Matching Items (15)

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Experimental Measurements of Power Output of a Cu/Cu2+ Thermogalvanic Brick using Effective Electrode Surface Area Alterations

Description

The research analyzes the transformation of wasted thermal energy into a usable form through thermogalvanic devices. This technology helps mitigate international growing energy demands. Building energy efficiency is a critical

The research analyzes the transformation of wasted thermal energy into a usable form through thermogalvanic devices. This technology helps mitigate international growing energy demands. Building energy efficiency is a critical research topic, since the loads account for 40% of all energy demand in developed nations, and 30% in less developed nations. A significant portion of the energy consumed for heating and cooling, where a majority is dissipated to the ambient as waste heat. This research answers how much power output (µW·cm-2) can the thermogalvanic brick experimentally produce from an induced temperature gradient? While there are multiple avenues for the initial and optimized prototype design, one key area of interest relating to thermogalvanic devices is the effective surface area of the electrodes. This report highlights the experimental power output measurements of a Cu/Cu2+ thermogalvanic brick by manipulating the effective surface area of the electrodes. Across three meshes, the maximum power output normalized for temperature was found to be between 2.13-2.87 x 10-3 μWcm-2K-2. The highest normalized power output corresponded to the mesh with the highest effective surface area, which was classified as the fine mesh. This intuitively aligned with the theoretical understanding of surface area and maximum power output, where decreasing the activation resistance also reduces the internal resistance, which increases the theoretical maximum power.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Process of an Energy Retrofit at ASU

Description

This study aims to teach the reader about the process of making a building more energy efficient at ASU. In this study the importance of energy efficiency in buildings will

This study aims to teach the reader about the process of making a building more energy efficient at ASU. In this study the importance of energy efficiency in buildings will be discussed as well as how building efficiency is important for the three tiers of sustainability. The case of energy efficiency in the environment, economy, and society will be outlined with the intent of creating urgency for the implementation of energy efficiency. Environment, economy, and society, the three tiers of sustainability fit the model of energy efficiency because efficient energy is a principle of sustainability. Efficient energy can fill the gap between our energy system at present and the energy system of the future. This document outlines the steps that ASU goes through when there is an energy upgrade to a building on campus. It also includes a mock audit of the Psychology North building at ASU. This mock audit serves as an example to justify how the steps outlined in this document can be used to initiate an energy retrofit. A person who reads this document will be able to understand the energy retrofit process. The main argument is that there is room for student inclusion in this process, by giving students the knowledge on how to initiate an energy retrofit they have the tools to be included. Practicing building efficiency on campus will help ASU to succeed in accomplishing numbers two and four of their sustainability goals: "1) Carbon Neutrality, 2) Zero Solid/Water Waste, 3) Active Engagement, and 4) Principled Practice" (ASU, 2011).

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Reforming Federal Indian Housing Programs: The Socio-Cultural, Political, & Health Benefits of Utilizing Indigenous Epistemologies & Architecture

Description

The relationship between settler-colonial governments and Indigenous nations has been a contentious one, filled with disingenuity and fueled by the abuse of power dynamics. Specifically, colonial governments have repeatedly

The relationship between settler-colonial governments and Indigenous nations has been a contentious one, filled with disingenuity and fueled by the abuse of power dynamics. Specifically, colonial governments have repeatedly used power in mapping, cultural Othering, resource control, and research methodologies to assimilate, acculturate, or otherwise dominate every aspect of Indigenous lives. A relatively recent pushback from Indigenous peoples led to the slow reclamation of sovereignty, including in the United States. Revamped federal Indian programs allegedly promote tribal self-determination, yet they paradoxically serve a vast quantity of cultures through singular blanket programs that are blind to the cultural component of Indigenous identity - the centerfold of colonial aggression for centuries. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Office of Public and Indian Housing is no exception, using a Western framework to provide generic services that neither serve cultural needs nor are tailored to the specific environment traditional homes were historically and epistemologically suited for. This research analyzes the successes of new programs as well as the failures of the federal government to conduct responsible research and promote the authentic self-determination of tribes in terms of housing and urban development. It also considers the successes and failures of tribes to effectively engage in program reformation negotiation, community planning, and accountability measures to ensure their communities are served with enough culturally-appropriate, sustainable housing without mistrusting their own housing entities. Solutions for revising this service gap are proposed, adhering to a framework that centers diverse cultural values, community input, and functional design to increase each tribe’s implementation of self-determination in HUD housing programs.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Using a Calibrated Detailed Building Energy Simulation Model to Compare the Potential of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in the Kuwaiti Residential Sector

