Matching Items (14)

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Diabetes Self-Management Education Effects on Hemoglobin A1c

Description

Diabetes, a common chronic condition, effects many individuals causing poor quality of life, expensive medical bills, and devastating medical complications. While health care providers try to manage diabetes during short

Diabetes, a common chronic condition, effects many individuals causing poor quality of life, expensive medical bills, and devastating medical complications. While health care providers try to manage diabetes during short office visits, many patients still struggle to control their diabetes at home. Lack of diabetes self-management (DSM) is a potential barrier for people with diabetes having to maintain healthy hemoglobin A1cs (HgA1c).

In hopes of addressing this concern, an evidenced-based intervention; diabetic education and phone calls, using the chronic care model as its framework was implemented. The intervention targeted people with type II diabetes at a transitional care setting. Measured variables included HgA1c and DSM. Statistically significant improvements were seen in reported physical activity. Average improvements were seen in HgA1c and DSM after three months of diabetes self-management education (DSME). Attrition, cultural sensitivity, and increasing DSME hours should be further evaluated for future projects.

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Date Created
  • 2020-08-13

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Improving Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Through Formal Education

Description

Background and Purpose: Over 30 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes mellitus, which comprises about 9% of the population, and about 90% of individuals with diabetes have

Background and Purpose: Over 30 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes mellitus, which comprises about 9% of the population, and about 90% of individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2017). Adults with type 2 diabetes at a local internal medicine clinic were consistently having high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels, demonstrated by data collected from the electronic health record (EHR), and there was no ordering process for referring patients to diabetes management education and support (DSMES) services. The purpose of this project was to improve glycemic control, demonstrated by lower HbA1C levels, and reach a diabetes education attendance rate of 62.5% at an internal medicine clinic in Chandler, Arizona.

Methods: An electronic health record (EHR) template was created and brief staff training was completed to connect patients with diabetes in the community to a local formal diabetes education program. HbA1C levels were measured before and three months after adults with education program. HbA1C levels were measured before and three months after adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) received physicians’ orders for a DSMES program, and rates of attendance to the program were calculated. Data was collected through the EHR and through feedback from the DSMES program. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis.

Outcomes: The participants’ results did not demonstrate significant differences in pre-referral and post-referral HbA1C results after they were ordered DSMES services (p = .506). The proportion of education attendance (30%) was lower than the project goal of 62.5%, but increased from the clinic baseline.

Conclusions: EHR template implementation for referral to DSMES may increase rates of formal diabetes education and improve glycemic control. Larger sample sizes, longer project periods, alternative methods of communication, and increased follow-up of participants may be required to produce significant results.

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  • 2020-04-30

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Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management in the Rural Population: A Project Report

Description

Background: The global prevalence of all types of diabetes increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (Nazir et al., 2018). The Centers for Disease Control and

Background: The global prevalence of all types of diabetes increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (Nazir et al., 2018). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) ranks diabetes as the 7th leading cause of death in the United States with an estimated annual expense of $327 billion. Within the rural setting, patients typically have less resources available for the treatment and self-management of their diseases. It is important to explore self-management techniques that can be utilized by patients with type 2 diabetes living in rural areas. Research demonstrating the importance of education, exercise, diet, glucose monitoring, medications, and supportive measures is prominent throughout the literature.

Objective: The purpose of this Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) applied project is to investigate the effects of delivering biweekly text messages containing diabetes self-management education (DSME) materials to patients in an effort to support successful self-care.

Methods: During an 8 week period, DSME was provided via text messaging, bi-weekly (Sunday and Wednesday), to 23 rural participants with type 2 diabetes, in a family clinic in Payson, Arizona. Participants were asked to complete the Skills, Confidence, and Preparedness Index both pre- and post-intervention to evaluate their knowledge of diabetes self-management.

Results: Twenty-three adults aged 52 to 78 years (M = 64.91) participated in the project. Of the participants, 57% (13/23) were female. The majority of participants had T2DM diagnosis less than 10 years (M=13.8 years). There was a statistical difference between the pre- and post-Skills, Confidence and Preparedness Index questionnaire (p < .001) indicating an improvement in self-efficacy scores post- intervention.

