Matching Items (12)
- Creators: Arizona State University
- Creators: Brewer, Gene A
- Resource Type: Text
The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge and attitudes about autism spectrum disorders among Hispanics in the Southwest. The study will also examine perceived barriers in obtaining resources and preferences in accessing health care. Participants (N = 169) were surveyed using the Autism Awareness Survey, which was developed specifically for this research. Significant differences were found between individuals with high acculturation and low acculturation in exposure to autism, knowledge about autism, perceived barriers to obtaining resources and health care, and attitudes towards people with autism. Additionally, the findings also suggest that although the surveyed population was knowledgeable about the symptoms associated with autism, less well known is the etiology and course of the disorder. The research underscores the serious need for both Spanish educational resources and Spanish-speaking health care providers to address the needs of Hispanics with regards to autism, especially with individuals with low levels of acculturation.
An investigation of the relationship between education, credentials and knowledge of personal trainers and client retention
The purpose of this study was two-fold. In Specific Aim One, we examined the associations between education level, personal trainer credentials and characteristics, and knowledge of exercise science and personal training principles. In Specific Aim Two we examined associations between education, personal trainer credentials and knowledge of personal trainers with client retention. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design. An anonymous electronic survey was used to collect the data. Eligible participants (N=226) were individuals who were providing one-on-one personal training services for at least one client. All data were assessed for normality prior to data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sample characteristics. Mean and standard deviations, median and interquartile range [IQR] or frequency and percentages were reported for the sample characteristics. Bivariate associations were examined with dependent t-tests and one-way ANOVAs for normally distributed data. Mann- Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for non-normally distributed variables. The median knowledge score for the sample was 6.0 [3.00] points, out of a possible 24, with 92.5% of the sample scoring 10 or lower. Sex (Male/Female), education level, having a degree in the field, certification status (yes
o) and number of certifications were not associated with knowledge scores (p > 0.05). Years of experience in personal training was positively associated with mean knowledge scores (H(3) = 9.280, p = 0.026). Sex of the personal trainer, having a degree in the field (yes
o), the number of personal trainer certifications, the cost of training, the type of facility, the type of employment of the personal trainer and knowledge scores were not associated with client retention (p > 0.05). Education level (F3,87 = 8.176, p < 0.001), personal training certification (yes
o) (t38 = 2.277, p = 0.029), years of experience (F3, 87 = 3.169, p = 0.028), facility size (F4,84 = 8.049, p < 0.001), and exercise science degree type (F3,48 = 6.008, p = 0.001) were all associated with client retention. This study provides insight on knowledge retention of active personal trainers on subject matter deemed foundational by four certifying organizations. The findings should influence both the preparatory learning and well as continuing education approaches of both certifying organizations and institutions of higher learning.
ABSTRACT In this work, I provide two novel pieces of evidence in favor of the view that there is pragmatic encroachment on knowledge. First, I present an empirical case via the results of a series of recent experiments to show that folk-knowledge attributions may be sensitive to time constraints even when the latter are construed in a non-truth relevant manner. Along the way, I consider some comments made by Jonathan Schaffer (2006) as it pertains to interpreting time constraints-sensitivity in a manner that supports contextualism, before offering reasons to resist such a treatment. I proceed by applying interest relative invariantism to adjudicate a conflict in the epistemology of testimony namely, the positive reasons requirement a la, reductionism vs. non-reductionism. In particular, I highlight how whether an epistemic subject H needs positive non-testimonial reasons to be justified in accepting S's testimony that p, depends on what is at stake for H in believing that p and how much time H has in deliberating about p.
The increase in obesity since the 1980's has been associated with fast-food consumption. In hopes that calorie labeling will be an effective tool to combat obesity, congress included a provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) that will require all restaurants with twenty or more locations to post calorie information for each menu item. Current research has provided mixed results regarding the effectiveness of calorie labeling, but overall seems to suggest that calorie labeling may only be effective among certain populations. In September, 2012 McDonald's began to post calorie labels on their menu boards before it was federally mandated under the ACA. This policy provided the opportunity to study the impact of calorie labeling on the purchasing behavior of McDonald's patrons. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine if self-perception of diet, self-perception of health, smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, or knowledge of daily calorie requirements is associated with the likelihood of noticing or using calorie labels, or total calories purchased. In addition, relationships between noticing or using calorie labels with total calories purchased were also examined. Receipts and survey responses were collected from 330 participants who purchased food and beverage items from 27 different McDonald's locations within a 20 mile radius of downtown Phoenix, Arizona. Results indicated that only 16.1% of the sample reported using calorie labels, and those who reported using calorie labels purchased an average of 136 fewer calories. Multivariate analysis indicated there were no statistically significant relationships between self-perception of diet, self-perception of health, smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, or knowledge of daily calorie requirements with the likelihood of noticing or using calorie labels, or total calories purchased. However, it is possible that the small sample size of participants using calorie labeling precluded any statistically significant relationships among these variables from emerging. Further research with larger sample sizes should be conducted, to investigate individual level factors that may be associated with use of calorie labeling.