Description

Due to extreme summer temperatures that regularly reach 122°F (50°C), cooling energy requirements have been responsible for 70% of peak demand and 45% of total electricity consumption in Kuwait. It

Due to extreme summer temperatures that regularly reach 122°F (50°C), cooling energy requirements have been responsible for 70% of peak demand and 45% of total electricity consumption in Kuwait. It is estimated that 50%-60% of electric power is consumed by the residential sector, mostly in detached villas. This study analyzes the potential impact of energy efficiency measures (EEM) and renewable energy (RE) measures on the electric energy requirements of an existing villa built in 2004. Using architectural plans, interview data, and the eQUEST building energy simulation tool, a building energy model (BEM) was developed for a villa calibrated with hourly energy use data for the year 2014. Although the modeled villa consumed less energy than an average Kuwaiti villa of the same size, 26% energy reductions were still possible under compliance with 2018 building codes. Compliance with 2010 and 2014 building codes, however, would have increased energy use by 19% and 3% respectively. Furthermore, survey data of 150 villas was used to generate statistics on rooftop solar area availability. Accordingly, it was found that 78% of the survey sample’s average total rooftop area was not suitable for rooftop solar systems due to shading and other obstacles. The integration of a solar canopy circumvents this issue and also functions as a shading device for outdoor activities and as a protective cover for AC units and water tanks. Combining the highest modeled EEMs and RE measures on the villa, the energy use intensity (EUI) would be reduced to 15 kWh/m2/year from a baseline value of 127 kWh/m2/year, close to net zero. Finally, it was determined that EEMs were able to reduce the entire demand profile whereas RE measures were most effective at reducing demand around mid-day hours. In future studies, more effort should be spent on collecting hourly data from multiple villas to assist in the development of a detailed hourly bottom-up residential energy modeling methodology.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Energy efficiency policy in Arizona: public participation and expert consultation in the policy implementation process

Description

Many different levels of government, organizations, and programs actively shape the future of energy in Arizona, a state that lacks a comprehensive energy plan. Disparate actions by multiple actors may

Many different levels of government, organizations, and programs actively shape the future of energy in Arizona, a state that lacks a comprehensive energy plan. Disparate actions by multiple actors may slow the energy policy process rather than expedite it. The absence of a state energy policy or plan raises questions about how multiple actors and ideas engage with state energy policy development and whether the absence of a comprehensive state plan can be understood. Improving how policy development is conceptualized and giving more focused attention to the mechanisms by which interested parties become involved in shaping Arizona energy policy. To explore these questions, I examine the future energy efficiency. Initially, public engagement mechanisms were examined for their role in policy creation from a theoretical perspective. Next a prominent public engagement forum that was dedicated to the topic of the Arizona's energy future was examined, mapping its process and conclusions onto a policy process model. The first part of this thesis involves an experimental expert consultation panel which was convened to amplify and refine the results of a public forum. The second part utilizes an online follow up survey to complete unfinished ideas from the focus group. The experiment flowed from a hypothesis that formal expert discussion on energy efficiency policies, guided by the recommendations put forth by the public engagement forum on energy in Arizona, would result in an increase in relevance while providing a forum for interdisciplinary collaboration that is atypical in today's energy discussions. This experiment was designed and evaluated utilizing a public engagement framework that incorporated theoretical and empirical elements. Specifically, I adapted elements of three methods of public and expert engagement used in policy development to create a consultation process that was contextualized to energy efficiency stakeholders in Arizona and their unique constraints. The goal of the consultation process was to refine preferences about policy options by expert stakeholders into actionable goals that could achieve advancement on policy implementation. As a corollary goal, the research set out to define implementation barriers, refine policy ideas, and operationalize Arizona-centric goals for the future of energy efficiency.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The feasibility of domain specific compilation for spatially programmable architectures

