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Transitional Care of Adults with Chronic Diseases Post-Discharge from Acute Settings

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Ineffective transitional care programs for ensuring the continuation of care from acute settings to the home settings post discharge can result in rehospitalization of elderly patients with chronic diseases. Usually,

Ineffective transitional care programs for ensuring the continuation of care from acute settings to the home settings post discharge can result in rehospitalization of elderly patients with chronic diseases. Usually, transitional care should be time-sensitive, patient-centered services intended to ensure continuity of care and an efficient transition between health care settings or home. A patient centered transitional care program was implemented at an outpatient primary care facility to reduce readmission rates. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.

Twenty adult patients with chronic diseases discharged from an acute setting were identified. A follow up phone call and/or a home visit within 24-72 hours post discharge was employed. The Care Transitions Measure (CTM®) and Medication Discrepancy Tool (MDT®) were utilized to identify quality of care of transition and medication discrepancies. A chart audit collected data on the age of participant, diagnosis for initial hospitalization, CTM score, home visit, and ED visits or re-hospitalizations after 30 days of discharge. The outcome indicated that transitional care within primary care utilizing evidence-based practices is beneficial in reducing readmission rates. A logistic regression showed model significance, p = .002, suggesting that the CTM score was effective for both telephone support (TS) and home visit (HV).

A correlation analysis showed that as age of participants increased, the CTM score decreased, indicating that older adults required more support. A significance p <.001, of a proportional test indicated that readmission rates after the intervention was lower. It is evident that providing a timely and effective transitional care intervention in a primary care setting can reduce hospital readmissions, improve symptom management and quality of life of adult patients with chronic diseases.

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  • 2020-05-05

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Advance Directive Advocacy: Empowering Homeless Clients to Express Their End-of-Life Wishes

Description

As Baby Boomers age, the number of older homeless patients facing end of life is increasing. Homeless individuals die of the same diseases as their domiciled counterparts, but they have

As Baby Boomers age, the number of older homeless patients facing end of life is increasing. Homeless individuals die of the same diseases as their domiciled counterparts, but they have distinct barriers to equitable end-of-life care, such as lack of regular medical care, a higher likelihood of comorbid serious mental illness and substance abuse, alienation from potential healthcare proxies, and specific fears related to dying. Completion of an advance directive (AD) would address many of these barriers, as well as national goals of reducing medical costs associated with end of life care. A review of the literature indicates that homeless individuals, once educated on the purpose and significance of ADs, complete them at a higher rate than non-homeless people. Further, racial and ethnic disparities in document completion are minimized with educational interventions about an AD’s purpose.

King’s Theory of Goal Attainment provides the theoretical basis for the application of such an intervention in the setting of a medical respite center and a day resource center that both serve the homeless. Thirty-seven clients of the two sites and 14 staff members were administered a pre-and post-test measuring attitudes and knowledge relating to ADs on a Likert scale, resulting in an increase in knowledge about one of the two documents that traditionally comprise an AD, while not significantly affecting attitudes. Implications for practice include an inexpensive intervention that does not require a medically trained individual to deliver, enabling a broad application to a variety of settings with the goal of empowering a traditionally disenfranchised population to make health decisions related to the most vulnerable of life passages.

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  • 2016-05-07