An intervention study was conducted with elementary physical education teachers and their use of a newly developed series of fitness segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). This study was designed to enable teachers to teach healthy behavior knowledge (HBK) in their classes without sacrificing physical activity levels. This study has two phases. First, the intervention was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the KIA fitness segment intervention. Second, teachers' perceptions of both teaching HBK and the KIA fitness segments were investigated. Ten teacher participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Intervention teachers participated in professional development, provided with all teaching materials, and YouTube videos that modeled the teaching of the KIA fitness segments. Teacher fidelity was measured through observations. Student physical activity patterns were measured in randomly selected teachers' classes (both intervention and control) to determine potential physical activity pattern differences between groups. Teachers were interviewed from one to three times across the project in order to determine perceptions of teaching HBK and the KIA fitness segments. Researchers used constant comparison method to uncover possible common themes. Student knowledge was assessed pre/post using PE Metrics Standard 3 cognitive test to determine HBK changes. Data analysis included General liner models (GLM) at the student level (gender) and Hierarchical linear models (HLM) at the school level (treatment, school). There was a moderate mean teacher fidelity score (77.9%) found among the intervention teachers. HLM results showed students in the intervention group had a 3.4(20%) greater improvement in HBK scores when compared with their control counterparts (p<0.001). Student activity levels were found to be similar in both groups with 871.33 and 822.22 steps in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Although all of the teachers thought it was important to teach HBK they were not spending time on it during classes at pretest. Three common themes were discovered: (a) Effective Teacher Training of the Segments, (b), Teachers Learned a Novel Strategy, and (c) Teachers Recommended Modifications. In summary, the KIA fitness segments received favorable views and gave teachers a way to teach HBK without reducing physical activity time.
An investigation into the definitions and development of pedagogical content knowledge among pre-service and current mathematics teachers
The principle purpose of this research was to compare two definitions and assessments of Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and examine the development of that knowledge among pre-service and current math teachers. Seventy-eight current and future teachers took an online version of the Measures of Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) - Mathematics assessment and nine of them took the Cognitively Activating Instruction in Mathematics (COACTIV) assessment. Participants answered questions that demonstrated their understanding of students' challenges and misconceptions, ability to recognize and utilize multiple representations and methods of presenting content, and understanding of tasks and materials that they may be using for instruction. Additionally, participants indicated their college major, institution attended, years of experience, and participation in various other learning opportunities. This data was analyzed to look for changes in knowledge, first among those still in college, then among those already in the field, and finally as a whole group to look for a pattern of growth from pre-service through working in the classroom. I compared these results to the theories of learning espoused by the creators of these two tests to see which model the data supports. The results indicate that growth in PCK occurs among college students during their teacher preparation program, with much less change once a teacher enters the field. Growth was not linear, but best modeled by an s-curve, showing slow initial changes, substantial development during the 2nd and 3rd year of college, and then a leveling off during the last year of college and the first few years working in a classroom. Among current teachers' the only group that demonstrated any measurable growth were teachers who majored in a non-education field. Other factors like internships and professional development did not show a meaningful correlation with PCK. Even though some of these models were statistically significant, they did not account for a substantial amount of the variation among individuals, indicating that personal factors and not programmatic ones may be the primary determinant of a teachers' knowledge.
Collaborative learning is a potential technique for teachers to use to meet the diverse learning needs of the students in their classrooms. Previous studies have investigated the contexts in which the benefits of collaborative learning show greater presence. The most important factor found was the quality of the interactions. Studies have suggested that high achieving students are capable of improving the quality of interactions. This bears the question if prior knowledge plays an influence in the learning outcome of students in collaborative learning. Results show that high prior knowledge students do not face a detriment in having low prior knowledge students as a partner comparing to having another high prior knowledge student and that low prior knowledge students show significantly higher learning outcome when partnered with a high prior knowledge partner than with another low prior knowledge student. It is therefore likely that having a high prior knowledge student within a dyad improves the quality of interaction, resulting in greater learning outcome through collaborative learning.
