Beginning in the early 1990s, nuclear forensic science is a relatively young field that focuses on “re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin” (Mayer, et al. 2010, p. 1). Specifically, investigators compare these unknown materials, pre-detonation in this case, based on their characteristics and process history (Mayer, et al. 2010, p. 1). In 2010, the Committee of Nuclear Forensics made ten recommendations on the procedures that could lead to improvement in investigation methods. In particular, this paper discusses Recommendation 6: “The nuclear forensics community should develop and adhere to standards and procedures that are rooted in the applicable underlying principles that have been recommended for modern forensic science, including calibration using reference standards; cross-comparison with other methods; inter-laboratory comparisons; and identification, propagation, and characterization of uncertainties'' (Committee of Nuclear Forensics, 2010, p. 11). The main objective of this paper is to compile a literature review to determine how this recommendation was followed, if at all, and produce a list of suggestions that could complement any effort towards the improvement of the field. Out of the methods recommended, that which has fostered the most growth has been cross-comparison. For example, the need for human supervision has decreased, which has decreased the need for human error (Reading, et al., 2017, p. 6013). However, areas that would benefit from development are increasing the number of disciplines in the field (Croudace, et al., 2016, p. 128). These conclusions provided the basis for improvements to other existing studies like DNA and fingerprinting.
This paper examines the effects of childhood maltreatment on attachment and development. Humans are social beings; connection is at the core of human behavior. This social nature is what drives the need to form relationships with others. Relationships help humans learn and understand the social world around them relatively safely and securely. However, to ensure that these relationships bring safety and security, the ability to do so must be established during the first 18 months of children’s lives (Kennedy & Kennedy, 2004). The relationships humans form are based on how they establish attachments, or emotional and long-term bonds and relationships, to a primary caregiver or parent as children (Bowlby, 1969). These primary attachments include secure, anxious-preoccupied, insecure-avoidant, or fearful-avoidant attachments and can have significant effects on individuals or emerging adults in early adulthood (ages 18-25). Primary attachments act as a safe and organized view of how human interactions and relationships work and act as a secure base for children to explore and successfully understand the social world around them (Feeney & Noller, 1996). However, this depends on whether or not safety, a secure base, and an organized view of relationships are formed between the caregiver and child during the first 18 months of the child’s life. Moreover, if a child experiences maltreatment such as abuse and neglect from primary caregivers during their first 18 months of life, it can severely affect what type of attachment style is formed and how development occurs in early adulthood (Connell-Corrick, 2011). Therefore, to thoroughly understand how childhood maltreatment affects attachment and development, an overview of both attachment theory and childhood maltreatment, the effects of childhood maltreatment on both attachment and development, and the importance of protective factors, interventions, and preventions will be discussed.
Aristotle studied developing organisms, among other things, in ancient Greece, and his writings shaped Western philosophy and natural science for greater than two thousand years. He spent much of his life in Greece and studied with Plato at Plato's Academy in Athens, where he later established his own school called the Lyceum. Aristotle wrote greater than 150 treatises on subjects ranging from aesthetics, politics, ethics, and natural philosophy, which include physics and biology. Less than fifty of Aristotle's treatises persisted into the twenty-first century. In natural philosophy, later called natural science, Aristotle established methods for investigation and reasoning and provided a theory on how embryos generate and develop. He originated the theory that an organism develops gradually from undifferentiated material, later called epigenesis.