Conclusion: DSME delivered via text message is a cost-effective way to increase patients' self-efficacy and potentially improve their ability to successfully self-manage their disease.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05-04

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An Investigation into the Causes of Insulin Aggregation

Description

Insulin is an essential peptide hormone that aides in the metabolism of glucose by allowing the cells to uptake glucose. Exogenous insulin is often prescribed to patients in order to

Insulin is an essential peptide hormone that aides in the metabolism of glucose by allowing the cells to uptake glucose. Exogenous insulin is often prescribed to patients in order to help manage their diabetes. Recent research has indicated that prescription insulin is not at the labeled concentration when the prescription is filled by the patient. This decrease in concentration from when the insulin is manufactured to when it reaches the pharmacy is likely due to the insulin denaturing and aggregating. Dynamic light scattering is a useful and accurate method to determine the hydrodynamic radius of a solute and can be used to measure the hydrodynamic radius of insulin which will thus determine the aggregation of the sample since the more aggregated it is, the larger the hydrodynamic radius will be. By testing the effect of pH, concentration, temperature, and time on insulin samples, the optimal storage conditions can be determined in order to ensure researchers and patients are not using aggregated insulin. No conclusive relationship was found between any variable and sample diameter, but several trends were identified. Temperature, pH, and time in solution are all factors that could impact the aggregation, and therefore activity, of insulin. However, concentration did not show any trend regarding aggregation. Determining the relationships between these variables could allow for the identification of ideal storage conditions for researchers. Additionally, it can be used to identify shortcomings in the insulin supply chain.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Improving Diabetes by Improving Diabetes Education in Primary Care

Description

Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity in the world. About 42 million people worldwide have
diabetes. Poorly managed diabetes leads to long term complications and mortality. Diabetes self-management education

Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity in the world. About 42 million people worldwide have
diabetes. Poorly managed diabetes leads to long term complications and mortality. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) has been effective in preventing or delaying complications.The purpose of this project is to implement a diabetes self-management education (DSME)
program in primary care and to evaluate its impact on glycemic control and diabetes knowledge in a selected group of adults 18 years or older in a community-based practice.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05-01

Diabetes Self-Management Education Through Technology

Description

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the utilization of a smartphone application for diabetes self-management education (DSME) into a family practice office. Cochrane review of technological options for

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the utilization of a smartphone application for diabetes self-management education (DSME) into a family practice office. Cochrane review of technological options for DSME identified the smartphone as the most effective option. All patients with diabetes presenting in a family practice office for appointments with the clinical pharmacist or the physician were asked if they would participate in the project if they met the inclusion criteria including the diagnosis of diabetes, owning a smart-phone, and over 18 years old. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, end-stage kidney disease, or use of an insulin pump.

The goal was to enroll at least 10 patients and have them utilize the smartphone application Care4life for education and blood glucose tracking. HbA1c, heart rate, blood pressure, weight, and body mass index were collected at the initiation of the trial in addition to a demographic survey. A survey was obtained at the end of the trial. Ten patients were enrolled in the project; 50% women. One patient discontinued participation after enrollment. Six patients returned their surveys.

The feedback was primarily positive with individuals liking the text messaging reminders and ability to track their matrix (blood pressure, blood glucose, weight, medication adherence, exercise). Continued utilization of the smartphone application within the practice is likely for those patients who enjoy the technology as a reminder. Further opportunities for implementation would be in a hospital setting where patients face a delay post discharge for an appointment with a diabetes educator. Additionally, due to the complexity of the disease this application could be used to educate caregivers.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05-05

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Education for the Prevention of Diabetes

Description

Randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews of paired education involving both diet and activity recommendations have shown significant reductions in the advancement of adult (age 18 to 80) prediabetes to

Randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews of paired education involving both diet and activity recommendations have shown significant reductions in the advancement of adult (age 18 to 80) prediabetes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Paired education on diet and activity has been effective for persons from diverse races, ethnicities, and levels of education. For this project, the paired education focused on the dietary guidance of the Whole 30 plan and the current exercise/activity recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). The ADA recommends 30 min 5 x week or 60 min 3 x week of exercise, with no more than 48 hours between exercise occurrences.

Ten adults with HbA1C between 5.7%-6.4%, levels specified by the ADA as prediabetes, were invited to participate in the project at an outpatient wellness practice. Participants took a pretest on basic food and activity knowledge, received educational sessions on the Whole 30™ plan and activity recommendations from the ADA, then completed a posttest. Participants were scheduled for one month follow ups. At the 3 month follow up appointment, repeat HbA1C was drawn. Most of the patients (7/10) completed return appointments at the 3-month time frame. Statistically significant results were seen in diet and exercise knowledge using a paired T-test. Clinically significant reductions were seen in HbA1C averages as well as weight, BMI, and glucose levels.

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Date Created
  • 2017-04-30

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Implementation of a Mediterranean Diet in Type II Diabetic Patients

Description

Type II Diabetes Mellitus has detrimental effects on the human body. A1C levels reflect the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin-the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Elevated A1C

Type II Diabetes Mellitus has detrimental effects on the human body. A1C levels reflect the attachment of glucose to hemoglobin-the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Elevated A1C levels are an indicator of how controlled diabetes is. Uncontrolled diabetes not only affects glucose levels, but has detrimental repercussions in other organs of the body, causing peripheral vascular disease, risk of developing dementia, periodontal or gum disease, skin infections, neuropathy in lower and upper extremities, renal damage, erectile dysfunction, decreased blood flow, and cardiac conditions among others.

