newly infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. That is compared to the United States of America, where it is estimated that fewer than 150 new infant HIV infections occur yearly (Glaser Foundation, 2020). Those differences exist despite both countries having access to preventative medication as of 1998.
Additionally, the World Health Organization, or WHO, developed three treatment plans for prevention of MTC transmission of HIV, globally available as of 2010 (WHO, 2010). The goal of the WHO was to globally standardize care of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants in order to decrease the global prevalence of HIV. The first plan was called Option A, then came Option B, and lastly Option B+. While preventative medication has been available for over twenty years and at least one of these theoretically effective treatment plans has been implemented and is readily available in each country of sub-Saharan Africa, the overall prevalence of MTC transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has continued to be notably high compared to other countries. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to explore some of the significant obstacles to implementation of the WHO’s treatment plans in sub-Saharan Africa that contribute to that high prevalence. I also suggest possible solutions to those barriers in order to effectively decrease the prevalence of MTC transmission of HIV.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Demonstrating Need for Evidence-Based Sexual Promotion Programs Among LGBT+ Community

Description

This research study was performed to demonstrate the need for more evidence-based, sexual promotion programs for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT+) youth. A qualitative study was conducted due to

This research study was performed to demonstrate the need for more evidence-based, sexual promotion programs for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT+) youth. A qualitative study was conducted due to the lack of evidence among the younger LGBT+ demographic regarding contributing factors that lead to engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Data was collected through a formal focus group with adolescent members of the one.n.ten program in Phoenix, Arizona. An inductive coding technique was used to analyze the data, and significant statements from participants regarding experiences in the context of family, religion, school, and previous sexual health programs were included in the results. This paper will provide a review of literature about the growing LGBT+ community, increasing HIV incidence rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), strategies to reduce HIV rate, and the role of parents as sexual educators during and after their child's coming out process. It will also discuss the importance of positive parent-child relationships and the need for family-based sexual education programs.

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  • 2018-05

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Analysis of HIV Risk Groups Using Bayesian Analysis

Description

Phylogenetic analyses that were conducted in the past didn't have the ability or functionality to inform and implement useful public health decisions while using clustering. Models can be constructed to

Phylogenetic analyses that were conducted in the past didn't have the ability or functionality to inform and implement useful public health decisions while using clustering. Models can be constructed to conduct any further analyses for the result of meaningful data to be used in the future of public health informatics. A phylogenetic tree is considered one of the best ways for researchers to visualize and analyze the evolutionary history of a certain virus. The focus of this study was to research HIV phylodynamic and phylogenetic methods. This involved identifying the fast growing HIV transmission clusters and rates for certain risk groups in the US. In order to achieve these results an HIV database was required to retrieve real-time data for implementation, alignment software for multiple sequence alignment, Bayesian analysis software for the development and manipulation of models, and graphical tools for visualizing the output from the models created. This study began by conducting a literature review on HIV phylogeographies and phylodynamics. Sequence data was then obtained from a sequence database to be run in a multiple alignment software. The sequence that was obtained was unaligned which is why the alignment was required. Once the alignment was performed, the same file was loaded into a Bayesian analysis software for model creation of a phylogenetic tree. When the model was created, the tree was edited in a tree visualization software for the user to easily interpret. From this study the output of the tree resulted the way it did, due to a distant homology or the mixing of certain parameters. For a further continuation of this study, it would be interesting to use the same aligned sequence and use different model parameter selections for the initial creation of the model to see how the output changes. This is because one small change for the model parameter could greatly affect the output of the phylogenetic tree.

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  • 2018-05

HIV Stigma: A Research and Art Investigation

Description

In the years following the HIV epidemic, much has changed in the way of public health, the social epidemic of stigma has remained. It is the assertion of the authors

In the years following the HIV epidemic, much has changed in the way of public health, the social epidemic of stigma has remained. It is the assertion of the authors that stigma can be combatted through the propagation of accurate education and exposure to the lasting negative impacts of social stigma on persons living with HIV in the United States at present. Although individuals who are not apart of this community cannot truly understand the impacts of HIV-related stigma on those directly impacted by it, a sense of understanding and compassion may be elicited through the breakdown of social stigma into comprehensible components and the provision of stigma-inspired artwork. In addition to providing a background on the scientific basis of Human immunodeficiency virus and its spread, the authors have elected to utilize public engagement by means of an anonymous survey as well as personal interactions with HIV advocates to synthesize paintings. Responses were collected from approximately 300 survey participants via social media with no demographic information collected. It was the hope of the authors that the lack of identifying questions may prompt participants to answer freely and honestly to improve overall understanding of social perceptions of HIV and its related stigma. These paintings and resources deemed appropriate based on the results of the aforementioned survey are to be displayed on a webpage for easier access and engagement with a broader audience.Moreover, this webpage is intended to be maintained and utilized beyond the timeframe of this Undergraduate Honors Thesis for the intended purpose of promoting stigma-free HIV advocacy and education.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Portrayal of HIV+ Characters in Entertainment: Effects on Stigma and Implications for Future Representation

