This growing collection consists of scholarly works authored by ASU-affiliated faculty, students, and community members, and it contains many open access articles. ASU-affiliated authors are encouraged to Share Your Work in KEEP.

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Evaluating the impact of built environment characteristics on urban boundary layer dynamics using an advanced stochastic approach

Description

Urban land–atmosphere interactions can be captured by numerical modeling framework with coupled land surface and atmospheric processes, while the model performance depends largely on accurate input parameters. In this study,

Urban land–atmosphere interactions can be captured by numerical modeling framework with coupled land surface and atmospheric processes, while the model performance depends largely on accurate input parameters. In this study, we use an advanced stochastic approach to quantify parameter uncertainty and model sensitivity of a coupled numerical framework for urban land–atmosphere interactions. It is found that the development of urban boundary layer is highly sensitive to surface characteristics of built terrains. Changes of both urban land use and geometry impose significant impact on the overlying urban boundary layer dynamics through modification on bottom boundary conditions, i.e., by altering surface energy partitioning and surface aerodynamic resistance, respectively. Hydrothermal properties of conventional and green roofs have different impacts on atmospheric dynamics due to different surface energy partitioning mechanisms. Urban geometry (represented by the canyon aspect ratio), however, has a significant nonlinear impact on boundary layer structure and temperature. Besides, managing rooftop roughness provides an alternative option to change the boundary layer thermal state through modification of the vertical turbulent transport. The sensitivity analysis deepens our insight into the fundamental physics of urban land–atmosphere interactions and provides useful guidance for urban planning under challenges of changing climate and continuous global urbanization.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05-24

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The Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model (AnOHM v1.0): methodology to determine bulk storage heat flux coefficients

Description

The net storage heat flux (ΔQ[subscript S]) is important in the urban surface energy balance (SEB) but its determination remains a significant challenge. The hysteresis pattern of the diurnal relation

The net storage heat flux (ΔQ[subscript S]) is important in the urban surface energy balance (SEB) but its determination remains a significant challenge. The hysteresis pattern of the diurnal relation between the ΔQ[subscript S] and net all-wave radiation (Q[superscript ∗]) has been captured in the Objective Hysteresis Model (OHM) parameterization of ΔQ[subscript S]. Although successfully used in urban areas, the limited availability of coefficients for OHM hampers its application. To facilitate use, and enhance physical interpretations of the OHM coefficients, an analytical solution of the one-dimensional advection–diffusion equation of coupled heat and liquid water transport in conjunction with the SEB is conducted, allowing development of AnOHM (Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model). A sensitivity test of AnOHM to surface properties and hydrometeorological forcing is presented using a stochastic approach (subset simulation). The sensitivity test suggests that the albedo, Bowen ratio and bulk transfer coefficient, solar radiation and wind speed are most critical. AnOHM, driven by local meteorological conditions at five sites with different land use, is shown to simulate the ΔQ[subscript S] flux well (RMSE values of ∼ 30 W m[superscript −2]). The intra-annual dynamics of OHM coefficients are explored. AnOHM offers significant potential to enhance modelling of the surface energy balance over a wider range of conditions and land covers.

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Date Created
  • 2017-07-27

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Size Matters: What Are the Characteristic Source Areas for Urban Planning Strategies?

Description

Urban environmental measurements and observational statistics should reflect the properties generated over an adjacent area of adequate length where homogeneity is usually assumed. The determination of this characteristic source area

Urban environmental measurements and observational statistics should reflect the properties generated over an adjacent area of adequate length where homogeneity is usually assumed. The determination of this characteristic source area that gives sufficient representation of the horizontal coverage of a sensing instrument or the fetch of transported quantities is of critical importance to guide the design and implementation of urban landscape planning strategies. In this study, we aim to unify two different methods for estimating source areas, viz. the statistical correlation method commonly used by geographers for landscape fragmentation and the mechanistic footprint model by meteorologists for atmospheric measurements. Good agreement was found in the intercomparison of the estimate of source areas by the two methods, based on 2-m air temperature measurement collected using a network of weather stations. The results can be extended to shed new lights on urban planning strategies, such as the use of urban vegetation for heat mitigation. In general, a sizable patch of landscape is required in order to play an effective role in regulating the local environment, proportional to the height at which stakeholders’ interest is mainly concerned.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-11-10

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Spatio-Temporal Modeling of the Urban Heat Island in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area: Land Use Change Implications

Description

This study examines the spatial and temporal patterns of the surface urban heat island (SUHI) intensity in the Phoenix metropolitan area and the relationship with land use land cover (LULC)

This study examines the spatial and temporal patterns of the surface urban heat island (SUHI) intensity in the Phoenix metropolitan area and the relationship with land use land cover (LULC) change between 2000 and 2014. The objective is to identify specific regions in Phoenix that have been increasingly heated and cooled to further understand how LULC change influences the SUHI intensity. The data employed include MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) 8-day composite June imagery, and classified LULC maps generated using 2000 and 2014 Landsat imagery. Results show that the regions that experienced the most significant LST changes during the study period are primarily on the outskirts of the Phoenix metropolitan area for both daytime and nighttime. The conversion to urban, residential, and impervious surfaces from all other LULC types has been identified as the primary cause of the UHI effect in Phoenix. Vegetation cover has been shown to significantly lower LST for both daytime and nighttime due to its strong cooling effect by producing more latent heat flux and less sensible heat flux. We suggest that urban planners, decision-makers, and city managers formulate new policies and regulations that encourage residential, commercial, and industrial developers to include more vegetation when planning new construction.

