Matching Items (18)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

147836-Thumbnail Image.png

The Relationship Between Corn Flour and Cardiometabolic and Inflammatory Disease Markers in Adults with Hyperlipidemia

Description

Since 1975, the prevalence of obesity has nearly tripled around the world. In 2016, 39% of adults, or 1.9 billion people, were considered overweight, and 13% of adults, or 650 million people, were considered obese. Furthermore, Cardiovascular disease remains to

Since 1975, the prevalence of obesity has nearly tripled around the world. In 2016, 39% of adults, or 1.9 billion people, were considered overweight, and 13% of adults, or 650 million people, were considered obese. Furthermore, Cardiovascular disease remains to be the leading cause of death for adults in the United States, with 655,000 people dying from related conditions and consequences each year. Including fiber in one’s dietary regimen has been shown to greatly improve health outcomes in regards to these two areas of health. However, not much literature is available on the effects of corn-based fiber, especially detailing the individual components of the grain itself. The purpose of this preliminary study was to test the differences in influence on both LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides between treatments based on whole-grain corn flour, refined corn flour, and 50% refined corn flour + 50% corn bran derived from whole grain cornmeal (excellent fiber) in healthy overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) adults (ages 18 - 70) with high LDL cholesterol (LDL ≥ 120mg/dL). 20 participants, ages 18 - 64 (10 males, 10 females) were involved. Data was derived from blood draws taken before and after each of the three treatments as well as before and after each treatment’s wash out periods. A general linear model was used to assess the effect of corn products on circulating concentrations of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. From the model, it was found that the whole-grain corn flour and the 50% refined corn flour + 50% corn bran drive from whole grain cornmeal treatments produced a higher, similar benefit in reductions in LDL-cholesterol. However, the whole grain flour, refined flour, and bran-based fiber treatments did not influence the triglyceride levels of the participants throughout this study. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of these fiber items on cardiometabolic disease markers in the long-term as well as with a larger sample size.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05

134746-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effects of Turmeric on Breath Hydrogen Emission and Small Bowel Transit Time

Description

Turmeric, scientifically known as Curcuma longa, is a tropical plant that is most often consumed in India.1 The rhizome of the plant is dried and then ground into a fine, vibrant yellow powder. In addition to its function as a

Turmeric, scientifically known as Curcuma longa, is a tropical plant that is most often consumed in India.1 The rhizome of the plant is dried and then ground into a fine, vibrant yellow powder. In addition to its function as a spice, turmeric is also used in traditional Ayervedic medicine due to its unique medical properties. These unique properties are attributed to the three major constituents of turmeric: curcumin, α-isocurcumin, and β-isocurcumin.2 Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane; C21H20O6), makes up 5% of turmeric by weight, and is the most prominent active ingredient within the turmeric root. Perhaps the most intriguing characteristic about curcumin is its ability to modulate targets such as, but not limited to, transcription factors, enzymes, apoptosis genes, and growth factors.1 Modern medical research has determined curcumin to be a viable treatment and prevention method for disease such as type II diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, liver cirrhosis, and certain cancers. However, research on turmeric’s effects on gastrointestinal health is significantly lacking. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial looked to see if supplemental turmeric (500 mg as dried root powder) would significantly raise breath hydrogen emission (BHE) and reduce small bowel transit time (SBTT) in 8 female adults who were suffering from chronic constipation. Although supplemental turmeric did not significantly impact BHE or SBTT, the number of bowel movements greatly increased during turmeric intervention.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-12

154341-Thumbnail Image.png

Are weight and diet related to the gut microbiome in healthy college students living in the dorms?: a cross-sectional observational analysis