Examining undergraduate engineering students' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding affirmative action admissions policies: a hierarchical regression analysis
Affirmative action is an education policy adopted by higher education institutions in the 1960s, where an applicant’s race is taken into account to some degree when being evaluated for admission to a college or university. The practice of affirmative action, or race conscious-admissions, has been repeatedly challenged in the legal system and remains a controversial and polarizing topic amongst the general public, campus leaders, and policy makers. Despite a vast amount of research on the effects of affirmative action policies on student and institutional behaviors and outcomes, such as college applications and enrollments, considerably less research has examined students’ attitudes towards race-conscious admissions policies. Even less research has focused on students in academic disciplines, especially STEM or engineering. Likewise, there is a paucity of research that explores students’ perceptions and knowledge of how affirmative action is implemented in practice. To address these gaps, this study investigates undergraduate engineering students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards affirmative action admissions policies in higher education. The Student Attitudes Towards Admissions Policies Survey (SATAPS) was designed to assess students’ knowledge of and attitudes regarding affirmative action practices in higher education admissions. This survey was administered to undergraduate engineering students and a comparison group of education students at 42 colleges/universities in the United States. Data were analyzed utilizing confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression. Results demonstrated that students have low levels of knowledge about affirmative action, and have misconceptions about how the policy functions in practice. There was no difference in engineering and education students’ level of support for affirmative action; however, underrepresented minority students in engineering were more supportive of affirmative action. Results also indicated that students’ beliefs and values were the strongest predictors of attitude towards affirmative action, so much so that this negated the significance of demographic and personal characteristics, which was observed in the majority of previous studies. Results highlight a complicated relationship between demographic characteristics, personal variables, knowledge, institutional context, beliefs/values, and attitude towards affirmative action admissions policies in higher education.
Book it, 1st Grade! Keeping the “Physical” in Physical Education while Integrating Children's Literature
Physical activity (PA) has been shown to increase cognitive function, with higher test scores being reported for students engaged in higher levels PA. Additionally, the integration of the Common Core content into physical education allows for more Common Core content practice while students meet physical education objectives. Integration can be defined as the teaching of two or more subject areas simultaneously to enhance students’ learning and understanding. This novel shift to integration is underpinned by Fullan’s Change Theory where students may learn content in new and meaningful ways that meet the goals of multiple realms in education. The purpose of this crossover, replication design study was to investigate first-grade students’ enjoyment levels (enjoyment exit slips), attitudes (pre- & post-surveys), step counts (accelerometers), reading and listening comprehension (Accelerated Reader testing), as well as students’ and teachers’ perceptions (interviews & field notes) when integrating children’s literature into the fitness segment of physical education. Twenty-one first-grade students, two first-grade classroom teachers, and two physical education teachers from two different schools (Private and Public) in Southwestern, US participated in this study for six weeks each (12 weeks across the two schools). At each school, one first grade class participated as both the control and intervention groups. Overall, the results from integrating children’s literature into the physical education fitness segment were positive. Students’ enjoyment levels were high, their attitudes remained positive, they maintained similar step counts throughout the intervention periods, and the students scored similarly on the Accelerated Reader assessments from content taught in the classroom versus content presented in physical education. Additionally, students’ and teachers’ perceptions were positive, underpinned by Fullan’s Change Theory and resulted in the following three themes for students: (a) Motivation and engagement, (b) learning as perceived by students, and (c) home environment, as well as the following two themes for teachers: (a) Motivation and resources, and (b) stay the course. To my knowledge, this is the first experimental investigation of the integration of children’s literature into physical education which provides necessary evidence and an invaluable start to this important line of inquiry.
Individuals encounter problems daily wherein varying numbers of constraints require delimitation of memory to target goal-satisfying information. Multiply-constrained problems, such as compound remote associates, are commonly used to study this type of problem solving. Since their development, multiply-constrained problems have been theoretically and empirically related to creative thinking, analytical problem solving, insight problem solving, intelligence, and a multitude of other cognitive abilities. Critically, in order to correctly solve a multiply-constrained problem the solver must have the solution available in memory and be able to target and access to that information. Experiment 1 determined that the cue – target relationship affects the likelihood that a problem is solved. Moreover, Experiment 2 identified that the association between cues and targets predicted inter- & intra-individual differences in multiply-constrained problem solving. Lastly, Experiment 3 found monetary incentives failed to improve problem solving performance likely due to knowledge serving as a limiting factor on performance. Additionally, problem solvers were shown to be able to reliably assess the likelihood they would solve a problem. Taken together all three studies demonstrated the importance of knowledge & knowledge structures on problem solving performance.