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Date Created
  • 2016-02-26

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Thermodynamic characterisation of urban nocturnal cooling

Description

Nocturnal cooling of urban areas governs the evolution of thermal state and many thermal-driven environmental issues in cities, especially those suffer strong urban heat island (UHI) effect. Advances in the

Nocturnal cooling of urban areas governs the evolution of thermal state and many thermal-driven environmental issues in cities, especially those suffer strong urban heat island (UHI) effect. Advances in the fundamental understanding of the underlying physics of nighttime UHI involve disentangling complex contributing effects and remains an open challenge. In this study, we develop new numerical algorithms to characterize the thermodynamics of urban nocturnal cooling based on solving the energy balance equations for both the landscape surface and the overlying atmosphere. Further, a scaling law is proposed to relate the UHI intensity to a range of governing mechanisms, including the vertical and horizontal transport of heat in the surface layer, the urban-rural breeze, and the possible urban expansion. The accuracy of proposed methods is evaluated against in-situ urban measurements collected in cities with different geographic and climatic conditions. It is found that the vertical and horizontal contributors modulate the nocturnal UHI at distinct elevation in the atmospheric boundary layer.

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Date Created
  • 2017-04

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Environmental impacts of reflective materials: Is high albedo a 'silver bullet' for mitigating urban heat island?

Description

Studies on urban heat island (UHI) have been more than a century after the phenomenon was first discovered in the early 1800s. UHI emerges as the source of many urban

Studies on urban heat island (UHI) have been more than a century after the phenomenon was first discovered in the early 1800s. UHI emerges as the source of many urban environmental problems and exacerbates the living environment in cities. Under the challenges of increasing urbanization and future climate changes, there is a pressing need for sustainable adaptation/mitigation strategies for UHI effects, one popular option being the use of reflective materials. While it is introduced as an effective method to reduce temperature and energy consumption in cities, its impacts on environmental sustainability and large-scale non-local effect are inadequately explored. This paper provides a synthetic overview of potential environmental impacts of reflective materials at a variety of scales, ranging from energy load on a single building to regional hydroclimate. The review shows that mitigation potential of reflective materials depends on a set of factors, including building characteristics, urban environment, meteorological and geographical conditions, to name a few. Precaution needs to be exercised by city planners and policy makers for large-scale deployment of reflective materials before their environmental impacts, especially on regional hydroclimates, are better understood. In general, it is recommended that optimal strategy for UHI needs to be determined on a city-by-city basis, rather than adopting a “one-solution-fits-all” strategy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-07-01

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Monte Carlo simulations of radiative heat exchange in a street canyon with trees

Description

Land surface energy balance in a built environment is widely modelled using urban canopy models with representation of building arrays as big street canyons. Modification of this simplified geometric representation,

Land surface energy balance in a built environment is widely modelled using urban canopy models with representation of building arrays as big street canyons. Modification of this simplified geometric representation, however, leads to challenging numerical difficulties in improving physical parameterization schemes that are deterministic in nature. In this paper, we develop a stochastic algorithm to estimate view factors between canyon facets in the presence of shade trees based on Monte Carlo simulation, where an analytical formulation is inhibited by the complex geometry. The model is validated against analytical solutions of benchmark radiative problems as well as field measurements in real street canyons. In conjunction with the matrix method resolving infinite number of reflections, the proposed model is capable of predicting the radiative exchange inside the street canyon with good accuracy. Modeling of transient evolution of thermal filed inside the street canyon using the proposed method demonstrate the potential of shade trees in mitigating canyon surface temperatures as well as saving of building energy use. This new numerical framework also deepens our insight into the fundamental physics of radiative heat transfer and surface energy balance for urban climate modeling.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12-01

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Revisiting the hysteresis effect in surface energy budgets

Description

The hysteresis effect in diurnal cycles of net radiation R-n and ground heat flux G(0) has been observed in many studies, while the governing mechanism remains vague. In this study,

The hysteresis effect in diurnal cycles of net radiation R-n and ground heat flux G(0) has been observed in many studies, while the governing mechanism remains vague. In this study, we link the phenomenology of hysteresis loops to the wave phase difference between the diurnal evolutions of various terms in the surface energy balance. R-n and G(0) are parameterized with the incoming solar radiation and the surface temperature as two control parameters of the surface energy partitioning. The theoretical analysis shows that the vertical water flux W and the scaled ratio A(s)*/A(T)* (net shortwave radiation to outgoing longwave radiation) play crucial roles in shaping hysteresis loops of R-n and G(0). Comparisons to field measurements indicate that hysteresis loops for different land covers can be well captured by the theoretical model, which is also consistent with Camuffo-Bernadi formula. This study provides insight into the surface partitioning and temporal evolution of the energy budget at the land surface.

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Date Created
  • 2013-09-18