Description

Integrated circuits must be energy efficient. This efficiency affects all aspects of chip design, from the battery life of embedded devices to thermal heating on high performance servers. As technology

Integrated circuits must be energy efficient. This efficiency affects all aspects of chip design, from the battery life of embedded devices to thermal heating on high performance servers. As technology scaling slows, future generations of transistors will lack the energy efficiency gains as it has had in previous generations. Therefore, other sources of energy efficiency will be much more important. Many computations have the potential to be executed for extreme energy efficiency but are not instigated because the platforms they run on are not optimized for efficient execution. ASICs improve energy efficiency by reducing flexibility and leveraging the properties of a specific computation. However, ASICs are fixed in function and therefore have incredible opportunity cost. FPGAs offer a reconfigurable solution but are 25x less energy efficient than ASIC implementation. Spatially programmable architectures (SPAs) are similar in design and structure to ASICs and FPGAs but are able bridge the ASIC-FPGA energy efficiency gap by trading flexibility for efficiency. However, SPAs are difficult to program because they do not share the same programming model as normal architectures that execute in time. This work addresses compiler challenges for coarse grained, locally interconnected SPA for domain efficiency (SPADE). A novel SPADE topology, called the wave pipeline, is introduced that is designed for the image signal processing domain that is both efficient and simple to compile to. A compiler for the wave pipeline is created that solves for maximum energy and area efficiency using low complexity, greedy methods. The wave pipeline topology and compiler allow for us to investigate and experiment with image signal processing applications to prove the feasibility of SPADE compilers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Sustainability of intercity transportation infrastructure: assessing the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of high-speed rail in the U.S

Description

In the U.S., high-speed passenger rail has recently become an active political topic, with multiple corridors currently being considered through federal and state level initiatives. One frequently cited benefit of

In the U.S., high-speed passenger rail has recently become an active political topic, with multiple corridors currently being considered through federal and state level initiatives. One frequently cited benefit of high-speed rail proposals is that they offer a transition to a more sustainable transportation system with reduced greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption. This study investigates the feasibility of high-speed rail development as a long-term greenhouse gas emission mitigation strategy while considering major uncertainties in the technological and operational characteristics of intercity travel. First, I develop a general model for evaluating the emissions impact of intercity travel modes. This model incorporates aspects of life-cycle assessment and technological forecasting. The model is then used to compare future scenarios of energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the development of high-speed rail and other intercity travel technologies. Three specific rail corridors are evaluated and policy guidelines are developed regarding the emissions impacts of these investments. The results suggest prioritizing high-speed rail investments on short, dense corridors with fewer stops. Likewise, less emphasis should be placed on larger investments that require long construction times due to risks associated with payback of embedded emissions as competing technology improves.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Sustainable cloud computing

Description

Energy consumption of the data centers worldwide is rapidly growing fueled by ever-increasing demand for Cloud computing applications ranging from social networking to e-commerce. Understandably, ensuring energy-efficiency and sustainability of

