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A Framework for Measuring Human Uncertainty of Autonomous Vehicles with Specific Attention to the Inclusion of Empathy: Can Human Eyes Reveal Surprise?

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Currently, autonomous vehicles are being evaluated by how well they interact with humans without evaluating how well humans interact with them. Since people are not going to unanimously switch over to using autonomous vehicles, attention must be given to how

Currently, autonomous vehicles are being evaluated by how well they interact with humans without evaluating how well humans interact with them. Since people are not going to unanimously switch over to using autonomous vehicles, attention must be given to how well these new vehicles signal intent to human drivers from the driver’s point of view. Ineffective communication will lead to unnecessary discomfort among drivers caused by an underlying uncertainty about what an autonomous vehicle is or isn’t about to do. Recent studies suggest that humans tend to fixate on areas of higher uncertainty so scenarios that have a higher number of vehicle fixations can be reasoned to be more uncertain. We provide a framework for measuring human uncertainty and use the framework to measure the effect of empathetic vs non-empathetic agents. We used a simulated driving environment to create recorded scenarios and manipulate the autonomous vehicle to include either an empathetic or non-empathetic agent. The driving interaction is composed of two vehicles approaching an uncontrolled intersection. These scenarios were played to twelve participants while their gaze was recorded to track what the participants were fixating on. The overall intent was to provide an analytical framework as a tool for evaluating autonomous driving features; and in this case, we choose to evaluate how effective it was for vehicles to have empathetic behaviors included in the autonomous vehicle decision making. A t-test analysis of the gaze indicated that empathy did not in fact reduce uncertainty although additional testing of this hypothesis will be needed due to the small sample size.

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2021-05

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Total dose simulation for high reliability electronics

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New technologies enable the exploration of space, high-fidelity defense systems, lighting fast intercontinental communication systems as well as medical technologies that extend and improve patient lives. The basis for these technologies is high reliability electronics devised to meet stringent design

New technologies enable the exploration of space, high-fidelity defense systems, lighting fast intercontinental communication systems as well as medical technologies that extend and improve patient lives. The basis for these technologies is high reliability electronics devised to meet stringent design goals and to operate consistently for many years deployed in the field. An on-going concern for engineers is the consequences of ionizing radiation exposure, specifically total dose effects. For many of the different applications, there is a likelihood of exposure to radiation, which can result in device degradation and potentially failure. While the total dose effects and the resulting degradation are a well-studied field and methodologies to help mitigate degradation have been developed, there is still a need for simulation techniques to help designers understand total dose effects within their design. To that end, the work presented here details simulation techniques to analyze as well as predict the total dose response of a circuit. In this dissertation the total dose effects are broken into two sub-categories, intra-device and inter-device effects in CMOS technology. Intra-device effects degrade the performance of both n-channel and p-channel transistors, while inter-device effects result in loss of device isolation. In this work, multiple case studies are presented for which total dose degradation is of concern. Through the simulation techniques, the individual device and circuit responses are modeled post-irradiation. The use of these simulation techniques by circuit designers allow predictive simulation of total dose effects, allowing focused design changes to be implemented to increase radiation tolerance of high reliability electronics.

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2014

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SST SuperFlash modeling and simulation under ionizing radiation

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Flash memories are critical for embedded devices to operate properly but are susceptible to radiation effects, which make flash memory a key factor to improve the reliability of circuitry. This thesis describes the simulation techniques used to analyze and predict

Flash memories are critical for embedded devices to operate properly but are susceptible to radiation effects, which make flash memory a key factor to improve the reliability of circuitry. This thesis describes the simulation techniques used to analyze and predict total ionizing dose (TID) effects on 90-nm technology Silicon Storage Technology (SST) SuperFlash Generation 3 devices. Silvaco Atlas is used for both device level design and simulation purposes.

The simulations consist of no radiation and radiation modeling. The no radiation modeling details the cell structure development and characterizes basic operations (read, erase and program) of a flash memory cell. The program time is observed to be approximately 10 μs while the erase time is approximately 0.1 ms.

The radiation modeling uses the fixed oxide charge method to analyze the TID effects on the same flash memory cell. After irradiation, a threshold voltage shift of the flash memory cell is observed. The threshold voltages of a programmed cell and an erased cell are reduced at an average rate of 0.025 V/krad.

The use of simulation techniques allows designers to better understand the TID response of a SST flash memory cell and to predict cell level TID effects without performing the costly in-situ irradiation experiments. The simulation and experimental results agree qualitatively. In particular, simulation results reveal that ‘0’ to ‘1’ errors but not ‘1’ to ‘0’ retention errors occur; likewise, ‘0’ to ‘1’ errors dominate experimental testing, which also includes circuitry effects that can cause ‘1’ to ‘0’ failures. Both simulation and experimental results reveal flash memory cell TID resilience to about 200 krad.

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2016