This growing collection consists of scholarly works authored by ASU-affiliated faculty, students, and community members, and it contains many open access articles. ASU-affiliated authors are encouraged to Share Your Work in KEEP.

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In situ drug-receptor binding kinetics in single cells: a quantitative label-free study of anti-tumor drug resistance

Description

Many drugs are effective in the early stage of treatment, but patients develop drug resistance after a certain period of treatment, causing failure of the therapy. An important example is

Many drugs are effective in the early stage of treatment, but patients develop drug resistance after a certain period of treatment, causing failure of the therapy. An important example is Herceptin, a popular monoclonal antibody drug for breast cancer by specifically targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2). Here we demonstrate a quantitative binding kinetics analysis of drug-target interactions to investigate the molecular scale origin of drug resistance. Using a surface plasmon resonance imaging, we measured the in situ Herceptin-Her2 binding kinetics in single intact cancer cells for the first time, and observed significantly weakened Herceptin-Her2 interactions in Herceptin-resistant cells, compared to those in Herceptin-sensitive cells. We further showed that the steric hindrance of Mucin-4, a membrane protein, was responsible for the altered drug-receptor binding. This effect of a third molecule on drug-receptor interactions cannot be studied using traditional purified protein methods, demonstrating the importance of the present intact cell-based binding kinetics analysis.

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Agent

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Date Created
  • 2014-10-14

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Particle Pollution Estimation Based on Image Analysis

Description

Exposure to fine particles can cause various diseases, and an easily accessible method to monitor the particles can help raise public awareness and reduce harmful exposures. Here we report a

Exposure to fine particles can cause various diseases, and an easily accessible method to monitor the particles can help raise public awareness and reduce harmful exposures. Here we report a method to estimate PM air pollution based on analysis of a large number of outdoor images available for Beijing, Shanghai (China) and Phoenix (US). Six image features were extracted from the images, which were used, together with other relevant data, such as the position of the sun, date, time, geographic information and weather conditions, to predict PM[subscript 2.5] index. The results demonstrate that the image analysis method provides good prediction of PM[subscript 2.5] indexes, and different features have different significance levels in the prediction.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-02-01

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A Novel Wireless Wearable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Monitoring Device with Disposable Sensors

Description

A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out

A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the device and its sensors. The device was compared to a commercial photo-ionization detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon monoxide detector. In addition, environmental operational conditions, such as barometric change, temperature change and wind conditions were also tested to evaluate the device performance. The multiple comparisons and tests indicate that the proposed VOC device is adequate to characterize personal exposure in many real-world scenarios and is applicable for personal daily use.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12-03

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Kinetics of small molecule interactions with membrane proteins in single cells measured with mechanical amplification

Description

Measuring small molecule interactions with membrane proteins in single cells is critical for understanding many cellular processes and for screening drugs. However, developing such a capability has been a difficult

Measuring small molecule interactions with membrane proteins in single cells is critical for understanding many cellular processes and for screening drugs. However, developing such a capability has been a difficult challenge. We show that molecular interactions with membrane proteins induce a mechanical deformation in the cellular membrane, and real-time monitoring of the deformation with subnanometer resolution allows quantitative analysis of small molecule–membrane protein interaction kinetics in single cells. This new strategy provides mechanical amplification of small binding signals, making it possible to detect small molecule interactions with membrane proteins. This capability, together with spatial resolution, also allows the study of the heterogeneous nature of cells by analyzing the interaction kinetics variability between different cells and between different regions of a single cell.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-10-23

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Thermoelectric effect and its dependence on molecular length and sequence in single DNA molecules

Description

Studying the thermoelectric effect in DNA is important for unravelling charge transport mechanisms and for developing relevant applications of DNA molecules. Here we report a study of the thermoelectric effect

Studying the thermoelectric effect in DNA is important for unravelling charge transport mechanisms and for developing relevant applications of DNA molecules. Here we report a study of the thermoelectric effect in single DNA molecules. By varying the molecular length and sequence, we tune the charge transport in DNA to either a hopping- or tunnelling-dominated regimes. The thermoelectric effect is small and insensitive to the molecular length in the hopping regime. In contrast, the thermoelectric effect is large and sensitive to the length in the tunnelling regime. These findings indicate that one may control the thermoelectric effect in DNA by varying its sequence and length. We describe the experimental results in terms of hopping and tunnelling charge transport models.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-04-15

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Piezoresistivity in single DNA molecules

Description

Piezoresistivity is a fundamental property of materials that has found many device applications. Here we report piezoresistivity in double helical DNA molecules. By studying the dependence of molecular conductance and