Energy consumption of the data centers worldwide is rapidly growing fueled by ever-increasing demand for Cloud computing applications ranging from social networking to e-commerce. Understandably, ensuring energy-efficiency and sustainability of Cloud data centers without compromising performance is important for both economic and environmental reasons. This dissertation develops a cyber-physical multi-tier server and workload management architecture which operates at the local and the global (geo-distributed) data center level. We devise optimization frameworks for each tier to optimize energy consumption, energy cost and carbon footprint of the data centers. The proposed solutions are aware of various energy management tradeoffs that manifest due to the cyber-physical interactions in data centers, while providing provable guarantee on the solutions' computation efficiency and energy/cost efficiency. The local data center level energy management takes into account the impact of server consolidation on the cooling energy, avoids cooling-computing power tradeoff, and optimizes the total energy (computing and cooling energy) considering the data centers' technology trends (servers' power proportionality and cooling system power efficiency). The global data center level cost management explores the diversity of the data centers to minimize the utility cost while satisfying the carbon cap requirement of the Cloud and while dealing with the adversity of the prediction error on the data center parameters. Finally, the synergy of the local and the global data center energy and cost optimization is shown to help towards achieving carbon neutrality (net-zero) in a cost efficient manner.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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An Intelligent Framework for Energy-Aware Mobile Computing Subject to Stochastic System Dynamics

Description

User satisfaction is pivotal to the success of mobile applications. At the same time, it is imperative to maximize the energy efficiency of the mobile device to ensure optimal usage

User satisfaction is pivotal to the success of mobile applications. At the same time, it is imperative to maximize the energy efficiency of the mobile device to ensure optimal usage of the limited energy source available to mobile devices while maintaining the necessary levels of user satisfaction. However, this is complicated due to user interactions, numerous shared resources, and network conditions that produce substantial uncertainty to the mobile device's performance and power characteristics. In this dissertation, a new approach is presented to characterize and control mobile devices that accurately models these uncertainties. The proposed modeling framework is a completely data-driven approach to predicting power and performance. The approach makes no assumptions on the distributions of the underlying sources of uncertainty and is capable of predicting power and performance with over 93% accuracy.

Using this data-driven prediction framework, a closed-loop solution to the DEM problem is derived to maximize the energy efficiency of the mobile device subject to various thermal, reliability and deadline constraints. The design of the controller imposes minimal operational overhead and is able to tune the performance and power prediction models to changing system conditions. The proposed controller is implemented on a real mobile platform, the Google Pixel smartphone, and demonstrates a 19% improvement in energy efficiency over the standard frequency governor implemented on all Android devices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Operational and technological peak load shifting strategies for residential buildings

Description

Residential air conditioning systems represent a critical load for many electric

utilities, especially for those who serve customers in hot climates. In hot and dry

climates, in particular, the cooling load is

Residential air conditioning systems represent a critical load for many electric

utilities, especially for those who serve customers in hot climates. In hot and dry

climates, in particular, the cooling load is usually relatively low during night hours and

early mornings and hits its maximum in the late afternoon. If electric loads could be

shifted from peak hours (e.g., late afternoon) to off-peak hours (e.g., late morning), not

only would building operation costs decrease, the need to run peaker plants, which

typically use more fossil fuels than non-peaker plants, would also decrease. Thus, shifting

electricity consumption from peak to off-peak hours promotes economic and

environmental savings. Operational and technological strategies can reduce the load

during peak hours by shifting cooling operation from on-peak hours to off-peak hours.

Although operational peak load shifting strategies such as precooling may require

mechanical cooling (e.g., in climates like Phoenix, Arizona), this cooling is less

expensive than on-peak cooling due to demand charges or time-based price plans.

Precooling is an operational shift, rather than a technological one, and is thus widely

accessible to utilities’ customer base. This dissertation compares the effects of different

precooling strategies in a Phoenix-based utility’s residential customer market and

assesses the impact of technological enhancements (e.g., energy efficiency measures and

solar photovoltaic system) on the performance of precooling. This dissertation focuses on

the operational and technological peak load shifting strategies that are feasible for

residential buildings and discusses the advantages of each in terms of peak energy

savings and residential electricity cost savings.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016