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Advanced Processing of Multispectral Satellite Data for Detecting and Learning Knowledge-based Features of Planetary Surface Anomalies

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The marked increase in the inflow of remotely sensed data from satellites have trans- formed the Earth and Space Sciences to a data rich domain creating a rich repository for domain experts to analyze. These observations shed light on a

The marked increase in the inflow of remotely sensed data from satellites have trans- formed the Earth and Space Sciences to a data rich domain creating a rich repository for domain experts to analyze. These observations shed light on a diverse array of disciplines ranging from monitoring Earth system components to planetary explo- ration by highlighting the expected trend and patterns in the data. However, the complexity of these patterns from local to global scales, coupled with the volume of this ever-growing repository necessitates advanced techniques to sequentially process the datasets to determine the underlying trends. Such techniques essentially model the observations to learn characteristic parameters of data-generating processes and highlight anomalous planetary surface observations to help domain scientists for making informed decisions. The primary challenge in defining such models arises due to the spatio-temporal variability of these processes.

This dissertation introduces models of multispectral satellite observations that sequentially learn the expected trend from the data by extracting salient features of planetary surface observations. The main objectives are to learn the temporal variability for modeling dynamic processes and to build representations of features of interest that is learned over the lifespan of an instrument. The estimated model parameters are then exploited in detecting anomalies due to changes in land surface reflectance as well as novelties in planetary surface landforms. A model switching approach is proposed that allows the selection of the best matched representation given the observations that is designed to account for rate of time-variability in land surface. The estimated parameters are exploited to design a change detector, analyze the separability of change events, and form an expert-guided representation of planetary landforms for prioritizing the retrieval of scientifically relevant observations with both onboard and post-downlink applications.

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2019