Description

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring the gut microbiome and its associations with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is limited among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between the gut microbiome, BMI, and dietary intake in a population of healthy college students living in two dorms at Arizona State University (n=90). Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken including 24-hour dietary recalls and anthropometrics (height, weight and BMI). High throughput Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal samples was performed to quantify the gut microbiome and analyses were performed at phyla and family levels. Within this population, the mean BMI was 24.4 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and mean caloric intake was 1684 ± 947 kcals/day. Bacterial community analysis revealed that there were four predominant phyla and 12 predominant families accounting for 99.3% and 97.1% of overall microbial communities, respectively. Results of this study suggested that a significant association occurred between one principal component (impacted most by 22 microbial genera primarily within Firmicutes) and BMI (R2=0.053, p=0.0301). No significant correlations or group differences were observed when assessing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in relation to BMI or habitual dietary intake. These results provide a basis for gut microbiome research in college populations. Although, findings suggest that groups of microbial genera may be most influential in obesity, further longitudinal research is necessary to more accurately describe these associations over me. Findings from future research may be used to develop interventions to shift the gut microbiome to help moderate or prevent excess weight gain during this important life stage.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

152037-Thumbnail Image.png

Use of a non-invasive acoustical monitoring system to predict ad libitum eating events

Description

Obesity is currently a prevalent health concern in the United States. Essential to combating it are accurate methods of assessing individual dietary intake under ad libitum conditions. The acoustical monitoring system (AMS), consisting of a throat microphone and jaw strain

Obesity is currently a prevalent health concern in the United States. Essential to combating it are accurate methods of assessing individual dietary intake under ad libitum conditions. The acoustical monitoring system (AMS), consisting of a throat microphone and jaw strain sensor, has been proposed as a non-invasive method for tracking free-living eating events. This study assessed the accuracy of eating events tracked by the AMS, compared to the validated vending machine system used by the NIDDK in Phoenix. Application of AMS data toward estimation of mass and calories consumed was also considered. In this study, 10 participants wore the AMS in a clinical setting for 24 hours while all food intake was recorded by the vending machine. Results indicated a correlation of 0.76 between number of eating events by the AMS and the vending machine (p = 0.019). A dependent T-test yielded a p-value of 0.799, illustrating a lack of significant difference between these methods of tracking intake. Finally, number of seconds identified as eating by the AMS had a 0.91 correlation with mass of intake (p = 0.001) and a 0.70 correlation with calories of intake (p = 0.034). These results indicate that the AMS is a valid method of objectively recording eating events under ad libitum conditions. Additional research is required to validate this device under free-living conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

148324-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of Vinegar Consumption on Mood State

Description

The various health benefits of vinegar ingestion have been studied extensively in the<br/>literature. Moreover, emerging research suggests vinegar may also have an effect on mental<br/>health. Beneficial effects of certain diets on mood have been reported, however, the mechanisms<br/>are unknown. The

The various health benefits of vinegar ingestion have been studied extensively in the<br/>literature. Moreover, emerging research suggests vinegar may also have an effect on mental<br/>health. Beneficial effects of certain diets on mood have been reported, however, the mechanisms<br/>are unknown. The current study aimed to determine if vinegar ingestion positively affects mood<br/>state in healthy young adults. This was a randomized, single blinded controlled trial consisting of<br/>25 subjects. Participants were randomly assigned to either the vinegar group (consumed 2<br/>tablespoons of liquid vinegar diluted in one cup water twice daily with meals) or the control<br/>group (consumed one vinegar pill daily with a meal), and the intervention lasted 4 weeks.<br/>Subjects completed mood questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. Results showed a significant<br/>improvement in CES-D and POMS-Depression scores for the vinegar group compared to the<br/>control. This study suggests that vinegar ingestion may improve depressive symptoms in healthy<br/>young adults.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05

153812-Thumbnail Image.png

The association between residency status, social connectedness, and nutrition and physical activity behaviors among diverse college freshmen

Description

Objectives

This cross-sectional study sought to assess the eating and physical activity behaviors among in-state and out-of-state college freshmen attending Arizona State University and to determine if social connectedness mediated the relationship between residency status and eating and physical activity behaviors.

Methods

College

Objectives

This cross-sectional study sought to assess the eating and physical activity behaviors among in-state and out-of-state college freshmen attending Arizona State University and to determine if social connectedness mediated the relationship between residency status and eating and physical activity behaviors.

Methods

College freshmen from two dormitories were recruited for participation from Arizona State University’s Tempe campus. A 128-item survey assessing demographics, college life, eating and physical activity behaviors, and social connectedness was administered. In addition, participants completed up to three days of dietary recall. Multivariate linear regression models, adjusting for age, gender, race, ethnicity, highest parental education, dormitory, Pell grant status, number of dietary recalls, and availability of a weekend day of dietary recall were used to assess the relationships between residency status, social connectedness, and eating and physical activity behaviors.