Piezoresistivity is a fundamental property of materials that has found many device applications. Here we report piezoresistivity in double helical DNA molecules. By studying the dependence of molecular conductance and piezoresistivity of single DNA molecules with different sequences and lengths, and performing molecular orbital calculations, we show that the piezoresistivity of DNA is caused by force-induced changes in the π–π electronic coupling between neighbouring bases, and in the activation energy of hole hopping. We describe the results in terms of thermal activated hopping model together with the ladder-based mechanical model for DNA proposed by de Gennes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-09-04

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Gate-controlled conductance switching in DNA

Description

Extensive evidence has shown that long-range charge transport can occur along double helical DNA, but active control (switching) of single-DNA conductance with an external field has not yet been demonstrated.

Extensive evidence has shown that long-range charge transport can occur along double helical DNA, but active control (switching) of single-DNA conductance with an external field has not yet been demonstrated. Here we demonstrate conductance switching in DNA by replacing a DNA base with a redox group. By applying an electrochemical (EC) gate voltage to the molecule, we switch the redox group between the oxidized and reduced states, leading to reversible switching of the DNA conductance between two discrete levels. We further show that monitoring the individual conductance switching allows the study of redox reaction kinetics and thermodynamics at single molecular level using DNA as a probe. Our theoretical calculations suggest that the switch is due to the change in the energy level alignment of the redox states relative to the Fermi level of the electrodes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-20

Acetone as biomarker for ketosis buildup capability - a study in healthy individuals under combined high fat and starvation diets

Description

Background
Ketogenic diets are high fat and low carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diets, which render high production of ketones upon consumption known as nutritional ketosis (NK). Ketosis is also

Background
Ketogenic diets are high fat and low carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diets, which render high production of ketones upon consumption known as nutritional ketosis (NK). Ketosis is also produced during fasting periods, which is known as fasting ketosis (FK). Recently, the combinations of NK and FK, as well as NK alone, have been used as resources for weight loss management and treatment of epilepsy.
Methods
A crossover study design was applied to 11 healthy individuals, who maintained moderately sedentary lifestyle, and consumed three types of diet randomly assigned over a three-week period. All participants completed the diets in a randomized and counterbalanced fashion. Each weekly diet protocol included three phases: Phase 1 - A mixed diet with ratio of fat: (carbohydrate + protein) by mass of 0.18 or the equivalence of 29% energy from fat from Day 1 to Day 5. Phase 2- A mixed or a high-fat diet with ratio of fat: (carbohydrate + protein) by mass of approximately 0.18, 1.63, or 3.80 on Day 6 or the equivalence of 29%, 79%, or 90% energy from fat, respectively. Phase 3 - A fasting diet with no calorie intake on Day 7. Caloric intake from diets on Day 1 to Day 6 was equal to each individual’s energy expenditure. On Day 7, ketone buildup from FK was measured.
Results
A statistically significant effect of Phase 2 (Day 6) diet was found on FK of Day 7, as indicated by repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA), F(2,20) = 6.73, p < 0.0058. Using a Fisher LDS pair-wise comparison, higher significant levels of acetone buildup were found for diets with 79% fat content and 90% fat content vs. 29% fat content (with p = 0.00159**, and 0.04435**, respectively), with no significant difference between diets with 79% fat content and 90% fat content. In addition, independent of the diet, a significantly higher ketone buildup capability of subjects with higher resting energy expenditure (R[superscript 2] = 0.92), and lower body mass index (R[superscript 2] = 0.71) was observed during FK.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-22

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Plasmonic imaging of protein interactions with single bacterial cells

Description

Quantifying the interactions of bacteria with external ligands is fundamental to the understanding of pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, immune evasion, and mechanism of antimicrobial action. Due to inherent cell-to-cell heterogeneity in

Quantifying the interactions of bacteria with external ligands is fundamental to the understanding of pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, immune evasion, and mechanism of antimicrobial action. Due to inherent cell-to-cell heterogeneity in a microbial population, each bacterium interacts differently with its environment. This large variability is washed out in bulk assays, and there is a need of techniques that can quantify interactions of bacteria with ligands at the single bacterium level. In this work, we present a label-free and real-time plasmonic imaging technique to measure the binding kinetics of ligand interactions with single bacteria, and perform statistical analysis of the heterogeneity. Using the technique, we have studied interactions of antibodies with single Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells and demonstrated a capability of determining the binding kinetic constants of single live bacteria with ligands, and quantify heterogeneity in a microbial population.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-15