A diet low in calories positively affects glucose levels in the body. Type II Diabetes can be easily controlled when lifestyle modifications are included in the plan of care. Among those modifications, diet is an effective intervention for the management of this condition.
Establishing a diet among the patients that have an elevated A1C is the plan of care and ultimate goal for this project. The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated decreased blood glucose levels, improved weight control and enhanced quality of life.

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Date Created
  • 2019-04-26

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Implementation of a Culturally-Tailored Diabetes Education Program in a Medically-Underserved Community Health Clinic

Description

Purpose: Hispanics diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have poorer health outcomes than non-Hispanic whites. Approximately one- half of all Hispanic DM patients utilize community health clinics for their

Purpose: Hispanics diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have poorer health outcomes than non-Hispanic whites. Approximately one- half of all Hispanic DM patients utilize community health clinics for their DM needs. Evidence suggests that using a culturally-tailored approach to DM education can uniquely improve health outcomes in this population. The purpose of this evidence-based practice (EBP) project was to improve glycemic control in a medically underserved Hispanic community through a culturally-tailored DM education program.

Methods: This quasi-experimental pre/post design project was guided by the ACE Star Model and Leininger’s Theory of Cultural Care. The affiliated University’s IRB approved this project. The Diabetes Empowerment Education Program (DEEP) was implemented in a free, community clinic in a medically underserved area. Spanish speaking patients (n = 15) with A1C levels
> 8mg/dl were recruited to participate in a 6-week group educational program facilitated by community health workers. Outcomes included A1C levels, weight, and two surveys from the Michigan Diabetes Research Center - DM knowledge test and the DM empowerment scale.

Results: Paired sample t-tests were used to analyze the outcomes. The participants had an average pre-A1C of 8.82 mg/dl with post-A1C of 8.01 mg/dl (p = .028). Pre-knowledge test scores averaged 9.40 with post-test average of 12.07 (p < .001). Empowerment scores increased from 4.09 to 4.63 (p = .001). The reduction between the average pre-and post-weight measures were not statistically significant (p = .681).

Discussion: The implementation of a culturally-tailored DM educational program in a medically underserved community had a significant impact on reducing A1C levels, improving DM knowledge, and enhancing empowerment levels. Although the sample size was small and limited to one clinic, applying these programs can have a measurable clinical impact in the treatment of Hispanic DM patients. Future research can further exam how to duplicate this project on a larger scale and over a sustained period.

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Date Created
  • 2018-04-23

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Sleep Quality and the Effect on Functional Outcomes

Description

Introduction: Sleep disorders can go undiagnosed if a provider is not asking the right questions; they can be characterized by loud snoring with apneic episodes that never fully wake the

Introduction: Sleep disorders can go undiagnosed if a provider is not asking the right questions; they can be characterized by loud snoring with apneic episodes that never fully wake the person, difficulty falling asleep or daytime fatigue. Poor sleep can affect activities of daily living, job performance and personal relationships. Poor sleep can be difficult to detect because some may consider it a symptom because of their lifestyle. The purpose of this study is to assess participants sleep quality and functional outcomes of poor sleep.

Methods: Primary care providers have an opportunity to screen for sleep disorders as part of the intake process during an office visit. The Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), has been proposed as guide to determine if a sleep disorder is affecting quality of life. This descriptive study randomly recruited 20 participants from a community health center. A 10-question survey was given to individuals over the age of 18 who can write and speak English and either have a body mass index (BMI) over 30, hypertension (HTN) or diabetes type II (DMII). Demographic information evaluated included age, gender, HTN, DMII, BMI>30, marital status, sleeping alone, employment type, race, type of insurance, how many times do they wake up at night, the average number of hours slept per night and does the person work night shift.

Results: The study used a qualitative approach with a descriptive methodology; statistical analysis consisted of proportions, means and standard deviation to describe the study population. Participant age ranged from 33 to 72 years (M=50.1, SD= 11.32). Sixty percent were both female and married/living with partner. Despite being married/living with partner, 50% slept alone. A Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was a significant difference in four of the questions in the FOSQ-10 in which functional outcomes were not affected by being sleepy or tired.

Conclusion: The FOSQ-10 may serve a role in identifying patients who might benefit from a sleep study. The inclusion of a sleep disorder screening tool may increase the specificity and sensitivity of the intervention and the ability to yield data that will objectively measure disordered sleep.

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Date Created
  • 2019-04-25