Results

No associations were observed between residency status and calories, grams and percentage of calories from fat, and added sugar. There was a statistically significant association between residency status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In-state students reported 21 minutes less per day of MVPA than out-of-state students did (β=-20.85; 95% CI=-30.68, -11.02; p<0.001). There was no relationship between residency status and social connectedness. Social connectedness and eating and physical activity behaviors were not associated. Social connectedness did not mediate the relationship between residency status and eating and physical activity behaviors.

Conclusions

In-state and out-of-state students differed in their MVPA; however, this relationship was not mediated by social connectedness. Further studies are needed to confirm the relationship between MVPA and residency status. In addition, more studies are needed to assess the relationship between social connectedness and MVPA.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

154431-Thumbnail Image.png

Assessing the impact of oral vitamin B12 supplementation on vibration sensitivity, dexterity, and balance in young adult vegetarians and vegans

Description

Vitamin B12, found only in animal products, is a water-soluble vitamin important for DNA methylation, purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and the myelination of nerves. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, gait disturbances, altered vibration proprioception, impaired vision, psychosis,

Vitamin B12, found only in animal products, is a water-soluble vitamin important for DNA methylation, purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and the myelination of nerves. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, gait disturbances, altered vibration proprioception, impaired vision, psychosis, depression, dementia-like illness, and ultimately death. Because vegetarians and vegans consume fewer animal products in their diet than omnivores, they are inherently more at risk for developing these symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between nervous system markers (balance, dexterity, and vibration sensitivity) and markers of vitamin B12 nutriture (serum B12 and serum holo-transcobalamin II) in a cross-sectional study (n=38). In addition, the impact of daily oral vitamin B12 supplementation on these markers in an 8-week randomized controlled trial was also examined (n=18). The results of the cross-sectional study revealed a moderate correlation (R=-0.351, p=0.031) between serum B12 and left-hand functional dexterity. The results of the intervention study revealed no significant time*group interactions for markers of nervous system functions and biochemical values (after the removal of outliers). In addition, the time*group interaction appeared to be larger for those individuals with a baseline serum B12 of less than 303 pmol/L. These results suggest that vitamin B12 supplementation may have a more pronounced effect on those individuals who are in a state of vitamin B12 depletion (<303 pmol/L serum concentration). In addition, the results also suggest that 8 weeks of oral supplementation is not a long enough period to create significant clinical change, and it is likely that improvements in neurological measures would require long-term supplementation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

153965-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Plasma Aβ in an Older Population: A Randomized Control Trial

Description

Vitamin D deficiency has been previously associated with a higher Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk, a condition marked by dependent living and severe cognitive impairment. AD is histologically defined by the presence of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.

Vitamin D deficiency has been previously associated with a higher Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk, a condition marked by dependent living and severe cognitive impairment. AD is histologically defined by the presence of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Ways to enhance Aβ clearance have been examined in order to sustain cognition and delay AD onset. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that vitamin D might enhance brain Aβ transportation to the periphery by up-regulating P-glycoprotein production. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on plasma Aβ in an older population.

This study was a parallel-arm, double-blinded, randomized control trial. Participants consumed either a vitamin D supplement or placebo once a week for eight weeks (n=23). Only vitamin D insufficient (serum total 25-OH, D < 30 ng/mL) people were included in the study, and all participants were considered to be cognitively normal (MMSE scores > 27). Serum total 25-OH, D and plasma Aβ1-40 measurements were recorded before and after the eight-week trial. The plasma Aβ1-40 change was compared between the vitamin D group and control group.

