Background. Hundreds of studies have linked maternal depression to negative child outcomes. However, these studies have been correlational, so they cannot rule out alternative explanations such as that child characteristics evoke maternal depression or that confounding variables are causes of both phenomena. Design. I applied a propensity score approach to data from the Early Steps Multisite Trial, a sample of 731 low-income families tracked approximately annually from ages 2 through 16.
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- Doctoral Dissertation Psychology 2020