Description

Since the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis began in the early 1980s, there has been a significant amount of stigma attached to the disease and the virus that causes

Since the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis began in the early 1980s, there has been a significant amount of stigma attached to the disease and the virus that causes it, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). At the time, HIV/AIDS was viewed as a death sentence. A large part of the stigma came from the fact that in the early days of the crisis, AIDS patients were predominantly part of the LGBTQ+ community. With the discovery of effective antiretroviral therapies, today HIV can be thought of as a preventable, yet manageable, chronic illness, although it remains a huge public health concern (About HIV/AIDS, 2018). While the virus is now rarely viewed as a death sentence, there is still considerable stigma that surrounds people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Research shows that the shows and movies people watch can affect their attitudes on a variety of issues, and HIV is no exception. Because HIV is such a big threat to public health, and because people often adopt views they see in media, analyzing the ways shows and movies portray PLWHA is an important aspect in understanding where stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS comes from. The writers behind today's HIV+ characters on television and in movies all seemingly made an effort to decrease stigma, but they went about it in different ways, and with varying amounts of success. A common method to dispel stigma was to use the entertainment-education method (Singhal & Rogers, 1999), which in these cases means characters had discussions about topics like safe sex, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), and the importance of getting tested. A few shows showed serodiscordant couples, which was also effective at fighting stigma. In contrast, by trying to be representative of PLWHA, some shows actually contributed to the stereotypes behind the stigma, or had characters be openly stigmatizing towards PLWHA. After analyzing what I found the shows and movies did well and what they did poorly, I'll analyze why it is important that shows maintained historical accuracy, and how doing so appeared to fight the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. I will also evaluate what's missing \u2014 such as which high-risk groups are not represented. Ultimately, this thesis will argue that shows and movies made in the last 12 years all aimed to decrease stigma, through a variety of techniques.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Plant-derived Virus-like Particles and Recombinant Immune Complexes as Potential Components of a Future HIV Vaccine

Description

HIV continues to remain a global health issue, in particular in many low and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that of the nearly 38 million HIV-1 positive

HIV continues to remain a global health issue, in particular in many low and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that of the nearly 38 million HIV-1 positive individuals, 25% are unaware they are infected. Despite decades of research, a safe and effective preventative vaccine has yet to be produced. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein41 and the Gag structural protein have been identified to be particularly important in HIV-1 transcytosis and cytotoxic lymphocyte response, respectively. Enveloped virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of Gag and a deconstructed form of glycoprotein (dgp41) comprising the membrane proximal external region (MPER), transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail may present a unique and safe way of presenting these proteins in a state mimicking their natural formation. Another form of presenting the immunogenic glycoprotein41, particularly the MPER component, is by presenting it onto the N-terminal of an IgG molecule, thereby creating an IgG fusion molecule. In our lab, both VLPs and IgG fusion molecules are highly expressed and purified within GnGn Nicotiana benthamiana. The results indicated that these recombinant proteins can be assembled properly within plants and can elicit an immune response in mice. This provides a preliminary step in using such Gag/dpg41 VLPs and RIC as present a safe, effective, and inexpensive HIV vaccine.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Needle Isn’t The “Sticking” Point: Legalizing Needle Exchange Programs in Arizona

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This white paper serves as an accumulation of research to guide needle exchange program (NEP) policies in the state of Arizona to decrease the transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV and HCV.

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  • 2021-05

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HIV/AIDS in Ghana and Western Africa: a Thematic Analysis of Governmental Responses to the Epidemic within ECOWAS

Description

This research evaluates the national HIV/AIDS policy of Ghana and compares it to the policies of other countries in the Economic Community of West African States.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Traditional Healing and Pubilc Health Integration: Utilizing Cultural Strengths to Provide Targeted HIV Interventions

Description

Curanderos are Hispanic traditional healers who attend to their clients through spiritual, natural, and physical techniques. Recent studies have shown that a subset of the Hispanic population refer to these

Curanderos are Hispanic traditional healers who attend to their clients through spiritual, natural, and physical techniques. Recent studies have shown that a subset of the Hispanic population refer to these healers for HIV and STD treatment and believe they are important in a collaborative targeted HIV intervention. Thus, curanderos were interviewed and the lay population of Phoenix was sampled in order to get a better idea of the utility of these healers in an HIV prevention effort targeted at the Hispanic community. Due to the limitations of this study there was not sufficient enough data to make significant conclusions; however the interviews with the curanderos were surprising in the they had significant roles as healers in the Phoenix area, patients have referred to them for HIV and STD treatment, and a couple of the healers have integrated western medical knowledge into their practice.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05