The vitamin D group experienced a 45% greater change in plasma Aβ1-40 than the control group. The effect size was 0.228 when controlling for baseline plasma Aβ1-40 (p=0.045), 0.197 when controlling for baseline plasma Aβ1-40 and baseline physical activity (p=0.085), and 0.179 when controlling for baseline plasma Aβ1-40, baseline physical activity, and age (p=0.116). In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation might increase brain Aβ clearance in humans, but physical activity and age also appear to modulate Aβ metabolism.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

158009-Thumbnail Image.png

Dietary Intake Behaviors of Recreational Mountain Hikers Climbing "A" Mountain in Summer and Fall

Description

More than 200 hikers are rescued annually in the greater Phoenix area. This study

examined the impact of hiking in hot (HOT), dry temperatures versus moderate (MOD)

temperatures on dietary intake behaviors as well as markers of heat stress. Twelve

recreational mountain hikers

More than 200 hikers are rescued annually in the greater Phoenix area. This study

examined the impact of hiking in hot (HOT), dry temperatures versus moderate (MOD)

temperatures on dietary intake behaviors as well as markers of heat stress. Twelve

recreational mountain hikers climbed “A” Mountain four consecutive times (4-miles) on

a HOT day (WBGT=31.6 °C) and again on a MOD day (WBGT= 19.0 °C). Simulated

food and fluid behavior allowed participants to bring what they normally would for a 4-

mile hike and to consume both ad libitum. The following heat stress indicators (mean

difference; p-value), were all significantly higher on the HOT hike compared to the MOD

hike: average core temperature (0.6 °C; p=0.002), average rating of perceived exertion

(2.6; p=0.005), sweat rate (0.54; p=0.01), and fluid consumption (753; p<0.001). On the

HOT hike, 42% of the participants brought enough fluids to meet their individual

calculated fluid needs, however less than 20% actually consumed enough to meet those

needs. On the MOD hike, 56% of participants brought enough fluids to meet their needs,

but only 33% actually consumed enough to meet them. Morning-after USG samples

≥1.020 indicating dehydration on an individual level showed 75% of hikers after the

HOT hike and 67% after the MOD hike were unable to compensate for fluids lost during

the previous day’s hike. Furthermore, participant food intake was low with only three

hikers consuming food on the hot hike, an average of 33.2g of food. No food was

consumed on the MOD hike. These results demonstrate that hikers did not consume

enough fluids to meet their needs while hiking, especially in the heat. They also show

heat stress negatively affected hiker’s physiological and performance measures. Future

recommendations should address food and fluid consumption while hiking in the heat.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020

158741-Thumbnail Image.png

Microbial Diversity in the Human Gut Microbiota in Relation to Dietary Fiber Consumption of College Freshman at a Southwestern University

Description

First year college students have been identified as a vulnerable population for weight gain and the onset of overweight and obesity. Research regarding the gut microbiome has identified differences in the microbial composition of overweight and obese individuals compared to

First year college students have been identified as a vulnerable population for weight gain and the onset of overweight and obesity. Research regarding the gut microbiome has identified differences in the microbial composition of overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Dietary components like dietary fibers, act as prebiotics, or fermentable substrate, that the gut microbiota use for metabolic functions including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess changes in the gut microbiota over time in relation to changes in fiber consumption in healthy college students at a large a southwestern university (n=137). Anthropometric and fecal samples were collected at the beginning and end of the fall and spring semesters between August 2015 and May 2016. Both alpha, within sample, diversity and beta, between sample, diversity of participant gut microbes were assessed longitudinally using non-parametric pairwise (pre-post) comparisons and linear mixed effect (LME) models which also adjusted for covariates and accounted for time as a random effect. Alpha and beta diversity were also explored using LME first difference metrics and LME first distance metrics, respectively, to understand rates of change over time in microbial richness/phylogeny and community structure. Pre-post comparisons of Shannon Diversity and Faith’s PD were not significantly different within participant groups of fiber change (Shannon diversity, p=0.96 and Faith’s PD, p=0.66). Beta diversity pairwise comparisons also did not differ by fiber consumption groups (Unweighted UniFrac p=0.182 and Bray Curtis p=0.657). Similarly, none of the LME models suggested significant associations between dietary fiber consumption and metrics of alpha and beta diversity. Overall, data from this study indicates that small changes in fiber consumption among a free-living population did not have an impact on gut microbial richness, phylogeny or community structure. This may have been due to the low intake (~15 g/d) of fiber. Further study is needed to fully elucidate the role that fiber plays in the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota, especially when delivered from a variety of food sources rather than fiber supplements.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020